Deuteronomy 20

Deuteronomy 20


“When you go outI to warII against your enemiesIII and seeIV horsesV and chariots,VI

Notes on verse 1a

I “go out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
II “war” = milchamah. From lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).
III “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.
IV “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
V “horses” = sus. Root may mean to skip as in jump for joy. This is a crane or a swift bird. It is also a horse as leaping.
VI “chariots” = rekeb. From rakab (to ride an animal or in some vehicle; also, bringing on a horse). This is a vehicle, wagon, or chariot. It can be cavalry or an individual rider.

an armyVII largerVIII than your own, do not fearIX them,

Notes on verse 1b

VII “army” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
VIII “larger” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
IX “fear” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.

for the LordX your GodXI is with you, who brought you upXII from the landXIII of Egypt.XIV 

Notes on verse 1c

X “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XI “God” = Elohim.
XII “brought…up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XIII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XIV “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

XVBefore you engageXVI in battle,XVII the priestXVIII shall come forwardXIX and speakXX to the troopsXXI 

Notes on verse 2

XV {untranslated} = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note X above.
XVI “engage” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
XVII “battle” = milchamah. Same as “war” in v1. See note II above.
XVIII “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
XIX “come forward” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
XX “speak” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
XXI “troops” = am. Same as “army” in v1. See note VII above.

and shall sayXXII to them, ‘Hear,XXIII O Israel!XXIV TodayXXV you are drawing nearXXVI to do battle against your enemies.

Notes on verse 3a

XXII “say” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
XXIII “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XXIV “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “God” in v1. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (see note XI above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XXV “today” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XXVI “drawing near” = qareb. Related to “engage” in v2. 8x in OT. From qarab (see note XVI above). This is to come, approach, draw near.

Do not loseXXVII heartXXVIII or be afraidXXIX or panicXXX or be in dreadXXXI ofXXXII them, 

Notes on verse 3b

XXVII “lose” = rakak. 8x in OT. This is to be tender, soft, faint, weak. It is to soften or mollify.
XXVIII “heart” = lebab. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XXIX “be afraid” = yare. Same as “fear” in v1. See note IX above.
XXX “panic” = chaphaz. 9x in OT. This is hurry or alarm. It is something that begins with a start so it can mean to hurry away or to panic, tremble, fear.
XXXI “be in dread” = arats. 15x in OT. This is to fear, terrify, be in awe, oppress, make one tremble, harass, shock.
XXXII “of” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

for it is the Lord your God who goesXXXIII with you, to fightXXXIV for you against your enemies, to give you victory.’XXXV 

Notes on verse 4

XXXIII “goes” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XXXIV “fight” = lacham. Related to “war” in v1. See note II above.
XXXV “give…victory” = yasha. To deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free.

Then the officersXXXVI shall addressXXXVII the troops, saying, ‘Has anyoneXXXVIII builtXXXIX a newXL houseXLI but not dedicatedXLII it?

Notes on verse 5a

XXXVI “officers” = shoter. The root may mean write. This is perhaps originally a scribe and so it was used more broadly for an official, officer, ruler, overseer, or magistrate.
XXXVII “address” = dabar. Same as “speak” in v2. See note XX above.
XXXVIII “anyone” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XXXIX “built” = banah. This is to build, make, set up, restore, repair, or obtain children. It is to build literally or figuratively.
XL “new” = chadash. From chadash (to renew or restore, to repair or rebuild). This is something fresh or new.
XLI “house” = bayit. Related to “built” in v5. Probably from banah (see note XXIX above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XLII “dedicated” = chanak. 5x in OT. Perhaps from chek (gums, mouth, roof of the mouth, palate, speech, gums, taste). This is literally to narrow. Figuratively, it is to dedicate, initiate, train, or discipline.

He should go backXLIII to his house, lestXLIV he dieXLV in the battle and anotherXLVI dedicate it. 

Notes on verse 5b

XLIII “back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
XLIV “lest” = pen. Related to “of” in v3. Perhaps from panah (see note XXXII above). This is lest, if, or.
XLV “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XLVI “another” = ish + acher. Ish is the same as “anyone” in v5. See note XXXVIII above. Acher is from achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is following, next, strange, other.

Has anyone plantedXLVII a vineyardXLVIII but not yet enjoyed its fruit?XLIX He should go back to his house, lest he die in the battle and another be first to enjoy its fruit. Has anyone become engaged toL a womanLI but not yet marriedLII her? He should go back to his house, lest he die in the battle and another marry her.’ 

Notes on verses 6-7

XLVII “planted” = nata. To fix or fasten, establish or plant. This is planting in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVIII “vineyard” = kerem. This is a vineyard, garden, vines, or a vintage.
XLIX “enjoyed…fruit” = chalal. This is to pierce, which implies to wound. It is used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word. It can also mean to begin as though one opened a wedge. Also, to eat something as a common thing.
L “become engaged to” = aras. 11x in OT. This is to betroth or engage for marriage.
LI “woman” = ishshah. Related to “anyone” in v5. From ish (see note XXXVIII above). This is woman, wife, or female.
LII “married” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.

The officers shall continueLIII to address the troops, saying, ‘Is anyone afraidLIV or disheartened?LV He should go back to his house, or he might cause the heart of his comradesLVI to meltLVII like his own.’LVIII 

Notes on verse 8

LIII “continue” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
LIV “afraid” = yare. Related to “fear” in v1. From the same as yare (see note IX above). This is fearful or morally reverent.
LV “disheartened” = rak + lebab. Rak is related to “lose” in v3. 16x in OT. From rakak (see note XXVII above). This is tender in a literal or figurative sense. It could be delicate, gentle, inexperienced, refined, soft, or weak. Lebab is the same as “heart” in v3. See note XXVIII above.
LVI “comrades” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
LVII “melt” = masas. This is to melt, discourage, faint. It can be to deteriorate from a sickness or weaken because of sleepiness or an emotional response.
LVIII “own” = lebab. Same as “heart” in v3. See note XXVIII above.

LIXWhen the officers have finishedLX addressing the troops, then the commandersLXI shall takeLXII chargeLXIII of them.LXIV

Notes on verse 9

LIX {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XV above.
LX “finished” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.
LXI “commanders” = sar + tsaba. Sar is chief, leader, ruler, lord, official, governor, prince, military leader. It refers to someone at the top of a rank or class. Tsaba is from tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
LXII “take” = paqad. This is to attend to or visit – can be used for a friendly or violent encounter. So, it can be to oversee, care for, avenge, or charge.
LXIII “charge” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
LXIV “them” = am. Same as “army” in v1. See note VII above.

10 “When you draw nearLXV to a townLXVI to fight against it, offerLXVII it terms of peace.LXVIII 

Notes on verse 10

LXV “draw near” = qarab. Same as “engage” in v2. See note XVI above.
LXVI “town” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
LXVII “offer” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
LXVIII “peace” = shalom. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).

11 LXIXIf it acceptsLXX your terms of peace and surrendersLXXI to you,LXXII

Notes on verse 11a

LXIX {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XV above.
LXX “accepts” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
LXXI “surrenders” = patach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
LXXII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XV above.

then allLXXIII the peopleLXXIV, LXXV in it shallLXXVI serveLXXVII you at forced labor.LXXVIII 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXIII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
LXXIV “people” = am. Same as “army” in v1. See note VII above.
LXXV {untranslated} = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
LXXVI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XV above.
LXXVII “serve” = abad. This is to work, serve, or compel. It can describe any kind of work or service (including religious devotion).  Also, till or cultivate. Used causatively, it can mean to enslave or keep in bondage.
LXXVIII “forced labor” = mas. Related to “melt” in v8. Perhaps from masas (see note LVII above). This is a burden that creates weariness and or exhaustion. It is forced labor, taskwork, or other levy.

12 But if it does not accept your terms of peaceLXXIX and makesLXXX war against you, then you shall besiegeLXXXI it, 13 and when the Lord your God givesLXXXII it into your hand,LXXXIII

Notes on verses 12-13a

LXXIX “accept…peace” = shalam. Related to “peace” in v10. See note LXVIII above.
LXXX “makes” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LXXXI “besiege” = tsur. Related to “Egypt” in v1. See note XIV above.
LXXXII “gives” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LXXXIII “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

you shall putLXXXIV all its malesLXXXV to the sword.LXXXVI 14 You may, however,LXXXVII take as your plunderLXXXVIII the women,

Notes on verses 13b-14a

LXXXIV “put” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
LXXXV “males” = zakur. 4x in OT– all in Exodus & Deuteronomy. From zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention). This is male or man. It can refer to a person or an animal.
LXXXVI “sword” = peh + chereb. Peh is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises. Chereb is from charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
LXXXVII “however” = raq. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit.
LXXXVIII “plunder” = bazaz. This is to spoil, loot, pillage.

the children,LXXXIX livestock,XC and everything elseXCI, XCII in the town, all its spoil.XCIII You may enjoyXCIV the spoil of your enemies, which the Lord your God has given you. 

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXIX “children” = taph. From taphaph (walking along with small, tripping steps like children do). This is little ones, children, families.
XC “livestock” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
XCI “everything else” = kol. Same as “all” in v11. See note LXXIII above.
XCII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XV above.
XCIII “spoil” = shalal. From shalal (to plunder, loot, capture). This is spoil, prey, or plunder.
XCIV “enjoy” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.

15 ThusXCV you shall treatXCVI all the towns that are veryXCVII farXCVIII from you, which are not towns of these nationsXCIX here. 

Notes on verse 15

XCV “thus” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
XCVI “treat” = asah. Same as “makes” in v12. See note LXXX above.
XCVII “very” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
XCVIII “far” = rachoq. From rachaq (to widen, become distant, cast, or remove in a literal or figurative sense). This is distant or far, whether of space or of time.
XCIX “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.

16 ButC as for the towns of these peoples that the Lord your God is giving you as an inheritance,CI you must not let anythingCII that breathesCIII remain alive.CIV 

Notes on verse 16

C “but” = raq. Same as “however” in v14. See note LXXXVII above.
CI “inheritance” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.
CII “anything” = kol. Same as “all” in v11. See note LXXIII above.
CIII “breathes” = neshamah. From nasham (to blow away, pant, gasp). This is a breath or blast – a puff like of wind. It is also a spirit or soul or divine inspiration or intellect. It could also be an animal. This is the word used for the breath of life when humanity was created in Genesis 2:7.
CIV “remain alive” = chayah. This is to live or keep alive in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be revive, nourish, or save.

17 Indeed, you shall annihilateCV them—the HittitesCVI and the Amorites,CVII the CanaanitesCVIII

Notes on verse 17a

CV “annihilate” = charam + charam. This is to ban, destroy, devote, seclude. It is to dedicate to a religious purpose, often for destruction. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CVI “Hittites” = Chitti. From cheth (Heth or Cheth; one of Canaan’s sons from whom perhaps the Hittites descend) OR from hatat (terror, lacking strength or courage); perhaps from hata (to seize; often used of coals from a fire). This is Hittite – perhaps meaning terrors or terrible. See
CVII “Amorites” = Emori. Related to “say” in v3. From amar (see note XXII above). This is Amorite or Emori, perhaps meaning talkers.
CVIII “Canaanites” = Knaaniy. From Kanaan (Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled; perhaps meaning lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt); from kana (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaanite, which in some instances would imply a peddler or sometimes used in place of Ishmaelite. See

and the Perizzites,CIX the HivitesCX and the JebusitesCXI—just as the Lord your God has commanded,CXII 

Notes on verse 17b

CIX “Perizzites” = Perizzi. Perhaps from perazi (rural area, unwalled land); from the same as perazah (rural, village without walls, open country); from the same as paraz (root may mean to separate; perhaps warriors, chieftan, or throng). This is Perizzite, perhaps meaning rural or wild one.
CX “Hivites” = Chivvi. Probably from the same as chavyah (life-giving, which implies the place where one lives like a village or place where one camps); probably from the same as Chavvah (Eve, life-giver); from chavah (show, tell, live, declare). This is Hivite, perhaps meaning villagers or tent villagers.
CXI “Jebusites” = Yebusi. From yebus (threshing place; one of the former names of Jerusalem); from bus (to trample down, tread in a literal or figurative sense; to loathe, pollute, squirm). This is Jebusite, meaning treaders or threshers.
CXII “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).

18 so that they may not teachCXIII you to doCXIV all the abhorrent thingsCXV that they do for their godsCXVI and you thus sinCXVII against the Lord your God.

Notes on verse 18

CXIII “teach” = lamad. Properly, this refers to goading (using a pointed stick to guide or prod one’s flock). By implication, it means teaching or instructing.
CXIV “do” = asah. Same as “makes” in v12. See note LXXX above.
CXV “abhorrent things” = toebah. Perhaps from ta’ab (to abhor or morally detest). This is something that instills one with moral contempt or disgust. It can mean abhorrence and is often in reference to idolatry or idols.
CXVI “gods” = elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note XI above.
CXVII “sin” = chata. This is properly to miss, and so figuratively it is used for sinning, bearing the blame. It implies a forfeiture or loss of something.

19 “If you besiege a town for a long time,CXVIII making warCXIX against it in order to takeCXX it, you must not destroyCXXI its treesCXXII

Notes on verse 19a

CXVIII “long time” = yom + rab. Literally, “many days.” Yom is the same as “today” in v3. See note XXV above. Rab is the same as “larger” in v1. See note VIII above.
CXIX “making war” = lacham. Same as “fight” in v4. See note XXXIV above.
CXX “take” = taphas. This is to catch, seize, wield, capture. It can also mean to use unwarrantably.
CXXI “destroy” = shachat. This is to go to ruin, perish, decay, batter, cast off, lose, one who destroys. This can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXII “trees” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.

by wieldingCXXIII an axCXXIV against them. Although you may take foodCXXV from them, you must not cut them down.CXXVI

Notes on verse 19b

CXXIII “wielding” = nadach. This is scatter, seduce, banish, draw away, drive away, outcast, scatter. It means to push off in a literal or figurative sense so it could also be mislead, inflict, or withdraw.
CXXIV “ax” = garzen. 4x in OT. From garaz (to cut off). This is an ax.
CXXV “food” = akal. Same as “enjoy” in v14. See note XCIV above.
CXXVI “cut…down” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.

Are trees in the fieldCXXVII human beingsCXXVIII that they should comeCXXIX underCXXX siegeCXXXI from you? 

Notes on verse 19c

CXXVII “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
CXXVIII “human beings” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
CXXIX “come” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
CXXX “under” = paneh. Same as “of” in v3. See note XXXII above.
CXXXI “siege” = matsor. Related to “Egypt” in v1 & “besiege” in v12. See note XIV above.

20 You may destroy onlyCXXXII the trees that you knowCXXXIII do notCXXXIV produce food;CXXXV you may cut them downCXXXVI for use in building siegeworksCXXXVII against the town that makes war with you, until it falls.CXXXVIII

Notes on verse 20

CXXXII “only” = raq. Same as “however” in v14. See note LXXXVII above.
CXXXIII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CXXXIV {untranslated} = ets. Same as “trees” in v19. See note CXXII above.
CXXXV “food” = maakal. Related to “enjoy” in v14. From akal (See note XIV above). This is food, something edible.
CXXXVI “cut…down” = shachat + karat. Shachat is the same as “destroy” in v19. See note CXXI above. Karat is the same as “cut…down” in v19. See note CXXVI above.
CXXXVII “siegeworks” = matsor. Same as “siege” in v19. See note CXXXI above.
CXXXVIII “falls” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.

Image credit: “What a war does (A Tree Bark Abstract)” by Ashok Boghani, 2022.

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