2 Corinthians 4:13-5:1

2 Corinthians 4:13-5:1
Ordinary B28


4:13 But just as we have the same spiritA of faithB that is in accordance with scriptureC—“I believed,D and so I spoke”—we also believe, and so we speak, 

Notes on verse 4:13

A “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
B “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
C “scripture” = grapho. Literally “according to that having been written.” This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
D “believed” = pisteuo. Related to “faith” in v4:13. From pistis (see note B above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

14 because we knowE that the one who raisedF the LordG JesusH will raise us also with Jesus, and will bringI us with you into his presence. 

Notes on verse 4:14

E “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
F “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
G “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
H “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
I “bring” = paristemi. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.

15 Yes, everything is for your sake, so that grace,J as it extendsK to more and moreL people,

Notes on verse 4:15a

J “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
K “extends” = pleonazo. 9x in NT. From pleion (many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent); from polus (much, many, abundant). This is to abound, increase, to superabound. It shares a root with “pleonasm.”
L “more and more” = pleion. Related to “extends” in v4:15. See note K above.

may increaseM thanksgiving,N to the gloryO of God.P

Notes on verse 4:15b

M “increase” = perisseuo. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is more than what is ordinary or necessary. It is abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond. It is super-abounding in number or quality.
N “thanksgiving” = eucharistia. Related to “grace” in v4:15. 15x in NT. From eucharistos (thankful, well favored); {from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (see note J above)}. This is thankfulness or thanksgiving. It is active gratitude. It is related to the word “eucharist.”
O “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
P “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

16 So we do not lose heart.Q Even though our outer natureR is wasting away,S our inner nature is being renewedT day by day. 

Notes on verse 4:16

Q “lose heart” = ekkakeo. 6x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character). This is to be faint, bad, fail, or be weak. It is the aftermath of deep, inner weariness – exhausted or dispirited.
R “nature” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
S “wasting away” = diaphtheiro. 6x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); {from phthio (perish, waste away)}. This is to destroy, spoil, corrupt, disintegrate, decay. It can refer to the effect of moral or spiritual impurity.
T “renewed” = anakainoo. 2x in NT. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + kainos (not new as in new versus old; new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh). This is to renew, renovate, to make new, develop.

17 For this slightU momentaryV afflictionW

Notes on verse 4:17a

U “slight” = elaphros. 2x in NT – including Matthew 11:30 “my yoke is easy and my burden is light.” Perhaps akin to elauno (to row, proper, push as with the power of demons) and elasson (smaller, younger, worse, under); {from the same as elachistos (smallest or littlest in the sense of size, amount, rank, dignity, and so on); from elachus (short)}. This is light or easy – something easy to carry because it is manageable, not cumbersome or a burden.
V “momentary” = parautika. 1x in NT. From parauta (immediately) OR from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + autos (he, she, self, they, same). This is lasting only a moment, present, immediately, momentary.
W “affliction” = thlipsis. From thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is pressure that hems us in – used often of internal pressure that makes us feel like we have no other options and are confined or restricted. So, this is persecution, affliction, trouble, distress, and anguish. There is a different word, stenoxoria, that refers to external pressure that we feel from what’s going on.

is preparingX us for an eternalY weightZ of glory beyond all measure,AA 

Notes on verse 4:17b

X “preparing” = katergazomai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among, daily) + ergazomai (to work, labor); {from ergon (work, task, action, employment)}. This is working something until it is completed, working fully, accomplishing, producing, achieving, performing.
Y “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
Z “weight” = baros. 6x in NT. From barus (heavy, burdensome; figuratively, violent, oppressive; that which presses down on someone so that they cannot move freely) OR from the same as basis (foot, step, pace); {from baino (to walk to go)}. This is weight, load, authority, abundance. It is something of worth.
AA “all measure” = huperbole + eis + huperbole. 8x in NT. From huperballo (to surpass, exceed, or excel; properly, to throw beyond or run beyond; transcending, eminent, or surpassing); {from huper (over, above, beyond) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, rush, drop)}. This is excess, surpassing, exceedingly. Properly, it means to throw past so it can also mean abundance or preeminence. It is where the word “hyperbole” comes from.

18 because we lookBB not at what can be seenCC but at what cannot be seen; for what can be seen is temporary,DD but what cannot be seen is eternal.

Notes on verse 4:18

BB “look” = skopeo. 6x in NT. From skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully); perhaps related to skapto (to dig or excavate). This is to look at, take heed, consider, observe, aim at, or spy. This word shares a root with “scope” in English.
CC “seen” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
DD “temporary” = proskairos. 4x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with, among) + kairos (season, opportunity, occasion; spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time). This is for a season, fleeting, temporary, or something that only lasts for a short time.

5:1 For we know that if the earthlyEE tentFF we live inGG is destroyed,HH

Notes on verse 5:1a

EE “earthly” = epigeios. 7x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ge (earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area). This is earthly or worldly. It can mark the earth in contrast to the sky or the earth in contrast to heaven. It can include all of physical life or describe the moral character of the world.
FF “tent” = skenos. 2x in NT. From skene (tent, booth, tabernacle, cloth hut, or dwelling;  tent in a literal or figurative sense); perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense) or perhaps related to skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is a tent or tabernacle or other non-permanent dwelling. Figuratively, it can refer to the body as the temporary residence of the spirit.
GG “live in” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
HH “destroyed” = kataluo. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.

we have a buildingII from God, a houseJJ not made with hands,KK eternal in the heavens.LL

Notes on verse 5:1b

II “building” = oikodome. Related to “live in” in v5:1. 18x in NT. From oikos (see note GG above) + doma (house, housetop; often used to refer to the roof) {from demo (to build a house)}. This is the act of building, structure, architecture, a building, upbuilding. It is a building that is used as a home. Figuratively, this refers to spiritual progress – becoming a person who is a better home in which God can reside.
JJ “house” = oikia. Same as “live in” in v5:1. See note GG above.
KK “not made with hands” = acheiropoietos. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + cheiropoietos (literally made with hands i.e. human-made or artificial); {from cheir (hand in a literal sense; figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument) + poieo (to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause)}. This is literally not made by hand i.e. unmanufactured.
LL “heavens” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

Image credit: “Human Being Asking Universe…” by CLUC (Christian), 2009.

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