1 Kings 11:26-39

1 Kings 11:26-39
A Women’s Lectionary – Proper 28


26 JeroboamI sonII of Nebat,III

Notes on verse 26a

I “Jeroboam” = Yarobam. From rabab (to be or become much or many, multiply) + am (people or nation; a tribe, troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals); {from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} OR from rib (properly to toss or grapple; used figuratively to mean wrangling and so for arguments, complaints, or disputes; used in a legal setting for pleading or defending a case) + am (see above). This is Jeroboam, a name meaning “the people increase” or “the people will contend” or “whose people are countless.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Jeroboam.html
II “son” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
III “Nebat” = Nebat. From nabat (to behold, look at intently, consider, or scan; to have respect or regard someone favorably). This is Nebat, meaning “regard” or “look” or “aspect.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Nebat.html

an EphraimiteIV of Zeredah,V a servantVI

Notes on verse 26b

IV “Ephraimite” = Ephrathi. 5x in OT. From the same as apher (covering, ashes, bandage); {from the same as epher (ashes or dust – properly something strewn)} OR from ephrath (Ephrath or Ephrathah; a female name and the name of several places, including Bethlehem; may mean “fruitfulness,” “exhausted,” “worthless,” or “fruitful”); {from parah (to bear fruit, grow, be fruitful, increase; bearing fruit in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Ephraimite or Ephrathite, someone in the lineage of Ephraim. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Ephrath.html
V “Zeredah” = Tsredah. 2x in OT. Perhaps from tsarad (to cool). This is Zereda or Zeredah or Zeredathah. This is a place, which may come from a word that means to pierce. So, it could mean “pierce” or “puncture” or “cooling.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Zeredah.html
VI “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.

of Solomon,VII whose mother’sVIII nameIX was Zeruah,X

Notes on verse 26c

VII “Solomon” = Shelomoh. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is Solomon or Shelomoh, meaning “peaceful.” It is the same word as the Hebrew word for peace – shalom.
VIII “mother’s” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
IX “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
X “Zeruah” = Tseruah. 1x in OT. From the same as tsaraath (leprosy or a mark); {from tsara (to have leprosy, be a leper)} OR from tsara (to be duplicitous). This is Zeruah, meaning “leprous” or “bi-colored” or “hornet” or “smitten.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Zeruah.html

aXI widow,XII rebelledXIII against the king.XIV 

Notes on verse 26d

XI {untranslated} = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
XII “widow” = almanah. Related to alman (widowed); from alam (to be silent, bound). This is a widow or a house that is desolate.
XIII “rebelled” = rum + yad. Rum is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol. Yad is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XIV “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.

27 The following was the reasonXV he rebelled against the king. Solomon builtXVI the MilloXVII and closed upXVIII

Notes on verse 27a

XV “reason” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XVI “built” = banah. Related to “son” in v26. See note II above.
XVII “Millo” = Millo. 10x in OT. From male (fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate; fill in a literal or figurative sense). This is Millo, a city near Shechem or a stronghold in Jerusalem. It means “filled,” “terrace,” “elevation,” “rampart,” filling,” “setting up,” or “storage facility.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Millo.html
XVIII “closed up” = sagar. This is to shut up, imprison, lock, hand over, or figuratively surrender.

the gapXIX in the wall of the cityXX of his fatherXXI David.XXII 

Notes on verse 27b

XIX “gap” = perets. 19x in OT. From parats (to make a breach, burst out, compel, disperse; to break out literally or figuratively). This is a breach or a gap. It could be a break, whether literal or figurative.
XX “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
XXI “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XXII “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”

28 The manXXIII Jeroboam was very able,XXIV and when Solomon sawXXV that the young manXXVI was industrious,XXVII

Notes on verse 28a

XXIII “man” = ish. Related to {untranslated} in v26. See note XI above.
XXIV “very able” = gibbor + chayil. Gibbor is from gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is strong, mighty, or powerful. This can imply a warrior, hero, or tyrant. Chayil is from chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.
XXV “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XXVI “young man” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
XXVII “was industrious” = asah + melakah. Asah is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses. Melakah is from the same as malak (messenger, an angel, or a deputy; human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God; also supernatural messengers i.e. angels). Properly, this is a deputyship or some kind of work. It can also be the product that comes from labor.

he gave him chargeXXVIII over allXXIX the forced laborXXX of the houseXXXI of Joseph.XXXII 

Notes on verse 28b

XXVIII “gave…charge” = paqad. This is to attend to or visit – can be used for a friendly or violent encounter. So, it can be to oversee, care for, avenge, or charge.
XXIX “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XXX “forced labor” = sebel. 3x in OT.  From sabal (to carry a heavy load, do strong labor, be a burden; specially, to be pregnant). This is a load or burden in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to forced labor.
XXXI “house” = bayit. Related to “sons” in v26 & “built” in v27. Probably from banah (see note II above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XXXII “Joseph” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”

29 XXXIIIAbout that time,XXXIV when Jeroboam was leavingXXXV Jerusalem,XXXVI

Notes on verse 29a

XXXIII {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
XXXIV “time” = et. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
XXXV “leaving” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVI “Jerusalem” = Yerushalaim. Related to “Solomon” in v26. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (see note VII above). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

the prophetXXXVII AhijahXXXVIII the ShiloniteXXXIX foundXL him on the road.XLI

Notes on verse 29b

XXXVII “prophet” = nabi. This is prophet, prophecy, speaker, or someone inspired.
XXXVIII “Ahijah” = Achiyyah. Related to {untranslated} in v29. From ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (see note XXXIII above)}. This is Ahijah, Ahiah, or Achiyyah, meaning “brother of the Lord” or “worshipper of the Lord” or “an ally/brother/friend is the Lord.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Ahijah.html
XXXIX “Shilonith” = Shiloni. 6x in OT. From Shiloh (Shiloh; perhaps meaning “he whose it is” or “tranquil”); from shalah (to draw out, take away, require) OR from the same as Shiyloh (Shiloh; perhaps “he whose it is” or “tranquil”); perhaps from shalah (to be quiet, safe, tranquil; can imply success or happiness; could also mean to deceive or be negligent). This is Shilonite – someone from Shiloh.
XL “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
XLI “road” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.

Ahijah had clothedXLII himself with a newXLIII garment.XLIV The twoXLV of them were aloneXLVI in the open countryXLVII 

Notes on verse 29c

XLII “clothed” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
XLIII “new” = chadash. From chadash (to renew or restore, to repair or rebuild). This is something fresh or new.
XLIV “garment” = salmah. 16x in OT. From simlah (mantle, clothes, wrapper); perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is the same word as simlah with the letters transposed. So, this is clothing, a cloak, or mantle.
XLV “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
XLVI “alone” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
XLVII “open country” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.

30 when Ahijah laid holdXLVIII of the new garment he was wearing and toreXLIX it into twelveL pieces.LI 

Notes on verse 30

XLVIII “laid hold” = taphas. This is to catch, seize, wield, capture. It can also mean to use unwarrantably.
XLIX “tore” = qara. This is to tear or cut out in a literal or figurative sense. It an also be to revile or to apply eye make up – as though they are made to look larger.
L “twelve” = shenayim + asar. Shenayim is the same as “two” in v29. See note XLV above. Asar is from the same as eser (ten). This is -teen or tenth.
LI “pieces” = qera. Related to “tore” in v30. 4x in OT. From qara (see note XLIX above). This is piece or rag.

31 He then said to Jeroboam, “TakeLII for yourself tenLIII pieces, for thus says the Lord,LIV the GodLV of Israel:LVI

Notes on verse 31a

LII “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LIII “ten” = eser. Related to “twelve” in v30. See note L above.
LIV “Lord” = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} and “Ahijah” in v29. See note XXXVIII above.
LV “God” = Elohim. From eloah (God, a god); from el (God, a god). This is most commonly used as a name for God. Technically, it’s in the plural, i.e. gods. It can also mean great, mighty, judge, or ruler.
LVI “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “God” in v31. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note LV above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

See,LVII I am about to tear the kingdomLVIII from the handLIX of Solomon and will giveLX you ten tribes.LXI 

Notes on verse 31b

LVII “see” = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
LVIII “kingdom” = mamlakah. Related to “king” in v26. From the same as melek (see note XIV above). This is kingdom, dominion, sovereignty, rule. It can also refer to the realm.
LIX “hand” = yad. Same as “rebelled” in v26. See note XIII above.
LX “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LXI “tribes” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.

32 OneLXII tribe will remainLXIII his, for the sake of my servant David and for the sake of Jerusalem, the city that I have chosenLXIV out of all the tribes of Israel. 33 This is because he has forsakenLXV me, worshipedLXVI

Notes on verses 32-33a

LXII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
LXIII “remain” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v29. See note XXXIII above.
LXIV “chosen” = bachar. This is to choose, appoint, try, excellent.
LXV “forsaken” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.
LXVI “worshiped” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.

AstarteLXVII the goddessLXVIII of the Sidonians,LXIX

Notes on verse 33b

LXVII “Astarte” = Ashtoreth. 3x in OT. From the same as Ashtoreth (Ashtoreth, Ashtaroth; a goddess); from ashath (to think) OR from ashtaroth (young, enlarge a flock); {from ashath (to think, concern) OR from ashar (to gain wealth, become rich, enrich; to accumulate)} OR from Akkadian Ishtar (Astarte, Ishtar); {probably related to Attar (Attar; a god similar to Venus)}. This is Ashtoreth, an ancient near eastern goddess of fertility and the heavens. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Astarte & https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astarte & https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attar_(god)
LXVIII “goddess” = elohim. Same as “God” in v31. See note LV above.
LXIX “Sidonians” = Tsidoni. 16x in OT. From Tsidon (Sidon – a city in Phoenicia); from Phoenician tsydon (Sidon; probably meaning fishery or fishing town). This is Sidonian or Zidonian. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Sidon & https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidon

ChemoshLXX the godLXXI of Moab,LXXII

Notes on verse 33c

LXX “Chemosh” = Kemosh. 8x in OT. Perhaps from yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone) OR from Moabite Kamash (Chemosh) OR related to Akkadian Shamah (Shamash – Mesopotamian sun god). This is Chemosh, Kemosh, or Kemish. Its root may mean subdue. It may mean “the powerful” or “as if he saves” or “as if he moves” or “as if he feels.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Chemosh.html & https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Chemosh  & https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemosh & https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utu
LXXI “god” = elohim. Same as “God” in v31. See note LV above.
LXXII “Moab” = Moab. Related to “father” in v27. May be from ab (see note XXI above). This is Moab or Moabite. Name could mean “from her father” in reference to the incestuous relationship between Lot and his daughters. The name could also mean, more pleasantly, “seed of a father” or “desirable land.” See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moab

and MilcomLXXIII the god of the Ammonites,LXXIV and has not walkedLXXV in my ways,LXXVI

Notes on verse 33d

LXXIII “Milcom” = Malkam. Related to “king” in v26 & “kingdom” in v31. 5x in OT. Related to Molek (Molek or Molech, “king” – the name of another culture’s god); from the same as melek (see note XIV above). This is Milcom or Malkam or Malcham. It is a god of the Ammonites whose name means “their king” or “most high king.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Milcom.html
LXXIV “Ammonites” = ben + Ammon. Literally, “children of Ammon.” Ben is the same as “son” in v26. See note II above. Ammon is related to “Jeroboam” in v26. From im (with, against, before, beside); {perhaps from amam (see note I above)} OR from am (see note I above)}. This is Ammon or Ammonite, which may mean “tribal.”
LXXV “walked” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
LXXVI “ways” = derek. Same as “road” in v29. See note XLI above.

doingLXXVII what is rightLXXVIII in my sightLXXIX and keeping my statutesLXXX and my ordinances,LXXXI as his father David did. 

Notes on verse 33e

LXXVII “doing” = asah. Same as “was industrious” in v28. See note XXVII above.
LXXVIII “right” = yashar. From yashar (to be straight, right, even, smooth, or agreeable; figuratively, to make something pleasant or prosperous). This is straight, right, level. Also, it is pleasing, whether pleasing God or pleasing other people. So, it is upright or righteous.
LXXIX “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
LXXX “statutes” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.
LXXXI “ordinances” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.

34 Nevertheless, I will not take the wholeLXXXII kingdom away from himLXXXIII but will makeLXXXIV him rulerLXXXV

Notes on verse 34a

LXXXII “whole” = kol. Same as “all” in v28. See note XXIX above.
LXXXIII “him” = yad. Same as “rebelled” in v26. See note XIII above.
LXXXIV “make” = shith. This is to place, set, bring, appoint, consider, bring, array or look.
LXXXV “ruler” = nasi. From nasa (to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively; to carry, take, or arise; to bring forth, advance, accept). This is one lifted up or exalter. So, it could be prince, chief, ruler, captain, king, or vapor.

all the daysLXXXVI of his life,LXXXVII for the sake of my servant David whom I chose and who did keepLXXXVIII my commandmentsLXXXIX and my statutes, 

Notes on verse 34b

LXXXVI “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
LXXXVII “life” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
LXXXVIII “keep” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
LXXXIX “commandments” = mitsvah. From tsavah (to charge, command, order, enjoin). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.

35 but I will take the kingdomXC away fromXCI his son and give it to you—that is, the ten tribes. 36 Yet to his son I will give one tribe, so that my servant David may alwaysXCII haveXCIII a lampXCIV beforeXCV me in Jerusalem, the city where I have chosen to putXCVI my name. 

Notes on verses 35-36

XC “kingdom” = melukah. Related to “king” in v26 & “kingdom” in v31 & “Milcom” in v33. From the same as melek (see note XIV above). This is kingship, kingdom, reign. It can also mean royalty.
XCI {untranslated} = yad. Same as “rebelled” in v26. See note XIII above.
XCII “always” = kol + yom. Literally “all of the days.” Kol is the same as “all” in v28. See note XXIX above. Yom is the same as “days” in v34. See note LXXXVI above.
XCIII “have” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v29. See note XXXIII above.
XCIV “lamp” = ner. This is to glisten. It is used for a lamp, candle, or light in a literal or figurative sense.
XCV “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XCVI “put” = sum. Related to “name” in v26. See note IX above.

37 I will take you, and you shall reignXCVII over all that your soulXCVIII desires;XCIX you shall beC king over Israel. 

Notes on verse 37

XCVII “reign” = malak. Related to “king” in v26 & “kingdom” in v31 & “Milcom” in v33 & “kingdom” in v35. See note XIV above.
XCVIII “soul” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XCIX “desires” = avah. This is to desire, wish for, crave, lust after, to incline.
C “be” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v29. See note XXXIII above.

38 CIIf you will listenCII to all that I commandCIII you, walk in my ways, and do what is right in my sight by keeping my statutes and my commandments, as David my servant did, I will be with you and will build you an enduringCIV house, as I built for David, and I will give Israel to you. 

Notes on verse 38

CI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v29. See note XXXIII above.
CII “listen” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
CIII “command” = tsavah. Related to “commandments” in v34. See note LXXXIX above.
CIV “enduring” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.

39 For this reason I will punishCV the descendantsCVI of David, but not forever.”CVII

Notes on verse 39

CV “punish” = anah. This is to be bowed down. It can refer to a sense of humility or to a sense of being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed. This can be literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance.
CVI “descendants” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
CVII “forever” = kol + yom. Literally, “all of days.” Kol is the same as “all” in v28. See note XXIX above. Yom is the same as “days” in v34. See note LXXXVI above.

Image credit: “Solomon the Temple Builder” by Cutis and Pip Reid of Bible Pathway Adventures.

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