Acts 1:1-11

Acts 1:1-11
Ascension of the Lord ABC
Ascension of the Lord – A Women’s Lectionary


IIn the firstII book,III

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
II “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
III “book” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

Theophilus,IV I wroteV about allVI

Notes on verse 1b

IV “Theophilus” = Theophilus. 2x in NT. From Theos (God, god) + philos (beloved, a friend, confidante). This is Theophilus, meaning “friend of God.”
V “wrote” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
VI “all” = pas. This is all or every.

that JesusVII beganVIII to doIX and teachX 

Notes on verse 1c

VII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
VIII “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
IX “do” = poieo. Same as “wrote” in v1. See note V above.
X “teach” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.

until the dayXI when he was taken upXII to heaven, after giving instructionsXIII

Notes on verse 2a

XI “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XII “taken up” = analambano. 13x in NT. From ana (up, again, anew) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take up, lead away, raise. It is often used of the ascension.
XIII “giving instructions” = entellomai. 15x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {related to telos (end, event, purpose, consummation)}. This is to charge or command – focuses on the final objective. So, this is looking at the final outcome of the command – how things will end up.

through the HolyXIV SpiritXV to the apostlesXVI whom he had chosen.XVII 

Notes on verse 2b

XIV “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XV “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XVI “apostles” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
XVII “chosen” = eklego. Related to “book” in v1. From ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note III above). This is to choose, select.

After his sufferingXVIII he presentedXIX himself aliveXX to them

Notes on verse 3a

XVIII “suffering” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
XIX “presented” = paristemi. Related to “apostles” in v2. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note XVI above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
XX “alive” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

by manyXXI convincing proofs,XXII appearingXXIII to them

Notes on verse 3b

XXI “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XXII “convincing proofs” = tekmerion. 1x in NT. Perhaps from tekmar (mark, sign, goal, or limit). This is a sure sign or convincing proof.
XXIII “appearing” = optanomai. 1x in NT. Related to horao (to see, experience, to stare at; discernment; paying attention what is perceived and learning or discerning; can also imply spiritual insight). This is to appear or be seen. It is looking with eyes open wide, as in wonder.

during fortyXXIV days and speakingXXV about the kingdomXXVI of God.XXVII 

Notes on verse 3c

XXIV “forty” = tesserakonta. From tessares (four). This is forty. It can also symbolize a significant amount.
XXV “speaking” = lego. Related to “book” in v1 & “chosen” in v2. See note III above.
XXVI “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
XXVII “God” = Theos. Related to “Theophilus” in v1. See note IV above.

While staying withXXVIII them, he orderedXXIX them not to leaveXXX JerusalemXXXI

Notes on verse 4a

XXVIII “staying with” = sunalizo. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + halizo (to throng). This is to gather or accumulate together.
XXIX “ordered” = paraggello. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (lead, bring, drive, carry, guide, go)}. This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
XXX “leave” = chorizo. 13x in NT. From choris (apart from, separate from); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). Properly, this is to separate or create space. It can be literal as divide, depart, or withdraw. It can be figurative in reference to divorce.
XXXI “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

but to waitXXXII there for the promiseXXXIII of the Father.XXXIV “This,” he said, “is what you have heardXXXV from me; 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXII “wait” = perimeno. 1x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, encompassing) + meno (to stay, wait, endure). This is to wait steadily, regardless of what difficulty arises.
XXXIII “promise” = epaggelia. Related to “ordered” in v4. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (see note XXIX above). This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
XXXIV “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XXXV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

for JohnXXXVI, XXXVII baptizedXXXVIII with water,XXXIX but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.”

Notes on verse 5

XXXVI “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v1. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note VII above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XXXVII {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XXXVIII “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
XXXIX “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.

So when theyXL had come together,XLI they askedXLII him,XLIII

Notes on verse 6a

XL {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XLI “come together” = sunerchomai. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
XLII “asked” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
XLIII {untranslated} = lego. Same as “speaking” in v3. See note XXV above.

“Lord,XLIV is this the timeXLV when you will restoreXLVI the kingdom to Israel?”XLVII 

Notes on verse 6b

XLIV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XLV “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
XLVI “restore” = apokathistemi. Related to “apostles” in v2 & “presented” in v3. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kathistemi (to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (see note XVI above)}. This is to restore something to its original place or status. It can be give back, set up again or, figuratively, to restore full freedom or liberty. This word can also be used of healing – restoring full health.
XLVII “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

He replied, “It isXLVIII not for you to knowXLIX the times or periodsL

Notes on verse 7a

XLVIII “is” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XLIX “know” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
L “periods” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.

that the Father has setLI by his ownLII authority.LIII 

Notes on verse 7b

LI “set” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
LII “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
LIII “authority” = exousia. Related to “is” in v7. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note XLVIII above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.

But you will receiveLIV powerLV when the Holy Spirit has comeLVI upon you,

Notes on verse 8a

LIV “receive” = lambano. Related to “taken up” in v2. See note XII above.
LV “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
LVI “come” = eperchomai. Related to “come together” in v6. 10x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + erchomai (see note XLI above). This is to come upon, arrive, occur. It focuses on the impact or influence beyond the initial coming.

and you will be my witnessesLVII in Jerusalem,LVIII in all JudeaLIX

Notes on verse 8b

LVII “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.
LVIII “Jerusalem” = Iersoualem. Related to “Jerusalem” in v4. It has a different spelling, but the same meaning. See note XXXI above.
LIX “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

and Samaria,LX and to the endsLXI of the earth.”LXII 

Notes on verse 8c

LX “Samaria” = Samareia. 11x in NT. From Hebrew Shomron (capital of the northern kingdom of Israel); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaria, meaning watch station.
LXI “ends” = eschatos. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (to have, possess, hold). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
LXII “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

When he had said this, as they were watching,LXIII he was lifted up,LXIV and a cloudLXV tookLXVI him out of their sight.LXVII 

Notes on verse 9

LXIII “watching” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
LXIV “lifted up” = epairo. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself.
LXV “cloud” = nephele. From nephos (cloud; figurative for a great crowd or multitude). This is cloud or cloudiness.
LXVI “took” = hupolambano. Related to “taken up” in v2 & “receive” in v8. 5x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + lambano (see note XII above). This is to take up or bear up, to receive. It can also mean to welcome or entertain. Further, it can mean to take up discussion of a topic, to suppose, or imagine.
LXVII “sight” = ophthalmos. Related to “appearing” in v3. From optanomai (see note XXIII above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.

10 While he was goingLXVIII and they were gazing upLXIX toward heaven,LXX

Notes on verse 10a

LXVIII “going” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
LXIX “gazing up” = atenizo. 14x in NT. From a (has an intensive sense) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to gaze or look steadily at with one’s full attention and fascination.
LXX “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “lifted up” in v9. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (see note LXIV above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

suddenlyLXXI twoLXXII menLXXIII in whiteLXXIV robesLXXV stood byLXXVI them. 

Notes on verse 10b

LXXI “suddenly” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LXXII “two” = duo. This is two or both.
LXXIII “men” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
LXXIV “white” = leukos. Related to luke (light). This is bright, white, or brilliant.
LXXV “robes” = esthes. 8x in NT. From hennumi (to clothe). This is robe, clothing, dress. It is used of both human and angelic apparel.
LXXVI “stood by” = paristemi. Same as “presented” in v3. See note above. See note XIX above.

11 They said, “Men of Galilee,LXXVII why do you standLXXVIII looking upLXXIX toward heaven?

Notes on verse 11a

LXXVII “Galilee” = Galilaios. 11x in NT. From galilaia (Galilee, the region and the sea); from Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilean.
LXXVIII “stand” = histemi. Related to “apostles” in v2 & “presented” in v3 & “restore” in v6. See note XVI above.
LXXIX “looking up” = blepo. Same as “watching” in v9. See note LXIII above.

This Jesus, who has been taken up from you into heaven, will comeLXXX in the same wayLXXXI as you sawLXXXII him go into heaven.”

Notes on verse 11b

LXXX “come” = erchomai. Related to “come together” in v6 & “come” in v8. See note XLI above.
LXXXI “way” = tropos. 13x in NT. From the same as trope (turning, change, shifting); from trepo (to turn). This is turning and taking on a new direction or manner. It can refer to way, fashion, style, or character. This is where the word “trope” comes from.
LXXXII “saw” = theaomai. From thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit like a spectator. This is the root of the word “theatre.”

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