2 Samuel 6:1-5, 12b-19

2 Samuel 6:1-5, 12b-19
Ordinary B33


DavidA again gatheredB all the chosenC men of Israel,D thirtyE thousand. 

Notes on verse 1

A “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
B “gathered” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
C “chosen” = bachur. From bachar (to choose, appoint, try, excellent). This is choice, chosen, selected. It is a youth or young man.
D “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
E “thirty” = sheloshim. From the same as shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is thirty or thirtieth.

2 David and all the peopleF with him set outG and wentH from Baale-judah,I to bring upJ from there the arkK of God,L

Notes on verse 2a

F “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
G “set out” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
H “went” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
I “Baale-judah” = Baale Yehudah. 1x in OT. From Baal (Baal, literally “lord,” a Phoenician god); {from the same as ba’al (lord, owner, ally, or archer); from ba’al (to marry, have dominion, be master)} + Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); {probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand)}. This is Baale-judah, a place meaning “Baal of Judah,” “masters of Judah,” “Lord of Judah,” or “Let the Lord be Praised.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Baale-judah.html
J “bring up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
K “ark” = aron. Perhaps from arah (to gather or pluck). This is a chest, box, or coffin. It is used for the Ark of the Covenant.
L “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v1. See note D above.

which is calledM by the nameN of the LordO of hostsP who is enthronedQ on the cherubim.R 

Notes on verse 2b

M “called” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
N “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
O “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
P “hosts” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
Q “enthroned” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
R “cherubim” = kerub. Perhaps related to Akkadian (“to bless” or “one who blesses”). This is a cherub – perhaps a class of angels. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D7%9B%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%91#Hebrew

They carriedS the ark of God on a newT cart,U

Notes on verse 3a

S “carried” = rakab. This is to ride an animal or in some vehicle. It can also mean bringing on a horse.
T “new” = chadash. From chadash (to renew or restore, to repair or rebuild). This is something fresh or new.
U “cart” = agalah. From the same as egel (male calf as one that frisks about; often one that is almost grown up); may be from the same as agol (round, circular – root meaning revolve). This is something that turns like a cart or chariot – a vehicle with wheels.

and broughtV it out of the houseW of Abinadab,X which was on the hill.

Notes on verse 3b

V “brought” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
W “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
X “Abinadab” = Abinadab. 12x in OT. From ab (father literal or figurative) + nadab (to offer voluntarily, incite, impel; to volunteer to be a soldier or offer freely). This is Abinadab, meaning “my father is noble” or “father of generosity,” which is to say very generous.

UzzahY and Ahio,Z the sonsAA of Abinadab, were drivingBB the new cart 

Notes on verse 3c

Y “Uzzah” = Uzzah. 14x in OT. From azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is Uzzah or Uzza, a name meaning “strength.”
Z “Ahio” = Achyo. 6x in OT. Perhaps related to “Lord” in v2. From the same as ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like) OR from ach (see above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note O above)} This is Ahio, a name meaning “brotherly” or “Brother of the Lord.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Ahio.html
AA “sons” = ben. Related to “house” in v3. From banah (see note W above). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
BB “driving” = nahag. This is to drive as in driving flocks, but also driving in animal or vehicle like a chariot. It can mean to carry away, lead, drive away, proceed, or guide. It can also relate to behavior and what one is accustomed to.

4 CCwith the ark of God; and Ahio went in frontDD of the ark. 5 David and all the house of Israel were dancingEE beforeFF the Lord with all their might,GG

Notes on verses 4-5a

CC Some manuscripts include, “and they brought it out of the house of Abinadab that was on the hill.”
DD “front” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
EE “dancing” = sachaq. This is to laugh, celebrate, joke, mock, scorn. This is laughing, whether for joy or scorn. It can imply plays or holding a contest.
FF “before” = paneh. Same as “front” in v4. See note DD above.
GG “might” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.

with songsHH and lyresII and harpsJJ and tambourinesKK and castanetsLL and cymbals.MM

Notes on verse 5b

HH “songs” = berosh. This is a cypress, fir, or juniper. It can be something made of this wood like a lance of musical instrument.
II “lyres” = kinnor. Root may be to twang. This is a lyre or harp.
JJ “harps” = nebel. From nabel (to fall away, faint, wither, languish, sink; figuratively, being senseless, foolish, or wicked; to despise, disgrace, or fall to nothing, to be seen with contempt). This is a vessel, perhaps made of skins for holding liquids. It could be a skin, vase, or lyre as having a similar shape.
KK “tambourines” = toph. 17x in OT. Perhaps from taphaph (to play a drum, timbrel, or tambourine). This is a timbrel or tambourine.
LL “castanets” = menaanea. 1x in OT. From nua (to waver in a literal or figurative sense; to tremble, quiver, totter; a fugitive). This is some kind of instrument that rattles – perhaps a castanet or sistrum.
MM “cymbals” = tslatsal. 6x in OT. From tsalal (to tingle or rattle; can express shame or fear). This is something that clatters, whirrs, or buzzes. So, it could be a cricket or locust, a harpoon for the sound it makes or a cymbal as it sounds.

12 It was toldNN King David, “The Lord has blessedOO the household of Obed-edomPP and all that belongs to him, because of the ark of God.” So David went and brought up the ark of God from the house of Obed-edom to the cityQQ of David with rejoicing;RR 

Notes on verse 12

NN “told” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
OO “blessed” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
PP “Obed-edom” = Obed Edom. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage) + Edom (Edom or Idumaea); {from adom (to be red or flushed)}. This is Obed-edom, a name meaning “servant of Edom,” “slave of Edom,” “serving Edom,” or “servant of the red one” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Obed-edom.html
QQ “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
RR “rejoicing” = simchah. From samach (to rejoice, be glad; properly, to brighten up; also used figuratively). This is joy, rejoicing, pleasure, or glee.

13 andSS when those who boreTT the ark of the Lord had goneUU sixVV paces,WW he sacrificedXX an oxYY and a fatling.ZZ 

Notes on verse 13

SS {untranslated} = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v2. See note O above.
TT “bore” = nasa. Same as “brought” in v3. See note V above.
UU “gone” = tsaad. 8x in OT. This is to step, go, run, walk, to pace. It is to march with a regular step, climb up, hurl down.
VV “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
WW “paces” = tsaad. Related to “gone” in v13. 14x in OT. From tsaad (see note UU above). This is a step, pace, or stride.
XX “sacrificed” = zabach. This is slaughtering an animal, generally for the purpose of sacrifice. It can mean kill or offer.
YY “ox” = shor. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant). This is bull, ox, head of cattle, cow.
ZZ “fatling” = meri. 8x in OT. Perhaps from mara (to rebel, flap wings, whip, be filthy). This is a stall-fed cow, a fatling.

14 David dancedAAA beforeBBB the Lord with all his might;CCC David was girdedDDD with a linenEEE ephod.FFF 

Notes on verse 14

AAA “danced” = karar. 2x in OT – both in this passage. This is to dance or whirl.
BBB “before” = paneh. Same as “front” in v4. See note DD above.
CCC “might” = oz. Related to “Uzzah” in v3. From azaz (see note Y above). This is strength in the sense of force, majesty, praise, material and physical strength, the abstract notion of security. It can also speak of social or political power.
DDD “girded” = chagar. This is to gird, bind, or arm. Generally, it is using a belt to gather up one’s garment so that it’s easier to run or move quickly.
EEE “linen” = bad. Perhaps from badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is white linen as a fabric of divide fibers, flaxen thread, or yarn.
FFF “ephod” = ephod. This is an ephod, shoulder piece – perhaps a breastplate or apron. It can refer specifically to a ritual garment worn by the high priest. Alternately, it can refer to an image.

15 So David and all the house of Israel brought up the ark of the Lord with shouting,GGG and with the soundHHH of the trumpet.III

Notes on verse 15

GGG “shouting” = teruah. From rua (to break or destroy something so figuratively, an ear splitting sound such as a call of alarm or a joyful sound). This is an alarm, trumpet sound, battle cry, rejoicing, joyful shout, or jubilee.
HHH “sound” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
III “trumpet” = shophar. From shaphar (being beautiful or lovely). This is a ram’s horn, trumpet, or cornet. A shofar is still blown at Jewish festivals such as Rosh Hashanah (the Jewish new year celebration).

16 JJJAs the ark of the Lord came intoKKK the city of David, MichalLLL daughterMMM of SaulNNN lookedOOO out of the window,PPP

Notes on verse 16a

JJJ {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v13. See note SS above.
KKK “came into” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LLL “Michal” = Mikal. 18x in OT. Perhaps from the same as mikal (stream, container, brook); {from yakol (to be able, endure, overcome, prevail)} OR from mi (who) + k– (like) + el (God, a god). This is Michal, whose name may mean “rivulet” or “who is like God” or “what is like God?” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Michal.html
MMM “daughter” = bat. Related to “house” and “sons” in v3. From ben (see note AA above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
NNN “Saul” = Shaul. From shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”
OOO “looked” = shaqaph. This is to look down or look out. Properly, it is looking by leaning out a window. It can be peeping or gazing.
PPP “window” = challon. From chalal (to pierce, which implies to wound; used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word; to begin as though one opened a wedge; to eat something as a common thing). This is window.

and sawQQQ King David leapingRRR and dancing beforeSSS the Lord; and she despisedTTT him in her heart.UUU

Notes on verse 16b

QQQ “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
RRR “leaping” = pazaz. 2x in OT. This is agile, refine, leap, make strong.
SSS “before” = paneh. Same as “front” in v4. See note DD above.
TTT “despised” = bazah. This is to despise, hold in contempt, disesteem, or a person who is vile.
UUU “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.

17 They brought inVVV the ark of the Lord, and setWWW it in its place,XXX insideYYY the tentZZZ that David had pitchedAAAA for it;

Notes on verse 17a

VVV “brought in” = bo. Same as “came into” in v16. See note KKK above.
WWW “set” = yatsag. 16x in OT. This is to set, establish, present, stay. It can imply putting something somewhere permanently.
XXX “place” = maqom. Related to “set out” in v2. From qum (see note G above). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
YYY “inside” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
ZZZ “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
AAAA “pitched” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.

and David offeredBBBB burnt offeringsCCCC and offerings of well-beingDDDD beforeEEEE the Lord. 18 When David had finishedFFFF offering the burnt offerings and the offerings of well-being, he blessed the people in the name of the Lord of hosts, 

Notes on verses 17b-18

BBBB “offered” = alah. Same as “bring up” in v2. See note J above.
CCCC “burnt offerings” = olah. Related to “bring up” in v2. From alah (see note J above). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole things is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.
DDDD “offerings of well-being” = shelem. From shalem (to make amends, finish, be safe, be friendly, to be complete or sound). This is a peace offering or a sacrifice of well-being. It was a voluntary offering given when one celebrated thanksgiving, alliance, or friendship.
EEEE “before” = paneh. Same as “front” in v4. See note DD above.
FFFF “finished” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.

19 and distributedGGGG food among all the people, the whole multitudeHHHH of Israel, both menIIII and women,JJJJ

Notes on verse 19a

GGGG “distributed” = chalaq. This is to be smooth in a figurative sense. So, it can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute. Figuratively, it can also mean to flatter.
HHHH “multitude” = hamon. From hamah (to growl, cry out, be moved, murmur, hum, mourn, rage, clamor). This is a sound, noise, roar, rumbling, wealth, crowd, disquietude.
IIII “men” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
JJJJ “women” = ishshah. Related to “men” in v19. From ish (see note IIII above). This is woman, wife, or female.

to eachKKKK a cakeLLLL of bread,MMMM a portionNNNN of meat, and a cake of raisins.OOOO Then all the people went back to their homes.

Notes on verse 19b

KKKK “each” = ish. Same as “men” in v19. See note IIII above.
LLLL “cake” = challah. Related to “window” in v16. 14x in OT. From chalal (see note PPP above). This is a cake or loaf, a ritual bread. It is also the name of the bread eaten for shabbat and holidays in Jewish practice.
MMMM “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
NNNN “portion” = eshpar. 2x in OT. This is a cake, piece, portion. It can be a roll or meat.
OOOO “cake of raisins” = ashishah. 4x in OT. From ashash (foundation, a destroyed foundation); from the same as esh (fire, burning, flaming, hot; fire in a literal or figurative sense); related to ashuyah (foundation). This is a raisin cake or other treat, a flagon.

Image credit: “The Ark of the Covenant” – a relief from Auch Cathedral, France.

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