Exodus 12

Exodus 12


The LordI said to MosesII and AaronIII in the landIV of Egypt:V 

Notes on verse 1

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
III “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
IV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
V “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

This monthVI shall mark for you the beginningVII of months; it shall be the firstVIII month of the yearIX for you. 

Notes on verse 2

VI “month” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.
VII “beginning” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
VIII “first” = rishon. Related to “beginning” in v2. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (see note VII above). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
IX “year” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.

TellX the wholeXI congregationXII of IsraelXIII that on the tenthXIV of this month

Notes on verse 3a

X “tell” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
XI “whole” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XII “congregation” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
XIII “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XIV “tenth” = asor. 16x in OT. From the same as eser (teen or -teen). This is ten or tenth. It can also be a ten-stringed instrument like the lute.

they are to takeXV a lambXVI for eachXVII family,XVIII a lamb for each household.XIX 

Notes on verse 3b

XV “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XVI “lamb” = seh. Perhaps from sha’ah (to make a loud noise or crash, devastate, rush). This is a lamb, sheep, or goat – a part of a flock.
XVII “each” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XVIII “family” = bayit + ab. Literally, “according to the house of his father.” Bayit is probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple. Ab is This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XIX “household” = bayit. Same as “family” in v3. See note XVIII above.

If a household is too smallXX for a whole lamb, it shall joinXXI its closestXXII neighborXXIII, XXIV in obtaining one;

Notes on verse 4a

XX “is too small” = maathayah. Maat is diminished, decreased, reduced, insignificant. It is a broad sense of being small or becoming small. Figuratively, this can mean ineffective. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
XXI “join” = laqach. Same as “take” in v3. See note XV above.
XXII “closest” = qarob. From qarab (to come near, offer, make ready). This is near whether nearby, related, near in time, or allied.
XXIII “neighbor” = shaken. From shakan (to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently; to abide or continue). This is resident or neighbor. It is related to mishkan, the Hebrew word for “tabernacle.”
XXIV {untranslated} = bayit. Same as “family” in v3. See note XVIII above.

the lamb shall be dividedXXV in proportionXXVI to the numberXXVII of peopleXXVIII who eatXXIX of it. 

Notes on verse 4b

XXV “divided” = kasas. Related to “number” in v4. See note XXVII below.
XXVI “proportion” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
XXVII “number” = miksah. 2x in OT. From mekes (tzx, computation); from kasas (to estimate, divide, calculate). This is a number or valuation.
XXVIII “people” = nephesh + ish. Nephesh is related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires. Ish is the same as “each” in v3. See note XVII above.
XXIX “eat” = okel. From akal (to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume; eating in a literal or figurative sense). This is food, supply of provisions, the act of eating, or the time when one eats.

Your lamb shall beXXX without blemish,XXXI a year-oldXXXII male;XXXIII you may take it from the sheepXXXIV or from the goats.XXXV 

Notes on verse 5

XXX “be” = hayah. Same as “is too small” in v4. See note XX above.
XXXI “without blemish” = tamim. From tamam (to finish or accomplish; to make perfect, demonstrate that you are upright; consume; to complete in a literal or figurative sense). This is entire in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be complete, full, intact, or without defect. Alternately, it could refer to being sound, having integrity, being sincere or perfect.
XXXII “old” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIII “male” = zakar. From zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention). This is male. Properly, perhaps, it means one who is remembered, which is to say a male.
XXXIV “sheep” = kebes. Root may mean to dominate. This is a young male sheep – having just reached the age where it can butt other sheep.
XXXV “goats” = ez. Perhaps from azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is a female goat, but can refer to male goats when plural.

6 You shall keepXXXVI it until the fourteenthXXXVII dayXXXVIII of this month; then the whole assembledXXXIX congregation of Israel shall slaughterXL it atXLI twilight.XLII 

Notes on verse 6

XXXVI “shall keep” = hayah + mishmeret. Hayah is the same as “too small” in v4. See note XX above. Mishmeret is from mishmar (jail, guard, watch, guard post); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is a guard or watch or guard post. It is used figuratively for obligation, duty, or observance, including religious observance.
XXXVII “fourteenth” = arba + asar. Arba is from raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is four. Asar is related to “tenth” in v3. From the same as eser (see note XIV above). This is ten, teen, or teenth.
XXXVIII “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XXXIX “assembled” = qahal. From qahal (assembly, congregation, multitude). This is to gather, convene, assemble like a congregation.
XL “slaughter” = shachat. This is to slaughter, slay, or beat. It can be slaying for a sacrifice or in a massacre.
XLI “at” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
XLII “twilight” = ereb. This is night or dusk.

7 They shall take some of the bloodXLIII and putXLIV it on the twoXLV doorpostsXLVI and the lintelXLVII of the housesXLVIII in which they eatXLIX it. 

Notes on verse 7

XLIII “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
XLIV “put” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XLV “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
XLVI “doorposts” = mezuzah. 19x in OT. From the same as ziz (moving things like animals, abundance). This is a door or gate post. In modern Judaism, a mezuzah adorns the doorpost of many Jewish homes in reference to Deuteronomy 6:9. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mezuzah
XLVII “lintel” = mashqoph. 3x in OT – all in Exodus 12. From the same as sheqeph (frame, window, framework); from shaqaph (to look down or look out; properly, looking by leaning out a window; peeping or gazing). This is a lintel.
XLVIII “houses” = bayit. Same as “family” in v3. See note XVIII above.
XLIX “eat” = akal. Related to “who eat” in v4. See note XXIX above.

8 They shall eat the lambL that same night;LI they shall eat it roasted over the fireLII with unleavened breadLIII and bitter herbs.LIV 

Notes on verse 8

L “lamb” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
LI “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
LII “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
LIII “unleavened bread” = matstsah. From matsats (to drain out). This is unleavened bread – bread that is sweet rather than becoming sour with the flavor of yeast. Can also be used to refer to the festival of Passover, the staple food of which is commonly transliterate matzoh from this word.
LIV “bitter herbs” = maror. 3x in OT. From marar (to be bitter, enraged, weep, grieve; properly, to trickle; to become bitter in a literal or figurative sense); from marar (to be bitter, embittered, weep, troubled); from mar (bitterness literal or figurative). This is bitterness or a bitter thing. It is where Mara (Naomi’s new name) and Miriam and Mary come from.

9 Do not eat any of it rawLV or boiledLVI in water,LVII but roasted over the fire, with its head,LVIII legs,LIX and inner organs.LX 

Notes on verse 9

LV “raw” = na. 1x in OT. Perhaps from nu (to hinder, discourage, refuse, break, or disallow). This is tough or raw meat.
LVI “boiled” = bashel + bashal. Bashel is 2x in OT. From bashal (to boil up, roast, or bake; ripen, produce, or seethe). This is cooked or boiled. Bashal is the same as the previous root. See above.
LVII “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
LVIII “head” = rosh. Same as “beginning” in v2. See note VII above.
LIX “legs” = kera. 9x in OT. From kara (to bow, crouch, kneel down, subdue; to bend the knee in many senses). This is the leg, but only from the knee down to the ankle. It is used in the OT of people and of locusts.
LX “inner organs” = qereb. Related to “closest” in v4. Perhaps from qarab (see note XXII above). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.

10 You shall let none of it remainLXI until the morning;LXII anything that remains until the morning you shallLXIII burn.LXIV 

Notes on verse 10

LXI “let…remain” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.
LXII “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
LXIII {untranslated} = esh. Same as “fire” in v8. See note LII above.
LXIV “burn” = saraph. This is to burn or kindle. This is the root that “seraphim” comes from.

11 This is how you shall eat it: your loinsLXV girded,LXVI your sandalsLXVII on your feet,LXVIII

Notes on verse 11a

LXV “loins” = mothen. This is the waist, slender, or small of back. It can also refer to the loins when in plural.
LXVI “girded” = chagar. This is to gird, bind, or arm. Generally, it is using a belt to gather up one’s garment so that it’s easier to run or move quickly.
LXVII “sandals” = naal. From naal (properly to secure with a bar or cord; to lock, bolt, enclose; to secure with a cord i.e. to put on a sandal). This is the tongue of a sandal and, by extension, a sandal or shoe itself. Figuratively, this can refer to occupancy, unwillingness to marry, or something without value.
LXVIII “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.

and your staffLXIX in your hand;LXX and you shall eat it hurriedly.LXXI It is the passoverLXXII of the Lord. 

Notes on verse 11b

LXIX “staff” = maqqel. 18x in OT. This is a shoot with leaves growing from it or a staff. It could be a walking stick, a stick for guiding (e.g. sheep), a stick for striking like a war club, or a divining rod.
LXX “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LXXI “hurriedly” = chippazon. 3x in OT. From chaphaz (hurry or alarm; something that begins with a start so it can mean to hurry away or to panic, tremble, fear). This is haste or fear.
LXXII “Passover” = pesach. From pasach (to stop, pass over, skip over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. It means exemption.

12 For I will passLXXIII through the land of Egypt that night, and I will strikeLXXIV down everyLXXV firstbornLXXVI in the land of Egypt,

Notes on verse 12a

LXXIII “pass” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
LXXIV “strike” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
LXXV “every” = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XI above.
LXXVI “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.

both human beingsLXXVII and animals;LXXVIII on allLXXIX the godsLXXX of Egypt I will executeLXXXI judgments:LXXXII I am the Lord. 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXVII “human beings” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
LXXVIII “animals” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
LXXIX “all” = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XI above.
LXXX “gods” = elohim. From eloah (God, a god); from el (God, a god). This is most commonly used as a name for God. Technically, it’s in the plural, i.e. gods. It can also mean great, mighty, judge, or ruler.
LXXXI “execute” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LXXXII “judgments” = shephet. 16x in OT. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a judgment or a sentence.

13 The blood shall be a signLXXXIII for you on the houses where you live:LXXXIV when I seeLXXXV the blood, I will passLXXXVI over you, andLXXXVII no plagueLXXXVIII shall destroyLXXXIX you when I strike the land of Egypt.

Notes on verse 13

LXXXIII “sign” = oth. From avah (to mark, sign, point out); OR from uth (to agree). This is a sign in a literal or figurative sense. It could be a flag or monument. It could be evidence or a mark. It could also be an omen or a miracle. 
LXXXIV “live” = sham. This is there.
LXXXV “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
LXXXVI “pass” = pasach. Related to “Passover” in v11. 8x in OT. See note LXXII above.
LXXXVII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “is too small” in v4. See note XX above.
LXXXVIII “plague” = negeph. 7x in OT. From nagaph (to strike, beat, hurt, stumble, defeat, inflict disease). This is stumbling or any kind of blow. Figuratively, it can also refer to a disease or plague.
LXXXIX “destroy” = mashchith. 11x in OT. From shachath (to go to ruin, perish, decay, batter, cast off, lose, one who destroys; in a literal or figurative sense). This is ruin, corruption, a snare, destruction.

14 This day shall be a day of remembranceXC for you. You shall celebrateXCI it as a festivalXCII to the Lord;

Notes on verse 14a

XC “remembrance” = zikkaron. Related to “male” in v5. From zakar (see note XXXIII above). This is a remembrance, sign, or record.
XCI “celebrate” = chagag. 16x in OT. This is feast, celebrating a festival, making a pilgrimage. Properly, it means going in a circle or marching in sacred procession. It implies giddiness and dancing. It can also mean reeling to and fro.
XCII “festival” = chag. Related to “celebrate” in v14. From chagag (see note XCI above). This is a feast, a sacrifice as part of a festival, or the gathering of the festival.

throughout your generationsXCIII you shall observeXCIV it as a perpetualXCV ordinance.XCVI 

Notes on verse 14b

XCIII “generations” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.
XCIV “observe” = chagag. Same as “celebrate” in v14. See note XCI above.
XCV “perpetual” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
XCVI “ordinance” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.

15 SevenXCVII days you shall eat unleavened bread; on the first day you shall removeXCVIII leavenXCIX from your houses, for whoeverC eats leavened breadCI from the first day until the seventhCII day shall be cut offCIII from Israel. 

Notes on verse 15

XCVII “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
XCVIII “remove” = shabath. This is to rest, stop, repose, cease working. It implies to celebrate (as celebrating the Sabbath).
XCIX “leaven” = seor. 5x in OT. Perhaps from sha’ar (properly, swelling up i.e. being left over; a remnant, remaining, being redundant). This is leaven or barm.
C “whoever” = nephesh. Same as “people” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
CI “leavened bread” = chamets. 13x in OT. From chamets (be or taste sour, fermented, harsh; dyed or of a dazzling color; cruelty). This is leaven or something leavened. It can refer to bread or extortion.
CII “seventh” = shebii. Related to “seven” in v15. From sheba (see note XCVII above). This is seventh.
CIII “cut off” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.

16 On the first day you shall hold a solemnCIV assembly,CV and on the seventh day a solemn assembly; noCVI workCVII shall be doneCVIII on those days; only what everyoneCIX must eat, that aloneCX may be preparedCXI by you. 

Notes on verse 16

CIV “solemn” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.
CV “assembly” = miqra. From qara (to call or call out – to call someone by name; calling forth). This is a convocation, assembly, public meeting. It can refer to the place where the meeting is happening or the people meeting.
CVI {untranslated} = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XI above.
CVII “work” = melakah. From the same as malak (messenger, an angel, or a deputy; human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God; also supernatural messengers i.e. angels). Properly, this is a deputyship or some kind of work. It can also be the product that comes from labor.
CVIII “done” = asah. Same as “execute” in v12. See note LXXXI above.
CIX “everyone” = kol + nephesh. Kol is the same as “whole” in v3. See note XI above. Nephesh is the same as “people” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
CX “alone” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
CXI “prepared” = asah. Same as “execute” in v12. See note LXXXI above.

17 You shall observeCXII the festival of unleavened bread, for on this veryCXIII day I broughtCXIV your companiesCXV out of the land of Egypt: you shall observeCXVI this day throughout your generations as a perpetual ordinance. 18 In the first month, from the eveningCXVII of the fourteenth day until the evening of the twentyCXVIII-firstCXIX day, you shall eat unleavened bread. 

Notes on verses 17-18

CXII “observe” = shamar. Related to “keep” in v6. See note XXXVI above.
CXIII “very” = etsem. From atsam (vast, numerous, strong; to close one’s eyes, to make powerful; to break bones). This is self, life, strength, bone, or substance.
CXIV “brought” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CXV “companies” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
CXVI “observe” = shamar. Same as “observe” in v17. See note CXII above.
CXVII “evening” = ereb. Same as “twilight” in v6. See note XLII above.
CXVIII “twenty” = esrim. Related to “tenth” in v3 & “fourteenth” in v6. From the same as eser (see note XIV above). This is twenty or twentieth.
CXIX “first” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.

19 For seven days no leaven shall be foundCXX in your houses; for whoeverCXXI eats what is leavened shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether an alienCXXII or a nativeCXXIII of the land. 20 You shall eat nothing leavened; in all your settlementsCXXIV you shall eat unleavened bread.

Notes on verses 19-20

CXX “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
CXXI “whoever” = kolnephesh. Kol is the same as “whole” in v3. See note XI above. Nephesh is the same as “people” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
CXXII “alien” = ger. From gur (to abide or sojourn; to leave the road to lodge or for any other reason). This is sojourner, guest, stranger, foreigner.
CXXIII “native” = ezrach. 17x in OT. From zarach (to rise, shine, or dawn; can also describe symptoms of leprosy). This is native or native-born. It can also refer to spontaneous growth, a bay tree.
CXXIV “settlements” = moshab. From yashab (to sit and so to remain and so to dwell; sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly; can mean settling or marrying; continue, endure, or establish). This is dwelling, seat, assembly, settlement, population.

21 Then Moses calledCXXV all the eldersCXXVI of Israel and said to them, “Go,CXXVII selectCXXVIII lambsCXXIX for your families,CXXX and slaughter the passover lamb.CXXXI 

Notes on verse 21

CXXV “called” = qara. Related to “assembly” in v16. See note CV above.
CXXVI “elders” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
CXXVII “go” = mashak. This is to draw, drag, or pull. It can mean sow, march, remove, draw along, continue, extend, or prolong.
CXXVIII “select” = laqach. Same as “take” in v3. See note XV above.
CXXIX “lambs” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
CXXX “families” = mishpachah. From the same as shiphcah (maid, maidservant); root means to spread out. This is one’s circle of relatives – clan, family, kindred.
CXXXI “Passover lamb” = pesach. Same as “Passover” in v11. See note LXXII above.

22 Take a bunchCXXXII of hyssop, dipCXXXIII it in the blood that is in the basin,CXXXIV and touchCXXXV the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood in the basin. NoneCXXXVI of you shall go outsideCXXXVII the doorCXXXVIII of your house until morning. 

Notes on verse 22

CXXXII “bunch” = aguddah. 4x in OT. This may come from a word that means to bind. It is a bunch, band, thong, vault, knot, or arch.
CXXXIII “dip” = tabal. 16x in OT. This is to dip or immerse. It is used to describe religious rites, as part of murderous schemes (e.g. Joseph’s brothers dipping his coat in goat’s blood), for everyday purposes, and also of miracles (e.g. Naaman immersing himself in the Jordan).
CXXXIV “basin” = saph. From saphaph (to guard at the door; snatch from, bring an end to). This is some kind of dish like a basin, cup, or bowl. It can also be the threshold (as of a door).
CXXXV “touch” = naga. This is touch, reach, arrive, come near, strike. This is touching for any reason including sexual or violent.
CXXXVI {untranslated} = ish. Same as “each” in v3. See note XVII above.
CXXXVII “go outside” = yatsa. Same as “brought” in v17. See note CXIV above.
CXXXVIII “door” = petach. From patach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense, loosen, plow, carve). This is opening, door, gate, entrance.

23 For the Lord will passCXXXIX through to strike downCXL the Egyptians;CXLI when he sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the Lord will passCXLII over that door and will not allowCXLIII the destroyerCXLIV to enterCXLV your houses to strike you down.CXLVI 

Notes on verse 23

CXXXIX “pass” = abar. Same as “pass” in v12. See note LXXIII above.
CXL “strike down” = nagaph. This is to strike, beat, hurt, stumble, defeat, inflict disease.
CXLI “Egyptians” = Mitsri. Related to “Egypt” in v1. From the same as Mitsrayim (see note V above). This is Egyptian.
CXLII “pass” = pasach. Same as “pass” in v13. See note LXXXVI above.
CXLIII “allow” = natan. Same as “put” in v7. See note XLIV above.
CXLIV “destroyer” = shachat. Related to “destroy” in v13. See note XL above.
CXLV “enter” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
CXLVI “strike…down” = nagaph. Same as “strike down” in v23. See note CXL above.

24 You shall observe this riteCXLVII as a perpetual ordinanceCXLVIII for you and your children.CXLIX 25 CLWhen you comeCLI to the land that the Lord will giveCLII you, as he has promised,CLIII you shall keepCLIV this observance.CLV 

Notes on verses 24-25

CXLVII “rite” = dabar. Related to “tell” in v3. From dabar (see note X above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
CXLVIII “ordinance” = choq. Related to “ordinance” in v14. See note XCVI above.
CXLIX “children” = ben. Same as “old” in v5. See note XXXII above.
CL {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XX above.
CLI “come” = bo. Same as “enter” in v23. See note CXLV above.
CLII “give” = natan. Same as “put” in v7. See note XLIV above.
CLIII “promised” = dabar. Same as “tell” in v3. See note X above.
CLIV “keep” = shamar. Same as “observe” in v17. See note CXII above.
CLV “observance” = abodah. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is labor, service, bondage, job, servitude, worker. It can refer to any kind of work.

26 AndCLVI when your children ask you, ‘What do you mean by this observance?’ 27 you shall say, ‘It is the passover sacrificeCLVII to the Lord, for he passedCLVIII over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when he struck downCLIX the Egyptians but sparedCLX our houses.’”

And the peopleCLXI bowed downCLXII and worshiped.CLXIII

Notes on verses 26-27

CLVI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XX above.
CLVII “sacrifice” = zebach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is a slaughter – literally of an animal. So, it implies the act or the animals used in sacrifice. Further, it can mean offering.
CLVIII “passed” = pasach. Same as “pass” in v13. See note LXXXVI above.
CLIX “struck down” = nagaph. Same as “strike down” in v23. See note CXL above.
CLX “spared” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.
CLXI “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
CLXII “bowed down” = qadad. 15x in OT. Properly, this means to shrivel up. So it is used for bowing one’s head, bowing down, or stooping. It can be used to show deference.
CLXIII “worshiped” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.

28 The Israelites wentCLXIV and didCLXV just as the Lord had commandedCLXVI Moses and Aaron.CLXVII

29 CLXVIIIAt midnightCLXIX the Lord struck downCLXX all the firstborn in the land of Egypt,

Notes on verses 28-29a

CLXIV “went” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
CLXV “did” = asah. Same as “execute” in v12. See note LXXXI above.
CLXVI “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
CLXVII Some manuscripts add “so they did” = ken + asah. Ken is perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so. Asah is the same as “execute” in v12. See note LXXXI above.
CLXVIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XX above.
CLXIX “midnight” = chatsi + layil. Chatsi is. Layil is the same as “night” in v8. See note LI above.
CLXX “struck down” = nakah. Same as “strike” in v12. See note LXXIV above.

from the firstborn of PharaohCLXXI who satCLXXII on his throneCLXXIII to the firstborn of the prisonerCLXXIV who was in the dungeon,CLXXV and all the firstborn of the livestock.CLXXVI 

Notes on verse 29b

CLXXI “Pharaoh” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pharaoh
CLXXII “sat” = yashab. Related to “settlements” in v20. See note CXXIV above.
CLXXIII “throne” = kisse. From the same as kese (full moon); perhaps from kasah (to cover, conceal, overwhelm; to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret). This is throne – a seat that is covered or has a canopy. Thus, it is a seat that conveys authority.
CLXXIV “prisoner” = shbiy. From shebo (valuable stone, maybe agate) OR from shabah (to take captive, keep, a captor). This is prisoner, exiled, captivity, booty.
CLXXV “dungeon” = bayit + bor. Bayit s the same as “family” in v3. See note XVIII above. Bor is from bur (to bore; figuratively, to explain, examine, or clear up). This is a pit – generally a cistern or dungeon. It could also be a well or fountain.
CLXXVI “livestock” = behemah. Same as “animals” in v12. See note LXXVIII above.

30 Pharaoh aroseCLXXVII in the night, he and all his officialsCLXXVIII and all the Egyptians; and there was a loudCLXXIX cryCLXXX in Egypt, for there was not a house without someone dead.CLXXXI 

Notes on verse 30

CLXXVII “arose” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
CLXXVIII “officials” = ebed. Related to “observance” in v25. From abad (see note CLV above). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
CLXXIX “loud” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
CLXXX “cry” = tseaqah. From tsaaq (to cry out or call together, to shriek; by implication, calling for an assembly). This is a cry for help, shriek or outcry.
CLXXXI “dead” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

31 Then he summonedCLXXXII Moses and Aaron in the night, and said, “Rise up,CLXXXIII go awayCLXXXIV fromCLXXXV my people, both you and the Israelites! Go, worshipCLXXXVI the Lord, as you said.CLXXXVII 32 Take your flocksCLXXXVIII and your herds,CLXXXIX as you said, and be gone. And bring a blessingCXC on me too!”

Notes on verses 31-32

CLXXXII “summoned” = qara. Same as “called” in v21. See note CXXV above.
CLXXXIII “rise up” = qum. Same as “arose” in v30. See note CLXXVII above.
CLXXXIV “go away” = yatsa. Same as “brought” in v17. See note CXIV above.
CLXXXV “from” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
CLXXXVI “worship” = abad. Related to “observance” in v25 & “officials” in v30. See note CLV above.
CLXXXVII “said” = dabar. Same as “tell” in v3. See note X above.
CLXXXVIII “flocks” = tson. Same as “lambs” in v21. See note CXXIX above.
CLXXXIX “herds” = baqar. Related to “morning” in v10. From baqar (see note LXII above). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
CXC “bring a blessing” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.

33 The Egyptians urgedCXCI the people to hastenCXCII their departureCXCIII from the land, for they said, “We shall all be dead.” 

34 So the people tookCXCIV their doughCXCV before it was leavened,CXCVI

Notes on verses 33-34a

CXCI “urged” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
CXCII “hasten” = mahar. This is being liquid, which implies flowing. So, this word implies hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense.
CXCIII “departure” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
CXCIV “took” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
CXCV “dough” = batseq. 5x in OT. Perhaps from batseq (to swell, blister). This is dough or flour.
CXCVI “was leavened” = chamets. Related to “leavened bread” in v15. 6x in OT. This is to be or taste sour, fermented, harsh. It can also mean dyed or of a dazzling color. It can also refer to cruelty.

with their kneading bowlsCXCVII wrapped upCXCVIII in their cloaksCXCIX on their shoulders.CC 35 The Israelites had done as Moses told them; they had askedCCI the Egyptians for jewelryCCII of silverCCIII

Notes on verses 34b-35a

CXCVII “kneading bowls” = mishereth. Related to “leaven” in v15. 4x in OT. Perhaps from sha’ar (see note XCIX above). This is a place to knead or to let dough rise.
CXCVIII “wrapped up” = tsarar. This is to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary.
CXCIX “cloaks” = simlah. Perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is mantle, clothes, wrapper.
CC “shoulders” = shekem. Perhaps from shakam (to rise early, begin work early; properly, this is leaning one’s shoulder or back into a load or a burden; also, loading an animal for work). This is shoulder, neck, or some other place that bears burdens. Figuratively, it can refer to the spur of a hill, or one’s allotted portion.
CCI “asked” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
CCII “jewelry” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
CCIII “silver” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.

andCCIV gold,CCV and for clothing,CCVI 36 and the Lord had given the people favorCCVII in the sightCCVIII of the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. And so they plunderedCCIX the Egyptians.

Notes on verses 35b-36

CCIV {untranslated} = keli. Same as “jewelry” in v35. See note CCII above.
CCV “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.
CCVI “clothing” = simlah. Same as “cloaks” in v34. See note CXCIX above.
CCVII “favor” = chen. From chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is grace, favor, kindness, beauty, precious.
CCVIII “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CCIX “plundered” = natsal. Same as “spared” in v27. See note CLX above.

37 The Israelites journeyedCCX from RamesesCCXI to Succoth,CCXII about sixCCXIII hundredCCXIV thousandCCXV

Notes on verse 37a

CCX “journeyed” = nasa. This is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.
CCXI “Rameses” = Rameses. 5x in OT. From Egyptian r’ (Ra) + msj (“to give birth to”) + sw (him). This is a city name in Egypt, which literally means, “Ra is the one who bore him.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%EA%9C%A5-ms-sw#Egyptian
CCXII “Succoth” = Sukkoth. 18x in OT. From sukkah (booth, canopy, shelter, tent, or tabernacle); from sok (lair, thicket, den, or hiding place; a den or pavilion as made of intertwined boughs); from sakak (to interweave, knit). This is Succoth, perhaps meaning “booths” or “weavings.” It is related to the Jewish holiday “Sukkoth,” the Festival of Booths. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Succoth.html
CCXIII “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
CCXIV “hundred” = meah. This is hundred or some number times one hundred (i.e. hundredfold or the base of two hundred, three hundred, etc.).
CCXV “thousand” = eleph. Perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.

menCCXVI on foot,CCXVII besidesCCXVIII children.CCXIX 

Notes on verse 37b

CCXVI “men” = geber. From gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or to be insolent) This is man, warrior, a person generally, or a valiant person.
CCXVII “foot” = ragli. 12x in OT. From the same as regel (foot, endurance, or journey; a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey; can euphemistically mean private parts). This is on foot or a soldier (as one who goes on foot).
CCXVIII “besides” = bad. Same as “alone” in v16. See note CX above.
CCXIX “children” = taph. From taphaph (walking along with small, tripping steps like children do). This is little ones, children, families.

38 A mixedCCXX crowdCCXXI also went upCCXXII with them, and livestockCCXXIII in great numbers,CCXXIV both flocks and herds. 

Notes on verse 38

CCXX “mixed” = ereb. 15x in OT. From arab (to exchange, give or take on pledge, braid, intermix). This is mixture, mixed group of people, Arabia. It can also refer to the woof (as in warp and woof of fabric).
CCXXI “crowd” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
CCXXII “went up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXIII “livestock” = miqneh. From qanah (to get, acquire, purchase, move to jealousy, buyer, keep cattle). This is something that is bought, which implies property or possession. However, it is generally used of livestock – cattle, flock, herds.
CCXXIV “great numbers” = kabed + meod. Kabed is from kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is heavy, grievous, sore. It can also be weighty in the sense of gravitas. The word for “glory” in Hebrew comes from this root (kabod). Meod is perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.

39 They bakedCCXXV unleavened cakesCCXXVI of the dough that they had brought out of Egypt; it was not leavened, because they were driven outCCXXVII of Egypt and couldCCXXVIII not wait,CCXXIX nor had they prepared any provisionsCCXXX for themselves. 40 The timeCCXXXI that the Israelites had livedCCXXXII in Egypt was fourCCXXXIII hundred thirtyCCXXXIV years. 

Notes on verses 39-40

CCXXV “baked” = aphah. This is one who cooks or bakes – particularly one who cooks meat. It is also to cook or bake.
CCXXVI “cakes” = uggah. 7x in OT. Perhaps from ug (to gyrate, bake; baking a round cake). This is a bread cake that is round, cooked on the hearth.
CCXXVII “driven out” = garash. This is to cast out or expel. It can be to exile someone or to divorce them.
CCXXVIII “could” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
CCXXIX “wait” = mahah. 9x in OT. Perhaps from mah (what, how long). This is to delay, question, linger, be reluctant.
CCXXX “provisions” = tsedah. 11x in OT. From the same as tsayid (food or provision). This is food, meat, or other provisions.
CCXXXI “time” = moshab. Same as “settlements” in v20. See note CXXIV above.
CCXXXII “lived” = yashab. Same as “sat” in v29. See note CLXXII above.
CCXXXIII “four” = arba. Same as “fourteenth” in v6. See note XXXVII above.
CCXXXIV “thirty” = sheloshim. From the same as shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is thirty or thirtieth.

41 CCXXXVAt the endCCXXXVI of four hundred thirty years,CCXXXVII on that very day, all the companies of the Lord went outCCXXXVIII from the land of Egypt. 42 That was for the Lord a night of vigil,CCXXXIX to bring them out of the land of Egypt. That same night is a vigil to be kept for the Lord by all the Israelites throughout their generations.

Notes on verses 41-42

CCXXXV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “is too small” in v4. See note XX above.
CCXXXVI “end” = qets. From qatsats (to cut or chop off in a literal or figurative sense). This is outer border, end, or extremity. It can also mean infinite.
CCXXXVII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “is too small” in v4. See note XX above.
CCXXXVIII “went out” = yatsa. Same as “brought” in v17. See note CXIV above.
CCXXXIX “vigil” = shimmur. Related to “keep” in v6 & “observe” in v17. 2x in OT – both in this verse. From shamar (see note above). This is a watching or vigil.

43 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron: This is the ordinance for the passover: no foreignerCCXL shall eat of it, 44 but anyCCXLI slaveCCXLII who has been purchasedCCXLIII may eat of it after he has been circumcised;CCXLIV 

Notes on verses 43-44

CCXL “foreigner” = kol + ben + nekar. Kol is the same as “whole” in v3. See note XI above. Ben is the same as “old” in v5. See note XXXII above. Nekar is from the same as neker (misfortune, disaster). This is foreign or something that is foreign i.e. strange.
CCXLI “any” = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XI above.
CCXLII “slave” = ebed + ish. Ebed is the same as “officials” in v30. See note CLXXVIII above. Ish is the same as “each” in v3. See note XVII above.
CCXLIII “purchased” = miqnah + keseph. Miqnah is related to “livestock” in v38. 15x in OT. From qanah (see note CCXXIII above). This is buying so it could be the process of buying something, the thing bought (land or object or livestock), or the price of the thing. Keseph is the same as “silver” in v35. See note CCIII above.
CCXLIV “circumcised” = mul. This is to cut off, cut in pieces, or destroy. It is used for to circumcise. It can also mean to blunt.

45 no boundCCXLV or hired servantCCXLVI may eat of it. 46 It shall be eaten in oneCCXLVII house; you shall not takeCCXLVIII any of the animalCCXLIX outsideCCL the house, and you shall not breakCCLI any of its bones.CCLII 

Notes on verses 45-46

CCXLV “bound” = toshab. Related to “settlements” in v20 & “sat” in v29. 14x in OT. From yashab (see note CXXIV above). This is sojourner, settler, tenant. Someone who lives in a foreign land – not native born.
CCXLVI “hired servant” = sakir. 17x in OT. From sakar (to hire, earn). This is someone who earns a wage, a laborer. It could be one a day by day basis or for a longer term.
CCXLVII “one” = echad. Same as “first” in v18. See note CXIX above.
CCXLVIII “take” = yatsa. Same as “brought” in v17. See note CXIV above.
CCXLIX “animal” = basar. Same as “lamb” in v8. See note L above.
CCL “outside” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.
CCLI “break” = shabar. This is break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear. It is bursting in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLII “bones” = etsem. Same as “very” in v17. See note CXIII above.

47 The whole congregation of Israel shall celebrateCCLIII it. 48 If an alien who residesCCLIV with you wants to celebrate the passover to the Lord, all his males shall be circumcised; then he may draw nearCCLV to celebrate it; he shall be regardedCCLVI as a native of the land. But noCCLVII uncircumcised person shallCCLVIII eat of it; 

Notes on verses 47-48

CCLIII “celebrate” = asah. Same as “execute” in v12. See note LXXXI above.
CCLIV “resides” = gur. Related to “alien” in v19. See note CXXII above.
CCLV “draw near” = qarab. Related to “closest” in v4 & “inner organs” in v9. See note XXII above.
CCLVI “be regarded” = hayah. Same as “is too small” in v4. See note XX above.
CCLVII {untranslated} = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XI above.
CCLVIII “uncircumcised person” = arel. From arel (to strip or expose, restrain; to remove in a literal or figurative sense). This is uncircumcised, unskilled, exposed, forbidden.

49 there shall be one lawCCLIX for the native and for the alien who resides amongCCLX you. 50 All the Israelites did just as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron.CCLXI 51 CCLXIIThat very day the Lord brought the Israelites out of the land of Egypt, company by company.

Notes on verses 49-51

CCLIX “law” = torah. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach). This is law, instruction, teaching, or statute. It can also refer to the first five books of the Bible – the Torah.
CCLX “among” = tavek. Same as “from” in v31. See note CLXXXV above.
CCLXI Some manuscripts add “so they did” = ken + asah. See note CLXVII above.
CCLXII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “is too small” in v4. See note XX above.

Image credit: “Lamentations over the Death of the First-Born of Egypt,” by Charles Sprague Pearce, 1877.

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