Deuteronomy 2

Deuteronomy 2


“we journeyedI backII into the wilderness,III

Notes on verse 1a

I “journeyed” = nasa. This is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.
II “back” = panah. This is to turn, regard, appear, look, prepare.
III “wilderness” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.

in the directionIV of the RedV Sea,VI 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “direction” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
V “Red” = suph. Perhaps from Egyptian twfi (reeds). This is reeds or rushes. It can be used particularly to refer to papyrus, or a flag. This is
VI “Sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.

as the LordVII had toldVIII me, and skirtedIX

Notes on verse 1c

VII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
VIII “told” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v1. See note III above.
IX “skirted” = sabab. This is turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch. It is to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense.

MountX SeirXI for manyXII days.XIII 

Notes on verse 1d

X “Mount” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
XI “Seir” = Seir. From the same as sear (hair, hairy, rough); {from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, storm tossed; this is to toss in a literal or figurative sense)} OR from sa’iyr (goat, shaggy, devil, satyr). This is Seir, Edomite mountain region. It is the name of the people that live there and a particular Judean mountain. It may mean “the hairy guys,” “bucks,” “horrors,” “bristly,” or “riders on the storm.” See
XII “many” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
XIII “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

Then the Lord saidXIV to me,XV ‘You have been skirting this hill countryXVI long enough.XVII HeadXVIII north,XIX 

Notes on verses 2-3

XIV “said” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
XV {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” in v2. See note XIV above.
XVI “hill country” = har. Same as “Mount” in v1. See note X above.
XVII “long enough” = rab. Same as “many” in v1. See note XII above.
XVIII “head” = panah. Same as “back” in v1. See note II above.
XIX “north” = tsaphon. From tsaphan (to hide, hoard, reserve; to cover over or figuratively to deny; also to lurk). This is properly hidden, dark, or gloomy. It can also be used to refer to the north.

and chargeXX the peopleXXI as follows:XXII “You are about to pass throughXXIII the territoryXXIV of your kindred,XXV

Notes on verse 4a

XX “charge” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
XXI “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XXII “follows” = amar. Same as “said” in v2. See note XIV above.
XXIII “pass through” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
XXIV “territory” = gebul. Perhaps from gabal (to border, twist like rope). This is boundary, limit, coast, space. Properly, it is a line that is twisted, which implies a boundary and, by extension, the boundaries of a territory or other enclosed space.
XXV “kindred” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.

the descendantsXXVI of Esau,XXVII who liveXXVIII in Seir. They will be afraidXXIX of you, so be veryXXX carefulXXXI 

Notes on verse 4b

XXVI “descendants” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVII “Esau” = Esav. From asah (to squeeze, handle, or press) OR from asah (to do, make, accomplish, become). This is Esau, perhaps meaning rough as something one handles. It could also be doer, maker, or worker. See
XXVIII “live” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XXIX “be afraid” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
XXX “very” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
XXXI “be…careful” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.

not to engage in battleXXXII with them, for I will not giveXXXIII you even so much as a foot’s lengthXXXIV of their land,XXXV since I have given Mount Seir to Esau as a possession.XXXVI 

Notes on verse 5

XXXII “engage in battle” = garah. 14x in OT. This is to contend, provoke conflict, stir up strife, meddle. Properly, it is to grate – figuratively to cause anger.
XXXIII “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XXXIV “foot’s length” = midrak + kaph + regel. Midrak related to “direction” in v1. 1x in OT. From darak (see note IV above). This is a footstep or a place where one steps. Kaph is from kaphaph (to bend – from a root meaning curve or bend down). This is palm of the hand or sole of the foot, footstep, grasp. Figuratively, it can also mean power. Regel is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.
XXXV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XXXVI “possession” = yerushshah. 14x in OT. From yarash (inheriting or dispossessing; refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them; by implication, to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish). This is possession, heritage – something that has been occupied, an inheritance or conquest.

You shall purchaseXXXVII foodXXXVIII from them for money,XXXIX so that you may eat,XL

Notes on verse 6a

XXXVII “purchase” = shabar. From sheber (corn, grain). This is to trade in grain, whether to buy or sell.
XXXVIII “food” = okel. From akal (to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume; eating in a literal or figurative sense). This is food, supply of provisions, the act of eating, or the time when one eats.
XXXIX “money” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
XL “eat” = akal. Related to “food” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.

and you shall alsoXLI buyXLII waterXLIII from them for money, so that you may drink.XLIV 

Notes on verse 6b

XLI “also” = gam. This is also, moreover, again.
XLII “buy” = karah. 3x in OT. Perhaps related to karah (to dig, open, prepare a meal, plot). This is to trade, buy, prepare.
XLIII “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
XLIV “drink” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.

Surely the Lord your GodXLV has blessedXLVI you in allXLVII your undertakings;XLVIII, XLIX

Notes on verse 7a

XLV “God” = Elohim.
XLVI “blessed” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
XLVII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XLVIII “undertakings” = maaseh. Related to “Esau” in v4. From asah (see note XXVII above). This is a work – any action whether positive or negative. It can also be a transaction, construction, activity, property, or something that is produced.
XLIX {untranslated} = yad. Literally, “of your hand.” This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

he knowsL your going throughLI this greatLII wilderness.

Notes on verse 7b

L “knows” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
LI “going through” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
LII “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.

These fortyLIII yearsLIV the Lord your God has been with you; you have lackedLV nothing.”’LVI 

Notes on verse 7c

LIII “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
LIV “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
LV “lacked” = chaser. This is to lack, abate, have need of, bereave, fail.
LVI “nothing” = lodabar. Dabar is related to “wilderness” and “told” in v1. From dabar (see note III above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.

So we passed by our kin,LVII the descendants of Esau who live in Seir, leaving behind the routeLVIII of the ArabahLIX and leaving behindLX ElathLXI and Ezion-geber.LXII

Notes on verse 8a

LVII “kin” = ach. Same as “kindred” in v4. See note XXV above.
LVIII “route” = derek. Same as “direction” in v1. See note IV above.
LIX “Arabah” = Arabah. From the same as arab (desert plateau, Arabia) OR from arab (to become evening); {from ereb (evening) or from arab (to exchange, give or take on pledge, braid, intermix)}. This is a desert valley or plain, wilderness. Also, the name of a place Arabah.
LX “leaving behind” = panah. Same as “back” in v1. See note II above.
LXI “Elath” = Eloth. 8x in OT. From ayil (terebinth, oak); from the same as ulam (porch, hall); from the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power). This is Elath or Eloth, which means “grove or lofty trees,” referring to palms.
LXII “Ezion-geber” = Etsyon Geber. 7x in OT. Perhaps from atseh (spine, backbone); {from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes)} + geber (man, warrior, a person generally, or a valiant person); {from gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or to be insolent)}. This is Ezion-geber or Etsyon Geber, meaning “backbone-like of a man” or “backbone of a man” or “foundation of human essence” or “backbone of a giant.” See

“When we had headed outLXIII along the route of the wilderness of Moab,LXIV the Lord said to me, ‘Do not harassLXV Moab

Notes on verses 8b-9a

LXIII “headed out” = abar. Same as “pass through” in v4. See note XXIII above.
LXIV “Moab” = Moab. May be from ab (father, ancestor, grandfather; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is Moab or Moabite. Name could mean “from her father” in reference to the incestuous relationship between Lot and his daughters. The name could also mean, more pleasantly, “seed of a father” or “desirable land.” See
LXV “harass” = tsur. This is to confine, cramp, or bind in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to besiege, assault, or distress.

or engage them in battle,LXVI for I will not give you any of its land as a possession, since I have given ArLXVII as a possession to the descendants of Lot.’LXVIII 

Notes on verse 9b

LXVI “battle” = milchamah. From lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).
LXVII “Ar” = Ar. 6x in OT. Perhaps from iyr (can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city; properly, a place that is guarded; cities, encampments, posts); from uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This is Ar, which may mean “city.”
LXVIII “Lot” = Lot. From the same as lot (envelope, veil); from lut (to wrap, envelop). This is Lot, “covering.”

10 (The EmimLXIX—a largeLXX and numerousLXXI people, as tallLXXII as the AnakimLXXIII

Notes on verse 10a

LXIX “Emim” = Eymiym. 3x in OT. From eymah (terror, horror, idol); from the same as ayom (terrible). This is Emim, meaning “terrors” – a Moabite people.
LXX “large” = gadol. Same as “great” in v7. See note LII above.
LXXI “numerous” = rab. Same as “many” in v1. See note XII above.
LXXII “tall” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
LXXIII “Anakim” = Anaq. 9x in OT– all in Deuteronomy & Joshua. From the same as Anaq (Anak, Anaq; a name meaning “neck”); from the same as anaq (necklace, ornament, chain); perhaps from anaq (to encircle like a necklace or function as a necklace; figuratively, to furnish with supplies). This is someone descended from Anak – an Anakite. It may mean “neck.”

had formerlyLXXIV inhabitedLXXV it. 11 Like the Anakim, they are usuallyLXXVI reckonedLXXVII as Rephaim,LXXVIII

Notes on verses 10b-11a

LXXIV “formerly” = paneh. Related to “back” in v1. From panah (see note II above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXXV “inhabited” = yashab. Same as “live” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
LXXVI “usually” = aph. This is also, furthermore, even.
LXXVII “reckoned” = chashab. This is properly to braid or interpenetrate. Literally it is to create or to wear. Figuratively, it can mean plotting – generally in a negative sense. More broadly, this can also mean think, consider, or make account of.
LXXVIII “Rephaim” = Rapha. From raphah (to slacken in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be to hang, be feeble, fail, drop, be helpless, relax, slink, subside, or wait) OR from rapha (properly, to repair by stitching – figuratively to heal or cure; to make whole). This is Rapha or Rephaim. It is someone who lived east of Jordan, a giant. It may mean “faded ones,” “healed ones,” or “what we’ve been healed from.” See

though the MoabitesLXXIX callLXXX them Emim. 12 Moreover, the HorimLXXXI had formerly inhabited Seir, but the descendants of Esau dispossessedLXXXII them, destroyingLXXXIII, LXXXIV them

Notes on verses 11b-12a

LXXIX “Moabites” = Moabi. Related to “Moab” in v8. 16x in OT. From Moab (see note LXIV above). This is Moabite or Moab. See
LXXX “call” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
LXXXI “Horim” = Chori. 6x in OT. From the same as chor (a hole, den, cavity); {from the same as chur (hole; a hole that was bored; a crevice where a snake lives; the cell of a prison)} OR from harar (to be the center radiating warmth, ruler, fever). This is Horite, a people group from Edom. It’s also a personal name. It may mean “cave dweller,” “noble,” hollow,” or “central authority.” See
LXXXII “dispossessed” = yarash. Related to “possession” in v5. See note XXXVI above.
LXXXIII “destroying” = shamad. This is to demolish, destroy, perish, overthrow, pluck down.
LXXXIV {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “formerly” in v10. See note LXXIV above.

and settlingLXXXV in their place,LXXXVI as IsraelLXXXVII has doneLXXXVIII in the land that the Lord gave them as a possession.) 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXXV “settling” = yashab. Same as “live” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
LXXXVI “in…place” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
LXXXVII “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “God” in v7. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (see note XLV above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
LXXXVIII “done” = asah. Related to “Esau” in v4 & “undertakings” in v7. See note XXVII above.

13 ‘Now then, proceedLXXXIX to cross overXC the WadiXCI Zered.’XCII

Notes on verse 13a

LXXXIX “proceed” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
XC “cross over” = abar. Same as “pass through” in v4. See note XXIII above.
XCI “Wadi” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.
XCII “Zered” = Zered. 4x in OT– 1x in Numbers & 3x in Deuteronomy. Perahps from Aramaic zarad (to prune trees) OR from a word meaning abundant growth. This is Zered or Zared. It may mean “lined with shrubbery,” “willow bush,” or “luxuriant growth of trees.” See

“So we crossed over the Wadi Zered. 14 And the length of timeXCIII we had traveledXCIV from Kadesh-barneaXCV

Notes on verses 13b-14a

XCIII “time” = yom. Same as “days” in v1. See note XIII above.
XCIV “traveled” = halak. Same as “going through” in v7. See note LI above.
XCV “Kadesh-barnea” = Qadesh Barnea. 10x in OT. From Qadesh (Kadesh, a place whose name means sacred or sanctuary); {from the same as qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.)} + perhaps a word related to Aramaic bar (open field); {related to Hebrew bar (grain, wheat; an open field); from barar (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish)} + a word from nua (to waver in a literal or figurative sense; to tremble, quiver, totter; a fugitive). This is Kadesh-barnea or Qadesh Barnea, meaning “sacred desert of wandering” or “holy purifying staggerings” or “holy purifying wanderings.” See

until we crossed the Wadi Zered was thirtyXCVI-eightXCVII years, until the entire generationXCVIII of warriorsXCIX

Notes on verse 14b

XCVI “thirty” = sheloshim. From the same as shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is thirty or thirtieth.
XCVII “eight” = shemoneh. Perhaps from shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat); from shaman (to grow fat, shine, be oily). This is eight or eighth. It can refer to abundance as being more than 7, the number of sacred fullness.
XCVIII “generation” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.
XCIX “warriors” = ish + milchamah. Literally, “men of battle.” Ish is perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind. Milchamah is the same as “battle” in v9. See note LXVI above.

had perishedC fromCI the camp,CII as the Lord had swornCIII concerning them. 

Notes on verse 14c

C “entire…had perished” = tamam + kol. Tamam is to finish or accomplish. It is to make perfect, demonstrate that you are upright, consume or cease. It is to complete in a literal or figurative sense, positive or negative. Kol is the same as “all” in v7. See note XLVII above.
CI “from” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.
CII “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
CIII “sworn” = shaba. Perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.

15 Indeed,CIV the Lord’s own handCV wasCVI against them, to root them outCVII fromCVIII the camp, until all had perished.CIX

Notes on verse 15

CIV “indeed” = gam. Same as “also” in v6. See note XLI above.
CV “hand” = yad. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLIX above.
CVI “was” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
CVII “root…out” = hamam. 14x in OT. This is being noisy, confused, thrown into confusion, trouble, cause a commotion, disturb, rout, damage, destroy.
CVIII “from” = qereb. Same as “from” in v14. See note CI above.
CIX “all had perished” = tamam. Same as “entire…had perished” in v14. See note XCVIII above.

16 CXJust as soon as all the warriorsCXI had died offCXII from amongCXIII the people, 

Notes on verse 16

CX {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “was” in v15. See note CVI above.
CXI “warriors” = enosh + milchamah. Literally, “men of battle.” Enosh is related to “warriors” in v14. See note XCIX above. Milchamah is the same as “battle” in v9. See note LXVI above.
CXII “died off” = tamammut. Tamam is the same as “entire…had perished” in v14. See note XCVIII above. Mut is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
CXIII “among” = qereb. Same as “from” in v14. See note CI above.

17 the Lord spokeCXIV to me, saying, 18 ‘TodayCXV you are going to cross the boundaryCXVI of Moab at Ar. 19 When you approachCXVII the frontierCXVIII of the Ammonites,CXIX do not harass them or engage them in battle, for I will not give the land of the Ammonites to you as a possession, because I have given it to the descendants of Lot.’ 

Notes on verses 17-19

CXIV “spoke” = dabar. Same as “told” in v1. See note VIII above.
CXV “today” = yom. Same as “days” in v1. See note XIII above.
CXVI “boundary” = gebul. Same as “territory” in v4. See note XXIV above.
CXVII “approach” = qarab. Related to “from” in v14. See note CI above.
CXVIII “frontier” = mul. Perhaps from mul (to cut short, circumcise, blunt, destroy). This is in front of, opposite, with, abrupt. Literally, it refers to some kind of precipice.
CXIX “Ammonites” = ben + Ammon. Literally, “children of Ammon.” Ben is the same as “descendants” in v4. See note XXVI above. Ammon is related to “people” in v4. From im (with, against, before, beside); {perhaps from amam (see note XXI above)} OR from am (see note XXI above)}. This is Ammon or Ammonite, which may mean tribal.

20 (It also is usually reckoned as a land of Rephaim. Rephaim formerly inhabited it, though the AmmonitesCXX call them Zamzummim,CXXI 21 a strongCXXII and numerous people, as tall as the Anakim. But the Lord destroyed them from beforeCXXIII the Ammonites so that they could dispossess them and settle in their place. 

Notes on verses 20-21

CXX “Ammonites” = Ammoni. Related to “people” in v4 & “Ammonites” in v19. 17x in OT. From Ammon (see note CXIX above). This is Ammonite or like the Ammonites.
CXXI “Zamzummim” = Zamzummim. 1x in OT. From zamam (to devise, plot, imagine, intend, scheme, think evil; usually in an evil sense). This is Zamzummin or Zamzumite, which may mean “intriguing,” “schemers,” “the devised against,” “murmurers,” “tribes making a noise,” “talk gibberish,” “the dealt with” or “the healed from.” See
CXXII “strong” = gadol. Same as “great” in v7. See note LII above.
CXXIII “before” = paneh. Same as “formerly” in v10. See note LXXIV above.

22 He did the same for the descendants of Esau, who live in Seir, by destroying the Horites beforeCXXIV them so that they could dispossess them and settle in their place even to this day. 23 As for the Avvim,CXXV who had lived in settlementsCXXVI

Notes on verses 22-23a

CXXIV “before” = paneh. Same as “formerly” in v10. See note LXXIV above.
CXXV “Avvim” = Avvi. 3x in OT. From Ivvah (Ivvah, Avva; a city); from the same as avon (sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil) or from avvah (ruin, overturn); {from avah (to bend, make crooked, trouble)}. This is Avim, Avvim, or Avvite, which is someone from Avva. It may mean “ruiners,” “ruin-dwellers,” “inhabitants of desert places,” or “those who inhabit desert places.” See
CXXVI “settlements” = chatserim. 1x in OT. From chatser (enclosure or court – a yard that is fenced in. It could also be a village or hamlet that is walled in); from chatsar (to blow a trumpet, trumpeter, to surround); from chatsotsrah (trumpet). This is Hazerim, Chatserim, or “settlements.” It may also mean “yards.”

in the vicinity ofCXXVII Gaza,CXXVIII the Caphtorim,CXXIX who cameCXXX from Caphtor,CXXXI destroyed them and settled in their place.) 

Notes on verse 23b

CXXVII “in the vicinity of” = ad. From adah (to advance or continue; to take away or remove; adorning oneself with ornaments). This is old, perpetuity, eternity. It is a duration going back or forward.
CXXVIII “Gaza” = Azzah. From az (strong or mighty; power, vehemence, greedy); from azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively. A Late Hebrew word). This is Gaza or Azzah – a Philistine city. It means “strong.”
CXXIX “Caphtorim” = Kaphtori. 3x in OT. From Kaphtor (Caphtor; perhaps another name for Crete – the home base of the Philistines); from the same as kaphtor (capital of a pillar, knob, a wreath-like decoration on a candelabrum) or from kapar (to make a wall) or from katar (to protect, redeem). This is someone who comes from Caphtor, perhaps Crete. It may mean “protected,” “redeemed,” “crown,” “cup,” or “pomegranate.” See
CXXX “came” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXI “Caphtor” = Kaphtor. Related to “Caphtorim” in v23. 3x in OT. See note CXXIX above.

24 ‘Proceed on your journey and cross the Wadi Arnon.CXXXII See,CXXXIII I have handed over toCXXXIV you

Notes on verse 24a

CXXXII “Arnon” = Arnon. From the same as Aran (Aran, a name that may mean “stridulous”); {perhaps from ranan (a cry of joy or a joyful song; properly, emitting a shrill sound, especially one of joy)} OR from aran (to be agile, to inspire cheerfulness). This is Arnon, a wadi and stream in Moab whose nae means “a roaring stream” or “a brawling stream” or “murmuring” or “roaring” or “cheering” or “agile.” See
CXXXIII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
CXXXIV “handed over to” = natan + yad. Literally, “given into your hand.” Natan is the same as “give” in v5. See note XXXIII above. Yad is the same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLIX above.

KingCXXXV SihonCXXXVI the AmoriteCXXXVII of Heshbon,CXXXVIII and his land.

Notes on verse 24b

CXXXV “King” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
CXXXVI “Sihon” = Sichon. Perhaps from the same a ssuach (Suach, a name); from the same as suchah (something swept away, refuse). This is Sihon or Sichon, a name perhaps meaning “tempestuous.”
CXXXVII “Amorite” = Emori. Related to “said” in v2. From amar (see note XIV above). This is Amorite or Emori, perhaps meaning talkers.
CXXXVIII “Heshbon” = Cheshbon. Related to “reckoned” in v11. From chashab (see note LXXVII above). This is Heshbon or Cheshbon, meaning “library of synthetic wisdom” or “intelligence” or “reason.” See

BeginCXXXIX to take possessionCXL by engaging him in battle. 25 This day I will begin to putCXLI the dreadCXLII

Notes on verses 24c-25a

CXXXIX “begin” = chalal. This is to pierce, which implies to wound. It is used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word. It can also mean to begin as though one opened a wedge. Also, to eat something as a common thing.
CXL “take possession” = yarash. Same as “dispossessed” in v12. See note LXXXII above.
CXLI “put” = natan. Same as “give” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
CXLII “dread” = pachad. From pachad (to dread, be afraid, thrill, be in awe; feeling startled from a sudden sound or alarm). This is dread, fear, awe, panic. It can also refer to what someone fears or dreads.

and fearCXLIII of you uponCXLIV the peoples everywhereCXLV underCXLVI heaven;CXLVII

Notes on verse 25b

CXLIII “fear” = yirah. Related to “be afraid” in v4. From yare (see note XXIX above). This is fear or reverence.
CXLIV “upon” = paneh. Same as “formerly” in v10. See note LXXIV above.
CXLV “everywhere” = kol. Same as “all” in v7. See note XLVII above.
CXLVI “under” = tachat. Same as “in…place” in v12. See note LXXXVI above.
CXLVII “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.

when they hearCXLVIII reportCXLIX of you, they will trembleCL and be in anguishCLI because ofCLII you.’

Notes on verse 25c

CXLVIII “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
CXLIX “report” = shema. Related to “hear” in v25. 18x in OT. From shama (see note CXLVIII above). This is something that is heart like a report, speech, fame, rumor, or fame.
CL “tremble” = ragaz. This is shaking from any strong emotion, particularly anger or fear. It can be agitated, excited, perturbed, afraid, quaking, quivering.
CLI “be in anguish” = chul. This is whirling around so dancing as in a circle or writhing in pain. It is used particularly for the pain of childbirth or from writhing due to fear. It can also be falling in pain or waiting.
CLII “because of” = paneh. Same as “formerly” in v10. See note LXXIV above.

26 “So I sentCLIII messengersCLIV from the wilderness of KedemothCLV to King Sihon of Heshbon

Notes on verse 26a

CLIII “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
CLIV “messengers” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
CLV “Kedemoth” = Qedemoth. 4x in OT. From the same as qedem (front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity); from qadam (to come in front or be in front and so meet, anticipate, confront, receive, or rise; to meet for help). This is Kedemoth or Qedemoth, meaning “beginnings,” “ancient lands,” “eastern territories,” “ancient place,” or “ancients.” See

with the following termsCLVI of peace:CLVII 27 ‘If you let me pass through your land, I will travel only alongCLVIII the road;CLIX

Notes on verses 26b-27a

CLVI “terms” = dabar. Same as “nothing” in v7. See note LVI above.
CLVII “peace” = shalom. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
CLVIII “along” = derek. Same as “direction” in v1. See note IV above.
CLIX “road” = derek. Same as “direction” in v1. See note IV above.

I will turn asideCLX neither to the rightCLXI nor to the left.CLXII 

Notes on verse 27b

CLX “turn aside” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CLXI “right” = yamin. May be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This can mean right hand, right side, or south. Since most people are right-handed, the metaphorical usage of this word presumes that the right hand is stronger and more agile. Thus, it is the instrument of power and action.
CLXII “left” = semol. Perhaps from the same as simlah (mantle, clothes, wrapper); perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is left, left side, or north as the part that is dark.

28 You shall sellCLXIII me food for money, so that I may eat, and supplyCLXIV me water for money, so that I may drink. OnlyCLXV allow me to pass through on footCLXVI— 

Notes on verse 28

CLXIII “sell” = shabar. Same as “purchase” in v6. See note XXXVII above.
CLXIV “supply” = natan. Same as “give” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
CLXV “only” = raq. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit.
CLXVI “foot” = regel. Same as “foot’s length” in v5. See note XXXIV above.

29 just as the descendants of Esau who live in Seir have done for me and likewise the Moabites who live in Ar—until I cross the JordanCLXVII into the land that the Lord our God is giving us.’ 30 But King Sihon of Heshbon was not willingCLXVIII to let us pass through, for the Lord your God had hardenedCLXIX his spiritCLXX

Notes on verses 29-30a

CLXVII “Jordan” = Yarden. From yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
CLXVIII “was…willing” = abah. This is to breathe after, be willing, obey, accept, be content with, satisfy.
CLXIX “hardened” = qashah. This is to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe.
CLXX “spirit” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.

and made his heartCLXXI defiantCLXXII in order to hand him overCLXXIII to you, as he has nowCLXXIV done.

Notes on verse 30b

CLXXI “heart” = lebab. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
CLXXII “made…defiant” = amets. This is to be strong, stout, alert, or bold, It can also mean harden, make firm, be courageous or mighty, fortify, or establish. It can refer to physical alertness or mental courage or steadfastness.
CLXXIII “hand…over” = natan + yad. Literally, “deliver…into your hand.” Natan is the same as “give” in v5. See note XXXIII above. Yad is the same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLIX above.
CLXXIV “now” = yom + zeh. Literally, “as…this day.” Yom is the same as “days” in v1. See note XIII above.

31 “The Lord said to me, ‘See, I have begun to give Sihon and his land over toCLXXV you. Begin now to take possession of his land.’ 32 So when Sihon came outCLXXVI againstCLXXVII us, he and all his people for battle at Jahaz,CLXXVIII 

Notes on verses 31-32

CLXXV {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “formerly” in v10. See note LXXIV above.
CLXXVI “came out” = yatsa. Same as “came” in v23. See note CXXX above.
CLXXVII “against” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.
CLXXVIII “Jahaz” = Yahats. 9x in OT. Perhaps from a word that means to stamp. This is Jahaz or Yahats. It may mean “threshing floor.”

33 the Lord our God gave him overCLXXIX toCLXXX us, and we struck him down,CLXXXI along with his offspringCLXXXII and all his people. 

Notes on verse 33

CLXXIX “gave…over” = natan. Same as “give” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
CLXXX “to” = paneh. Same as “formerly” in v10. See note LXXIV above.
CLXXXI “struck…down” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
CLXXXII “offspring” = ben. Same as “descendants” in v4. See note XXVI above.

34 At that timeCLXXXIII we capturedCLXXXIV all his towns,CLXXXV

Notes on verse 34a

CLXXXIII “time” = eth. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
CLXXXIV “captured” = lakad. This is to capture, seize, or imprison. It is to catch something in a snare or net or trap. It can also mean to occupy of select something by casting lots.
CLXXXV “towns” = iyr. Related to “Ar” in v9. See note LXVII above.

and in eachCLXXXVI town we utterly destroyedCLXXXVII men,CLXXXVIII women,CLXXXIX and children.CXC We leftCXCI not a singleCXCII survivor. 

Notes on verse 34b

CLXXXVI “each” = kol. Same as “all” in v7. See note XLVII above.
CLXXXVII “utterly destroyed” = charam. This is to ban, destroy, devote, seclude. It is to dedicate to a religious purpose, often for destruction.
CLXXXVIII “men” = math. Perhaps from the same as mathay (when, how, length of time). This is a man, associate, friend, number. It is an adult or mortal.
CLXXXIX “women” = ishshah. Related to “warriors” in v14 & “warriors” in v16. From ish (see note XCIX above). This is woman, wife, or female.
CXC “children” = taph. From taphaph (walking along with small, tripping steps like children do). This is little ones, children, families.
CXCI “left” = shaar. Properly, this is swelling up i.e. being left over, a remnant, remaining, being redundant.
CXCII “single” = sarid. From sarad (to escape or remain; properly, this refers to a puncture, so figuratively it is remaining or escaping by slipping out). This is survivor, remnant, or alive.

35 Only the livestockCXCIII we kept as spoilCXCIV for ourselves, as well as the plunderCXCV of the towns that we had captured. 36 From AroerCXCVI on the edgeCXCVII of the Wadi Arnon

Notes on verses 35-36a

CXCIII “livestock” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
CXCIV “kept as spoil” = bazaz. This is to spoil, loot, pillage.
CXCV “plunder” = shalal. From shalal (to plunder, loot, capture). This is spoil, prey, or plunder.
CXCVI “Aroer” = Aroer. 16x in OT. From the same as aroer (shrub or tree; may be a juniper); from arar (to strip, make bare, destroy). This is Aroer, a city whose name means “accumulation” or “stripped” or “heath.” See
CXCVII “edge” = saphah. This is lip, edge, border, bank – used for a boundary. It can also be speech or language.

(including the town that is in the wadi itself) as far as Gilead,CXCVIII there was no citadelCXCIX too highCC for us.

Notes on verse 36b

CXCVIII “Gilead” = Gilad. From gala (to lay bare, quarrel, expose) OR from gal’ed (heap of testimony); {from gal (wave, billow, rock pile; something rolled; a spring of water); {from galal (to roll, roll away, wallow, commit, remove; rolling in a literal or figurative sense)} + ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve)}}. This is Gilead, meaning “perpetual fountain” or “heap of testimony.” See
CXCIX “citadel” = qiryah. From qarah (to happen, meet, bring about). This is a place where there are buildings so it could be a fortress or a town.
CC “too high” = sagab. This is to raise, lifted, high, set secure on high, excellent, or strong. It is inaccessibly high in a literal and figurative sense. It implies something that is safe and, therefore, something that is strong.

The Lord our God gave everythingCCI toCCII us. 37 You did not encroach,CCIIIi however,CCIV on the land of the Ammonites,CCV

Notes on verses 36c-37a

CCI “everything” = kol. Same as “all” in v7. See note XLVII above.
CCII “to” = paneh. Same as “formerly” in v10. See note LXXIV above.
CCIII “encroach” = qarab. Same as “approach” in v19. See note CXVII above.
CCIV “however” = raq. Same as “only” in v28. See note CLXV above.
CCV “Ammonites” = ben + Ammon. Literally, “children of Ammon.” Ben is the same as “descendants” in v4. See note XXVI above. Ammon is the same as “Ammonites” in v19. See note CXIX above.

avoiding the wholeCCVI upper regionCCVII of the Wadi JabbokCCVIII as well as the towns of the hill country, just asCCIX the Lord our God had charged.

Notes on verse 37b

CCVI “whole” = kol. Same as “all” in v7. See note XLVII above.
CCVII “region” = yad. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLIX above.
CCVIII “Jabbok” = Yabboq. 7x in OT. Probably from baqaq (to empty, devastate, demoralize, luxuriate, depopulate). This is Jabbok or Yabboq, meaning “emptying” or “he will empty.” See
CCIX {untranslated} = kol. Same as “all” in v7. See note XLVII above.

Image credit: “The Conquest of the Amorites” by James Tissot, before 1903.

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