Acts 13:1-3 & 14:8-18

Acts 13:1-3 & 14:8-18
Narrative Lectionary 142


13:1 NowI in the churchII at AntiochIII

Notes on verse 13:1a

I {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “were” in v13:1. See note IV below.
II “church” = ekklesia. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.
III “Antioch” = Antiocheia. 18x in NT. From Antiochos (Antiochus, a proper name common to kings of Syria); {perhaps from anti (opposite, instead of, against) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is Antioch or Antiochia, two cities in the Bible have this name. It means “resistant” or “set against.” See

there wereIV prophetsV and teachers:VI

Notes on verse 13:1b

IV “were” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
V “prophets” = propheteia. 19x in NT. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}}. This is prophecy or prediction. It is when a prophet reveals the truth that they received.
VI “teachers” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.

Barnabas,VII SimeonVIII who was calledIX Niger,X

Notes on verse 13:1c

VII “Barnabas” = Barnabas. Probably from Aramaic Barnabas (Barnabas); {from bar (son) + nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired)}. This is Barnabas, meaning “son of prophecy” or “representative.” See
VIII “Simeon” = Sumeon. 7x in NT. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
IX “called” = kaleo. Related to “church” in v13:1. See note II above.
X “Niger” = Niger. 1x in NT. From Latin niger (dark colored, bad omen). This is Niger, meaning “black.” It might have been associated with the god Pluto, implying a meaning of “rich guy” or figuratively mean “wisdom-hungry.” See

LuciusXI of Cyrene,XII ManaenXIII

Notes on verse 13:1d

XI “Lucius” = Loukious. 2x in NT. From Latin lux (light, day). This is Lucius, meaning “illuminative” or “of light” or “of the day.” See
XII “Cyrene” = Kurenaios. 6x in NT. From Kurene (Cyrene, a Greek mythological figure; perhaps meaning sovereign queen). This is from Cyrene. See
XIII “Manaen” = Manaen. 1x in NT. Perhaps a Greek version of the Aramaic name Menahem (Menahem); related to the Hebrew name Menachem (Menahem); from nacham (a strong breath or sigh; to be sorry, to pity, console, comfort, or repent; also to comfort oneself with thoughts of vengeance). This is Manaen, meaning “comforter” or “consoling.”

a childhood friendXIV of HerodXV the ruler,XVI and Saul.XVII 

Notes on verse 13:1e

XIV “childhood friend” = suntrophos. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment). This is a person one is raised with, a close friend from childhood.
XV “Herod” = Herodes. Perhaps from heros (hero, warrior) + oide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aoide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aeido (to sing) + e (this is added to verbs to make them nouns)}} OR from hera (Hera) + oide (same as above). This is Herod, perhaps “hero’s song,” “Hera’s song,” or “heroic.” See
XVI “ruler” = tetrarches. 4x in NT– all referring to Herod. From tetraarches (tetrarch; governor with power over a fourth of an area); {from tessares (four; figuratively, total coverage) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power)}. This is tetrarch, who governs a fourth of a region.
XVII “Saul” = Saulos. 15x in NT. From Saoul (Saul); from Hebrew shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”

While they were worshipingXVIII the LordXIX and fasting,XX

Notes on verse 13:2a

XVIII “worshiping” = leitourgeo. 3x in NT. From leitourgos (minister, servant; used for a public official or for one who works in a temple; broadly, it is one in public service, whether civic or religious); {from laos (people or crowd – often used for the chosen people) + ergon (work, task, action, employment); {from erdo (to do)}}. This is to minister or serve the public in an authorized capacity. It can also be to act in a charitable capacity.
XIX “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XX “fasting” = nesteuo. From a (not, without) + esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust). This is to fast, not eat food, to make a religious fast.

the HolyXXI SpiritXXII said, “Set apartXXIII for me Barnabas and Saul for the workXXIV to which I have calledXXV them.” 

Notes on verse 13:2b

XXI “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XXII “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XXIII “set apart” = aphorizo. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + horizo (to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined; literally, this is setting horizons); {from the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary)}. This is to set off by a boundary – to divide, separate, exclude. It can also mean ostracize or keep aloof.
XXIV “work” = ergon. Related to “worshiping” in v13:2. See note XVIII above.
XXV “called” = proskaleo. Related to “church” and “called” in v13:1. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (see note II above). This is to call to oneself, summon.

Then after fasting and prayingXXVI they laidXXVII their handsXXVIII on them and sent them off.XXIX

Notes on verse 13:3

XXVI “praying” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
XXVII “laid” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
XXVIII “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XXIX “sent…off” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.

14:8 In LystraXXX there was a manXXXI sittingXXXII who could not useXXXIII his feetXXXIV

Notes on verse 14:8a

XXX “Lystra” = Lustra. Related to “sent…off” in v13:3. 6x in NT. Perhaps from luo (see note XXIX above) + tranoo (make clear) or trauma (wound). This is Lystra, perhaps meaning “Loose Goats” or “Pain Relief” or “City of madness.” See
XXXI “man” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XXXII “sitting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
XXXIII “could not use” = adunatos. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + dunatos (mighty or powerful; ability of persons, possibility of things; what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits); {from dunamai (to be able, have power or ability)}. This is powerless, unable, impotent, or impossible. It is weak in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIV “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.

and had never walked,XXXV for he had been lameXXXVI from birth.XXXVII 

Notes on verse 14:8b

XXXV “walked” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
XXXVI “lame” = cholos. 14x in NT. This is lame or limping. It can also mean missing a foot.
XXXVII “from birth” = ek + koilia + meter + autos. Literally, “from his mother’s womb.” Koilia is from koilos (hollow). This is belly or organs in the abdomen. So, it could be stomach, womb, or heart. Figuratively, this refers to one’s inner self. Meter is mother in a literal or figurative sense.

He listenedXXXVIII to PaulXXXIX as he was speaking.XL And Paul, looking at him intentlyXLI

Notes on verse 14:9a

XXXVIII “listened” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XXXIX “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
XL “speaking” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
XLI “looking…intently” = atenizo. 14x in NT. From a (has an intensive sense) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to gaze or look steadily at with one’s full attention and fascination.

and seeingXLII that he hadXLIII faithXLIV to be healed,XLV 

Notes on verse 14:9b

XLII “seeing” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XLIII “had” = echo. Related to “Antioch” in v13:1. See note III above.
XLIV “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
XLV “healed” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

10 said in a loudXLVI voice,XLVII “StandXLVIII uprightXLIX on your feet.” And the man sprang upL and began to walk. 

Notes on verse 14:10

XLVI “loud” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
XLVII “voice” = phone. Related to “prophets” in v13:1. Probably from phemi (see note V above) or phaino (see note V above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
XLVIII “stand” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
XLIX “upright” = orthos. 2x in NT. Perhaps from oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove).  This is straight or direct. It could also mean morally upright, honest, or virtuous.
L “sprang up” = hallomai. 3x in NT. This is to leap or bubble up.

11 When the crowdsLI saw what Paul had done,LII they shoutedLIII in the Lycaonian language,LIV, LV

Notes on verse 14:11a

LI “crowds” = ochlos. Related to “Antioch” in v13:1 & “had” in v14:9. Perhaps from echo (see note III above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
LII “done” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
LIII “shouted” = epairo + ho + phone + autos. Literally, “lifted up their voice.” Epairo is related to “upright” in v14:10. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (see note XLIX above). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself. Phone is the same as “voice” in v14:10. See note XLVII above.
LIV “in the Lycaonian language” = Lukaonisti. 1x in NT. From Lukaonia (Lycaonia); perhaps from lukos (wolf, maybe jackal; figuratively, cruel, greedy, or destructive); perhaps related to leukos (bright, white); from luke (light) OR perhaps from Hittite Lukaa (the Lukka people from the second millennium BCE). This is literally “Lycaonistically.” Here, it means in Lycaonian speech. Lycaonia may mean “she-wolf land.” See
LV {untranslated} = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

“The godsLVI have come downLVII to usLVIII in human form!”LIX 

Notes on verse 14:11b

LVI “gods” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LVII “come down” = katabaino. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (to walk, go). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
LVIII {untranslated} = homoioo. 15x in NT. From homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is to compare, liken, resemble, become similar.
LIX “human form” = anthropos. Related to “man” in v14:8 & “seeing” in v14:9. Probably from aner (see note XXXI above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note XLII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

12 Barnabas they calledLX Zeus,LXI and Paul they called Hermes,LXII because he was the chief speaker.LXIII 

Notes on verse 14:12

LX “called” = kaleo. Same as “called” in v13:1. See note IX above.
LXI “Zeus” = Zeus. 2x in NT. Origin uncertain. This is Zeus, the Greek god. His name may mean “Sky Being” or “Light Bearer.” See
LXII “Hermes” = Hermes. 2x in NT. Perhaps from ereo (to say, tell, speak); probably from rheo (to say, speak of, command). This is Hermes, messenger to the Greek gods. His name may mean “new declaration” or “supporting message” or “border crosser.” See
LXIII “chief speaker” = hegomai + ho + logos. Literally, “leading the word.” Hegeomai is from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, guide, go). This is to think, suppose, have an opinion. It is to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority. It can refer to one who commands in an official capacity. This word shares a root with the word “hegemony.” Logos is related to {untranslated} in v14:11. From lego (see note LV above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

13 The priestLXIV of Zeus, whose temple was just outside the city,LXV broughtLXVI oxenLXVII

Notes on verse 14:13a

LXIV “priest” = hiereus. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god). This is a priest, used for Jewish and Gentile priests.
LXV “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
LXVI “brought” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
LXVII “oxen” = tauros. 4x in NT. This is a bull or ox.

and garlandsLXVIII to the gates;LXIX he and the crowds wantedLXX to offer sacrifice.LXXI 

Notes on verse 14:13b

LXVIII “garlands” = stemma. 1x in NT. From the same as stephanos (something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland; properly, the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win; symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek); stepho (to twine, encircle). This is a wreath or garland.
LXIX “gates” = pulon. 18x in NT. From pule (gate, large entryway to a town or fortress; often used for an exit; often figurative for authority and power). This is a porch, gateway, or vestibule. It is a passageway from the street through the house to the courtyard.
LXX “wanted” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
LXXI “offer sacrifice” = thuo. 14x in NT. This is to rush along, breathe violently. It can also mean to offer sacrifice, specifically by fire (in reference to the blowing smoke).

14 When the apostlesLXXII Barnabas and Paul heardLXXIII of it, they toreLXXIV

Notes on verse 14:14a

LXXII “apostles” = apostolos. Related to “stand” in v14:10. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (see note XLVIII above)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
LXXIII “heard” = akouo. Same as “listened” in v14:9. See note XXXVIII above.
LXXIV “tore” = diarresso. 5x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is to tear apart or burst.

their clothesLXXV and rushed outLXXVI into the crowd, shouting,LXXVII 15 LXXVIII“People,LXXIX why are you doing this?

Notes on verses 14:14b-15a

LXXV “clothes” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
LXXVI “rushed out” = eispedao. 3x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + pedao (to leap or spring). This is to rush in or spring in.
LXXVII “shouting” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
LXXVIII {untranslated} = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v14:11. See note LV above.
LXXIX “people” = aner. Same as “man” in v14:8. See note XXXI above.

We are mortals just likeLXXX you,LXXXI and we bring you good news,LXXXII

Notes on verse 14:15b

LXXX “just like” = homoiopathes. Related to {untranslated} in v14:11. 2x in NT. From homoios (see note LVIII above) + pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering). This is like, similar nature, similar feelings.
LXXXI {untranslated} = anthropos. Same as “human form” in v14:11. See note LIX above.
LXXXII “bring…good news” = euaggelizo. Related to “chief” in v14:12. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note LXIII above)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.

that you should turnLXXXIII from these worthless thingsLXXXIV to the livingLXXXV God,LXXXVI

Notes on verse 14:15c

LXXXIII “turn” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
LXXXIV “worthless things” = mataios. 6x in NT. From the same as maten (in vain, aimlessly, pointless, fruitless); from mate (a folly) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); {from masso (to kneed, squeeze). This is vain, useless, worthless, unproductive, or purposeless. It can also figuratively mean fleeting or refer to idols.
LXXXV “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
LXXXVI “God” = Theos. Same as “gods” in v14:11. See note LVI above.

who madeLXXXVII the heavenLXXXVIII and the earthLXXXIX and the seaXC and allXCI that is in them. 

Notes on verse 14:15d

LXXXVII “made” = poieo. Same as “done” in v14:11. See note LII above.
LXXXVIII “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “upright” in v14:10 & “shouted” in v14:11. May be related to oros (see note XLIX above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
LXXXIX “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
XC “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
XCI “all” = pas. This is all or every.

16 In pastXCII generationsXCIII he allowedXCIV

Notes on verse 14:16a

XCII “past” = paroichomai. 1x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + oichomai (to depart). This is being gone, past.
XCIII “generations” = genea. From genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
XCIV “allowed” = eao. 11x in NT. This is to allow, leave, put up with something.

all peoplesXCV to followXCVI their own ways,XCVII 

Notes on verse 14:16b

XCV “peoples” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XCVI “follow” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XCVII “ways” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

17 yet he has not leftXCVIII himself without a witnessXCIX in doing good,C givingCI you rainsCII from heaven

Notes on verse 14:17a

XCVIII “left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XCIX “without a witness” = amarturos. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is unattested or not having a witness.
C “doing good” = agathoergeo. Related to “worshiping” and “work” in v13:2. 2x in NT. From agathos (good, a benefit, or a good thing; good by its very nature, inherently good) + ergon (see note XVIII above). This is to do work that is intrinsically good.
CI “giving” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
CII “rains” = huetos. 5x in NT. From huo (to rain). This is rain, a shower.

and fruitfulCIII seasonsCIV and fillingCV you

Notes on verse 14:17b

CIII “fruitful” = karpophoros. Related to “brought” in v14:14. 1x in NT. From karpos (a fruit or vegetable; sometimes an animal; figuratively, deeds, results, profits, or gain); {perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take)} + phero (see note LXVI above). This is bearing fruit, productive.
CIV “season” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
CV “filling” = empiplemi. 5x in NT – including the Magnificat in Luke 1:53 “God has filled the hungry with good things.” From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + same as pleistos (most, very great, much, very numerous); {from polus (much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent)}. This is to fill up or satisfy literally or figuratively.

with foodCVI and your heartsCVII with joy.”CVIII 

Notes on verse 14:17c

CVI “food” = trophe. Related to “childhood friend” in v13:1. 16x in NT. Perhaps from trepho (see note XIV above). This is nourishment in a literal or figurative sense. By implication, it can be ration or wages.
CVII “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CVIII “joy” = euphrosune. Related to “bring…good news” in v14:15. 2x in NT – both in Acts. From eu (see note LXXXII above) + phren (literally the diaphragm; used figuratively for heart, thought, or understanding; personal outlook we use to decide our actions, general outlook); {may be from phrao (to rein in, curb)}. This is gladness or rejoicing.

18 Even with these words,CIX they scarcelyCX restrainedCXI the crowds from offering sacrifice to them.

Notes on verse 14:18

CIX “words” = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v14:11. See note LV above.
CX “scarcely” = molis. 6x in NT. From mogos (laborious toil) OR from molos (toil) OR from mogis (scarcely, barely; something that only happens with difficulty; emphasizes that the action is prolonged and therefore difficult). This is something that hardly happens and/or requires a lot of effort.
CXI “restrained” = katapauo. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, among) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end). This is to rest, restrain, cease.

Image credit: “Paul and Barnabas in Turkey” by John Paul Stanley of YoMinistry.

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