Exodus 10

Exodus 10


Then the LordI said to Moses,II “GoIII to Pharaoh;IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
III “go” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
IV “Pharaoh” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pharaoh

for I have hardenedV his heartVI and the heart of his officials,VII in order that I may showVIII these signsIX of mine amongX them, 

Notes on verse 1b

V “hardened” = kabad. To be heavy, weighty, or severe. It can also be positive abounding in, rich, or honorable. The Hebrew word for “glory,” kabod, is taken from this root.
VI “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
VII “officials” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
VIII “show” = shith. This is to place, set, bring, appoint, consider, bring, array or look.
IX “signs” = oth. From avah (to mark, sign, point out); OR from uth (to agree). This is a sign in a literal or figurative sense. It could be a flag or monument. It could be evidence or a mark. It could also be an omen or a miracle. 
X “among” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.

and that you may tellXI, XII your childrenXIII and grandchildrenXIV

Notes on verse 2a

XI “tell” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.
XII {untranslated} = ozen. This is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.
XIII “children” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XIV “grandchildren” = ben + ben. Literally, “child of your child.” See note XIII above.

how I have made fools ofXV the EgyptiansXVI and what signs I have doneXVII among them—so that you may knowXVIII that I am the Lord.”

Notes on verse 2b

XV “made fools of” = alal. 19x in OT. This is to affect, abuse, mistreat, impose, practice, glean, defile.
XVI “Egyptians” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
XVII “done” = sum. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
XVIII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.

So Moses and AaronXIX went to Pharaoh, and said to him, “Thus says the Lord, the GodXX of the Hebrews,XXI ‘How long will you refuse to humbleXXII yourself beforeXXIII me? Let my peopleXXIV go,XXV so that they may worshipXXVI me. 

Notes on verse 3

XIX “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
XX “God” = Elohim.
XXI “Hebrews” = Ibri. From Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew, perhaps meaning a descendant of Eber.
XXII “humble” = anah. This is to be bowed down. It can refer to a sense of humility or to a sense of being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed. This can be literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance.
XXIII “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XXIV “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XXV “let…go” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XXVI “worship” = abad. Related to “officials” in v1. See note VII above.

For if you refuseXXVII to let my people go,XXVIII, XXIX tomorrowXXX I will bringXXXI locustsXXXII into your country.XXXIII 

Notes on verse 4

XXVII “refuse” = maen. 4x in OT. From maen (to refuse). This is refusing or unwilling.
XXVIII “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v3. See note XXV above.
XXIX {untranslated} = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
XXX “tomorrow” = machar. Perhaps from achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is tomorrow or later. It is some kind of deferred time, so it could also mean indefinitely or refer to the time to come.
XXXI “bring” = bo. Same as “go” in v1. See note III above.
XXXII “locusts” = arbeh. From rabah (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is a locust from its abundance – a swarming locust or grasshopper.
XXXIII “country” = gebul. Perhaps from gabal (to border, twist like rope). This is boundary, limit, coast, space. Properly, it is a line that is twisted, which implies a boundary and, by extension, the boundaries of a territory or other enclosed space.

They shall coverXXXIV the surfaceXXXV of the land,XXXVI so that no one will be ableXXXVII to seeXXXVIII the land.

Notes on verse 5a

XXXIV “cover” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
XXXV “surface” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
XXXVI “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XXXVII “be able” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
XXXVIII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.

They shall devourXXXIX the lastXL remnantXLI leftXLII you after the hail, and they shall devour everyXLIII treeXLIV of yours that growsXLV in the field.XLVI 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXIX “devour” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XL “last” = peletah. From paliyt (fugitive, refugee, or one who escaped); from palat (to escape, slip out, deliver, calve). This is deliverance or escape. It is the remnant that got away.
XLI “remnant” = yether. From yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel). This is a remainder or excess. It can imply abundant or superiority. Additionally, it can be cord a free-hanging rope.
XLII “left” = shaar. Properly, this is swelling up i.e. being left over, a remnant, remaining, being redundant.
XLIII “every” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XLIV “tree” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.
XLV “grows” = tsamach. This is to sprout, grow, or spring up – literal or figurative.
XLVI “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.

They shall fillXLVII your houses,XLVIII and the houses of allXLIX your officials and of all the EgyptiansL

Notes on verse 6a

XLVII “fill” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVIII “houses” = bayit. Related to “children” in v2. Probably from banah (see note XIII above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XLIX “all” = kol. Same as “every” in v5. See note XLIII above.
L “Egyptians” = Mitsri. Related to “Egyptians” in v2. From the same as Mitsrayim (see note XVI above). This is Egyptian.

something that neither your parentsLI nor your grandparentsLII have seen, from the dayLIII they cameLIV on earthLV to this day.’” Then he turnedLVI and went outLVII from Pharaoh.

Notes on verse 6b

LI “parents” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
LII “grandparents” = ab + ab. Literally, “fathers of your fathers.” See note LI above.
LIII “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
LIV “came” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
LV “earth” = adamah. From the same as adam (man, humankind); perhaps from ‘adom (to be red). This is ground, earth, soil as red, or land.
LVI “turned” = panah. Related to “before” in v3. See note XXIII above.
LVII “went out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.

Pharaoh’s officials said to him, “How long shall this fellow beLVIII a snareLIX to us? Let the peopleLX go,LXI so that they may worship the Lord their God; do you not yet understandLXII that Egypt is ruined?”LXIII 

Notes on verse 7

LVIII “be” = hayah. Same as “came” in v6. See note LIV above.
LIX “snare” = moqesh. From yaqosh (ensnare, lay bait, lure, trapper; to snare literally or figuratively). This is bait, barb, snare, trap; a noose or hook to trap animals in a literal or figurative sense.
LX “people” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
LXI “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v3. See note XXV above.
LXII “understand” = yada. Same as “know” in v2. See note XVIII above.
LXIII “ruined” = abad. To wander off, lose self. This implies to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt.

8 So Moses and Aaron were brought backLXIV to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go,LXV worship the Lord your God! But which ones are to go?”LXVI 

Moses said, “We will goLXVII with our youngLXVIII and our old;LXIX

Notes on verses 8-9a

LXIV “brought back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
LXV “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
LXVI “go” = halak. Same as “go” in v8. See note LXV above.
LXVII “go” = halak. Same as “go” in v8. See note LXV above.
LXVIII “young” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
LXIX “old” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.

we will go with our sonsLXX and daughtersLXXI and with our flocksLXXII and herds,LXXIII because we have the Lord’s festivalLXXIV to celebrate.”LXXV 

Notes on verse 9b

LXX “sons” = ben. Same as “children” in v2. See note XIII above.
LXXI “daughters” = bat. Related to “children” in v2 & “houses” in v6. From ben (see note XIII above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXII “flocks” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
LXXIII “herds” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
LXXIV “festival” = chag. From chagag (feast, celebrating a festival, making a pilgrimage; properly, going in a circle or marching in sacred procession; implies giddiness and dancing; reeling to and fro). This is a feast, a sacrifice as part of a festival, or the gathering of the festival.
LXXV “have…to celebrate” = halak. Same as “go” in v8. See note LXV above.

10 He said to them, “The Lord indeedLXXVI will be with you, if ever I let your little onesLXXVII goLXXVIII with you! Plainly,LXXIX you have some evil purposeLXXX inLXXXI mind.LXXXII 

Notes on verse 10

LXXVI “indeed” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
LXXVII “little ones” = taph. From taphaph (walking along with small, tripping steps like children do). This is little ones, children, families.
LXXVIII “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v3. See note XXV above.
LXXIX “plainly” = raah. Same as “see” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
LXXX “evil purpose” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
LXXXI “in” = neged. From nagad (to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain). This is in front of, opposite to. It can refer to a counterpart or partner, one corresponding to or in the sight of.
LXXXII “mind” = paneh. Same as “before” in v3. See note XXIII above.

11 No,LXXXIII never! Your menLXXXIV may goLXXXV, LXXXVI and worship the Lord, for that is what you are asking.”LXXXVII And they were driven outLXXXVIII from Pharaoh’s presence.LXXXIX

Notes on verse 11

LXXXIII {untranslated} = ken. Same as “indeed” in v10. See note LXXVI above.
LXXXIV “men” = geber. From gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or to be insolent) This is man, warrior, a person generally, or a valiant person.
LXXXV “go” = halak. Same as “go” in v8. See note LXV above.
LXXXVI {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
LXXXVII “asking” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.
LXXXVIII “driven out” = garash. This is to cast out or expel. It can be to exile someone or to divorce them.
LXXXIX “presence” = paneh. Same as “before” in v3. See note XXIII above.

12 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch outXC your handXCI over the land of Egypt, so that the locusts may comeXCII upon itXCIII and eatXCIV every plantXCV in the land, all that the hail has left.” 

Notes on verse 12

XC “stretch out” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
XCI “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XCII “come” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIII “it” = erets + Mitsrayim. Literally, “land of Egypt.” Erets is the same as “land” in v5. See note XXXVI above. Mitsrayim is the same as “Egyptians” in v2. See note XVI above.
XCIV “eat” = akal. Same as “devour” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
XCV “plant” = eseb. Root may mean to be green or to glisten. This is grass or some other tender shoot.

13 So Moses stretched out his staffXCVI over the land of Egypt, and the Lord broughtXCVII an eastXCVIII windXCIX upon the land all that day and all that night;C when morningCI came, the east wind had broughtCII the locusts. 

Notes on verse 13

XCVI “staff” = matteh. Related to “stretch out” in v12. From natah (see note XC above). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).
XCVII “brought” = nahag. This is to drive as in driving flocks, but also driving in animal or vehicle like a chariot. It can mean to carry away, lead, drive away, proceed, or guide. It can also relate to behavior and what one is accustomed to.
XCVIII “east” = qadim. From the same as qedem (front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity). This is the front part and so eastward. Sometimes used as a shorthand for the east wind.
XCIX “wind” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.
C “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
CI “morning” = boqer. Related to “herds” in v9. From baqar (see note LXXIII above). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
CII “brought” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.

14 The locusts came upon all the land of Egypt and settledCIII on the wholeCIV country of Egypt, suchCV a denseCVI swarm of locusts as had never been before,CVII nor ever shall be again. 

Notes on verse 14

CIII “settled” = nuach. This is to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait. It is rest and so implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense. This is perhaps the root verb of the name “Noah.”
CIV “whole” = kol. Same as “every” in v5. See note XLIII above.
CV “such” = ken. Same as “indeed” in v10. See note LXXVI above.
CVI “dense” = kabed + meod. Kabed is related to “hardened” in v1. From kabad (see note V above). This is heavy, grievous, sore. It can also be weighty in the sense of gravitas. The word for “glory” in Hebrew comes from this root (kabod). Meod is perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
CVII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v3. See note XXIII above.

15 They covered the surface of the whole land, so that the land was black;CVIII and they ate all the plants in the land and all the fruitCIX of the trees that the hail had left;CX nothing greenCXI was left, no tree, no plant in the field, in all the land of Egypt. 

16 Pharaoh hurriedlyCXII summonedCXIII Moses and Aaron and said, “I have sinnedCXIV against the Lord your God, and against you. 

Notes on verses 15-16

CVIII “was black” = chashak. 18x in OT. This is to be or become dark. It can also mean to dim or hide.
CIX “fruit” = peri. From parah (to bear fruit, grow, be fruitful, increase; bearing fruit in a literal or figurative sense). This is fruit or reward.
CX “had left” = yathar. Related to “remnant” in v5. See note XLI above.
CXI “green” = yereq. 6x in OT– including “every green plant for food” from Genesis 1:30. Perhaps from yaraq (to spit). This is something green. It could be pallor or some kind of vegetation.     
CXII “hurriedly” = mahar. This is being liquid, which implies flowing. So, this word implies hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense.
CXIII “summoned” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
CXIV “sinned” = chata. This is properly to miss, and so figuratively it is used for sinning, bearing the blame. It implies a forfeiture or loss of something.

17 Do forgiveCXV, CXVI my sinCXVII justCXVIII this once,CXIX

Notes on verse 17a

CXV “forgive” = nasa. Same as “brought” in v13. See note CII above.
CXVI {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v11. See note LXXXVI above.
CXVII “sin” = chatta’ah. Related to “sinned” in v16. From chata (see note CXIV above). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.
CXVIII “just” = ak. Related to “indeed” in v10. Related to aken (surely, truly, nevertheless); from kun (see note LXXVI above). This is a positive statement – surely, also, certainly, alone, only.
CXIX “once” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.

and prayCXX to the Lord your God that at the leastCXXI he removeCXXII this deadly thingCXXIII from me.” 

Notes on verse 17b

CXX “pray” = athar. This is to pray or entreat. It could mean burning incense as one does as part of worship or to intercede. It could also mean listening to or being moved by prayer.
CXXI “least” = raq. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit.
CXXII “remove” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CXXIII “deadly thing” = mavet. From muth (to die in a literal or figurative sense). This can be death, deadliness, the dead, or the place where the dead go. It can be used figuratively for pestilence or ruin.

18 So he went out from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord. 19 The Lord changedCXXIV the wind into a veryCXXV strongCXXVI westCXXVII wind,

Notes on verses 18-19a

CXXIV “changed” = haphak. This is to turn, overturn, change, return, turn over, pervert.
CXXV “very” = meod. Same as “dense” in v14. See note CVI above.
CXXVI “strong” = chazaq. From chazaq (to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden). This is strong, hard, powerful, loud, bold, violent, impudent. It is usually strong in a negative sense.
CXXVII “west” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.

which liftedCXXVIII the locusts and droveCXXIX them into the RedCXXX Sea;CXXXI not a singleCXXXII locust was left in all the country of Egypt. 20 But the Lord hardenedCXXXIII Pharaoh’s heart, and he would not let the IsraelitesCXXXIV go.CXXXV

Notes on verses 19b-20

CXXVIII “lifted” = nasa. Same as “brought” in v13. See note CII above.
CXXIX “drove” = taqa. This is to clap, clatter, thrust, sound an instrument, hammer a nail, be a bondsman.
CXXX “Red” = suph. Perhaps from Egyptian twfi (reeds). This is reeds or rushes. It can be used particularly to refer to papyrus, or a flag. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Dictionary/sa/sa-p-pfin.html#.XzHCuChKhPY
CXXXI “Sea” = yam. Same as “west” in v19. See note CXXVII above.
CXXXII “single” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CXXXIII “hardened” = chazaq. Related to “strong” in v19. See note CXXVI above.
CXXXIV “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Ben is the same as “children” in v2. See note XIII above. Yisrael is related to “God” in v3. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note XX above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
CXXXV “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v3. See note XXV above.

21 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heavenCXXXVI so that there may be darknessCXXXVII over the land of Egypt, a darkness that can be felt.”CXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 21

CXXXVI “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
CXXXVII “darkness” = choshek. Related to “was black” in v15. From chashak (see note CVIII above). This is literal darkness is contrast to light. Figuratively, it can be obscurity, sorrow, misery, blindness, wickedness, destruction, death. It can also be hiding places. Additionally, it can mean judgment, mourning, ignorance, evil, or sin.
CXXXVIII “felt” = mashash. 9x in OT. This is to feel or to search around by feeling, to grope. It is often used of people groping about in the dark.

22 So Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and there was denseCXXXIX darkness in all the land of Egypt for threeCXL days. 23 People could not see one another,CXLI and for three days theyCXLII could not moveCXLIII from where they were;

Notes on verses 22-23a

CXXXIX “dense” = aphelah. 10x in OT. From the same as ophel (darkness, gloom, dusk, obscurity); from the same as aphel (gloomy – unused root which refers to the sun setting i.e. dusky, dark). This is darkness, gloominess, calamity, or an adjective to emphasize how thick darkness is. It is also used to mean misfortune or hiding something.
CXL “three” = shalosh. This is three, fork, three times.
CXLI “one another” = ish + et + ach. Literally, “a man his brother.” Ish is the same as “people” in v7. See note LX above. Ach is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
CXLII “they” = ish. Same as “people” in v7. See note LX above.
CXLIII “move” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.

but all the Israelites hadCXLIV lightCXLV where they lived.CXLVI 

Notes on verse 23b

CXLIV “had” = hayah. Same as “came” in v6. See note LIV above.
CXLV “light” = or. From or (to be or become light). This is light, sun, sunshine, dawn, or daylight. Figuratively, it can refer to light from instruction, light of a face (that is to say one that is cheerful or finds favor). It can refer to prosperity or salvation; a light that guides, a light eternal from Zion.
CXLVI “where they lived” = moshab. From yashab (to sit and so to remain and so to dwell; sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly; can mean settling or marrying; continue, endure, or establish). This is dwelling, seat, assembly, settlement, population.

24 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses, and said, “Go,CXLVII worship the Lord. OnlyCXLVIII your flocks and your herds shall remain behind.CXLIX Even your childrenCL may goCLI with you.” 

Notes on verse 24

CXLVII “go” = halak. Same as “go” in v8. See note LXV above.
CXLVIII “only” = raq. Same as “least” in v17. See note CXXI above.
CXLIX “remain behind” = yatsag. 16x in OT. This is to set, establish, present, stay. It can imply putting something somewhere permanently.
CL “children” = taph. Same as “little ones” in v10. See note LXXVII above.
CLI “go” = halak. Same as “go” in v8. See note LXV above.

25 But Moses said, “You must also let us haveCLII sacrificesCLIII and burnt offeringsCLIV to sacrificeCLV to the Lord our God. 

Notes on verse 25

CLII “let…have” = natan + yad. Literally, “give to our hand.” Natan is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively. Yad is “hand” in v12. See note XCI above.
CLIII “sacrifices” = zebach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is a slaughter – literally of an animal. So, it implies the act or the animals used in sacrifice. Further, it can mean offering.
CLIV “burnt offerings” = olah. Related to “come” in v12. From alah (see note XCII above). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole things is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.
CLV “sacrifice” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.

26 Our livestockCLVI also must goCLVII with us; not a hoofCLVIII shall be left behind, for we must chooseCLIX some of them for the worship of the Lord our God, and we will not know what to use to worship the Lord until we arriveCLX there.” 

27 But the Lord hardenedCLXI Pharaoh’s heart, and he was unwillingCLXII to let them go.CLXIII 

Notes on verses 26-27

CLVI “livestock” = miqneh. From qanah (to get, acquire, purchase, move to jealousy, buyer, keep cattle). This is something that is bought, which implies property or possession. However, it is generally used of livestock – cattle, flock, herds.
CLVII “go” = halak. Same as “go” in v8. See note LXV above.
CLVIII “hoof” = parash. From paras (to divide, tear, distribute, hoof). This is a hoof or claw as split.
CLIX “choose” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CLX “arrive” = bo. Same as “go” in v1. See note III above.
CLXI “hardened” = chazaq. Same as “hardened” in v20. See note CXXXIII above.
CLXII “was unwilling” = lo + abah. Abah is to breathe after, be willing, obey, accept, be content with, satisfy.
CLXIII “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v3. See note XXV above.

28 Then Pharaoh said to him, “Get awayCLXIV from me! Take careCLXV that you do not see my faceCLXVI again,CLXVII for on the day you see my face you shall die.”CLXVIII 

29 Moses said, “Just asCLXIX you say!CLXX I will never see your face again.”

Notes on verses 28-29

CLXIV “get away” = halak. Same as “go” in v8. See note LXV above.
CLXV “take care” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
CLXVI “face” = paneh. Same as “before” in v3. See note XXIII above.
CLXVII “again” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
CLXVIII “die” = mut. Related to “deadly thing” in v17. See note CXXIII above.
CLXIX “just as” = ken. Same as “indeed” in v10. See note LXXVI above.
CLXX “say” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.

Image credit: “Egiptian grasshopper (Anacridium aegyptium)” by Alvesgaspar, 2007.

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