Exodus 2:23-25 & 3:1-15 & 4:10-17

Exodus 2:23-25 & 3:1-15 & 4:10-17
Narrative Lectionary


2:23 IAfter a longII timeIII the kingIV of EgyptV died.VI

Notes on verse 2:23a

I {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
II “long” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
III “time” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
IV “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
V “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
VI “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

The IsraelitesVII groanedVIII under their slavery,IX and cried out.X

Notes on verse 2:23b

VII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
VIII “groaned” = anach. 12x in OT. This is sighing, groaning, or moaning. It can be as a sign of grief, physical distress, or it could refer to sounds that cattle make.
IX “slavery” = abodah. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is labor, service, bondage, job, servitude, worker. It can refer to any kind of work.
X “cried out” = zaaq. This is to cry or call out. It can be a call to assemble or gather together. By analogy, this could refer to a herald who announces a public gathering. It could also be a shriek from pain or danger.

Out of the slavery their cry for helpXI rose upXII to God.XIII 

Notes on verse 2:23c

XI “cry for help” = shavah. 11x in OT. From shava (crying or shouting aloud; seeking freedom from some kind of trouble). This is cry, cry for help.
XII “rose up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XIII “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v2:23. See note VII above.

24 God heardXIV their groaning,XV and God rememberedXVI his covenantXVII

Notes on verse 2:24a

XIV “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XV “groaning” = neaqah. 4x in OT. From naaq (to groan). This is groaning.
XVI “remembered” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
XVII “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from bara (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.

with Abraham,XVIII Isaac,XIX and Jacob.XX 25 God lookedXXI upon the Israelites, and God took noticeXXII of them.

Notes on verses 2:24b-25

XVIII “Abraham” = Abraham. From the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
XIX “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
XX “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
XXI “looked” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XXII “took notice” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.

3:1 MosesXXIII wasXXIV keepingXXV the flockXXVI

Notes on verse 3:1a

XXIII “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XXIV “was” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v2:23. See note I above.
XXV “keeping” = ra’ah. This is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher.
XXVI “flock” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.

of his father-in-lawXXVII Jethro,XXVIII the priestXXIX of Midian;XXX

Notes on verse 3:1b

XXVII “father-in-law” = chathan. Perhaps from chathan (bridegroom, son-in-law; someone who is related through marriage; figuratively can be a child who is circumcised). This is to intermarry, make an alliance through marriage, father-in-law, son-in-law, give one’s daughter in marriage.
XXVIII “Jethro” = Yithro. 10x in OT. From yether (a remainder or excess; abundant, superiority; a cord a free-hanging rope); from yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel). This is Jethro, or Yithro, meaning excellent or remnant.
XXIX “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
XXX “Midian” = Midyan. From the same as madon (strife, contention, brawling); from din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, strive). This is Midian or a Midianite. It means strife or place of judgment.

he ledXXXI his flock beyond the wilderness,XXXII and cameXXXIII to Horeb,XXXIV the mountainXXXV of God. 

Notes on verse 3:1c

XXXI “led” = nahag. This is to drive as in driving flocks, but also driving in animal or vehicle like a chariot. It can mean to carry away, lead, drive away, proceed, or guide. It can also relate to behavior and what one is accustomed to.
XXXII “wilderness” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
XXXIII “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XXXIV “Horeb” = Choreb. 17x in OT. From chareb (to devastate, desolate, or be waste). Horeb means waste or desolate.
XXXV “mountain” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.

2 There the angelXXXVI of the LordXXXVII appearedXXXVIII to him in a flameXXXIX of fireXL out ofXLI a bush;XLII

Notes on verse 3:2a

XXXVI “angel” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
XXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} in v2:23. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note I above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XXXVIII “appeared” = raah. Same as “looked” in v2:25. See note XXI above.
XXXIX “flame” = labbah. 1x in OT. From the same as lehabah (flame, blazing, head of a spear); from lahab (flame, flashing, glittering; properly, to gleam and so it could figuratively be a blade that is polished, flashing or the point on a weapon). This is flame.
XL “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
XLI “out of” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
XLII “bush” = seneh. 6x in OT– all in this story or in reference to this story in Deuteronomy 33:16. This is some kind of thorny bush like a bramble or blackberry bush. It may come from a root that means to prick.

he looked, andXLIII the bush was blazing,XLIV yet itXLV was not consumed.XLVI 

Notes on verse 3:2b

XLIII {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XLIV “blazing” = ba’ar + esh. Ba’ar is to burn, consume, heat, remove. It can also be to consume by a fire or through eating, being brutish or wasting. Esh is the same as “fire” in v3:2. See note XL above.
XLV “it” = seneh. Same as “bush” in v3:2. See note XLII above.
XLVI “consumed” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.

Then Moses said, “I must turn asideXLVII, XLVIII and look at this greatXLIX sight,L and see why the bush is not burned up.”LI 

Notes on verse 3:3

XLVII “turn aside” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
XLVIII {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
XLIX “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
L “sight” = mareh. Related to “looked” in v2:25. From raah (see note XXI above). This is sight, appearance, or vision. It can be a view, seeing itself, that which is seen, something real, or a vision one sees.
LI “burned up” = ba’ar. Same as “blazing” in v3:2. See note XLIV above.

4 When the Lord sawLII that he had turned aside to see, God calledLIII to him out of the bush, “Moses, Moses!”

And he said, “Here I am.”LIV 

Then he said, “Come no closer!LV RemoveLVI the sandalsLVII from your feet,LVIII

Notes on verses 3:4-5a

LII “saw” = raah. Same as “looked” in v2:25. See note XXI above.
LIII “called” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
LIV “here I am” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v3:2. See note XLIII above.
LV “come…closer” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
LVI “remove” = nashal. 7x in OT. To pluck off, clear, remove, eject, or drop.
LVII “sandals” = naal. From naal (properly to secure with a bar or cord; to lock, bolt, enclose; to secure with a cord i.e. to put on a sandal). This is the tongue of a sandal and, by extension, a sandal or shoe itself. Figuratively, this can refer to occupancy, unwillingness to marry, or something without value.
LVIII “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.

for the placeLIX on which you are standingLX is holyLXI ground.” 

Notes on verse 3:5b

LIX “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
LX “standing” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
LXI “holy” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.

He said further, “I am the God of your father,LXII the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” And Moses hidLXIII his face,LXIV for he was afraidLXV to lookLXVI at God.

Notes on verse 3:6

LXII “father” = ab. Related to “Abraham” in v2:24. See note XVIII above.
LXIII “hid” = sathar. This is hide, conceal, or be absent. It is hiding because something is covered – used in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIV “face” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXV “was afraid” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
LXVI “look” = nabat. This is to behold, look at intently, consider, or scan. It can mean to have respect or regard someone favorably.

Then the Lord said, “I have observedLXVII the miseryLXVIII of my peopleLXIX who are in Egypt;

Notes on verse 3:7a

LXVII “observed” = raah + raah. Same as “looked” in v2:25. See note XXI above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
LXVIII “misery” = oniy. From anah (to be bowed down; humility or being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is misery, poverty, or affliction.
LXIX “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

I have heard their cryLXX on account ofLXXI their taskmasters.LXXII Indeed, I knowLXXIII their sufferings,LXXIV 

Notes on verse 3:7b

LXX “cry” = tseaqah. From tsaaq (to cry out or call together, to shriek; by implication, calling for an assembly). This is a cry for help, shriek or outcry.
LXXI “on account of” = paneh. Same as “face” in v3:6. See note LXIV above.
LXXII “taskmasters” = nagas. This is driving an animal, worker, debtor, or an army. By implication, it can mean to tax, harass, distress, oppress, or tyrannize. This word can be used for taskmaster or overseer.
LXXIII “know” = yada. Same as “took notice” in v2:25. See note XXII above.
LXXIV “sufferings” = makob. 16x in OT. From kaab (being in pain, be sad, grieve, spoil, mar). This is pain, sorrow, or suffering. It can be anguish or affliction.

8 and I have come downLXXV to deliverLXXVI them fromLXXVII the Egyptians,LXXVIII

Notes on verse 3:8a

LXXV “come down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
LXXVI “deliver” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.
LXXVII “from” = yad. Literally, “out of the hand of.” This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LXXVIII “Egyptians” = Mitsri. Related to “Egypt” in v2:23. From the same as Mitsrayim (see note V above). This is Egyptian.

and to bring them upLXXIX out of that landLXXX to a goodLXXXI and broadLXXXII land,

Notes on verse 3:8b

LXXIX “bring…up” = alah. Same as “rose up” in v2:23. See note XII above.
LXXX “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
LXXXI “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
LXXXII “broad” = rachab. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is wide, extensive, spacious, or vast. It is roomy in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean liberty or proud.

a land flowingLXXXIII with milkLXXXIV and honey,LXXXV to the countryLXXXVI of the Canaanites,LXXXVII

Notes on verse 3:8c

LXXXIII “flowing” = zub. This is to flow or gush. It is to flow like water or overflow. It can also be discharge, pine, waste away, or have a sexual flow.
LXXXIV “milk” = chalab. Perhaps from the same as cheleb (fat, finest, marrow; fat in a literal or figurative sense; the richest or best part). This is milk or cheese or suckling.
LXXXV “honey” = debash. Root may mean being gummy. This is honey or honeycomb because it is so sticky. It can also refer to syrup.
LXXXVI “country” = maqom. Same as “place” in v3:5. See note LIX above.
LXXXVII “Canaanites” = Knaaniy. From Kanaan (Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled; perhaps meaning lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt); from kana (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaanite, which in some instances would imply a peddler or sometimes used in place of Ishmaelite. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaan

the Hittites,LXXXVIII the Amorites,LXXXIX the Perizzites,XC the Hivites,XCI and the Jebusites.XCII 

Notes on verse 3:8d

LXXXVIII “Hittites” = Chitti. From cheth (Heth or Cheth; one of Canaan’s sons from whom perhaps the Hittites descend) OR from hatat (terror, lacking strength or courage); perhaps from hata (to seize; often used of coals from a fire). This is Hittite – perhaps meaning terrors or terrible. Seehttps://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Hittite.html#.XyMgpp5KhPY
LXXXIX “Amorites” = Emori. From amar (to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report). This is Amorite or Emori, perhaps meaning talkers.
XC “Perizzites” = Perizzi. Perhaps from perazi (rural area, unwalled land); from the same as perazah (rural, village without walls, open country); from the same as paraz (root may mean to separate; perhaps warriors, chieftain, or throng). This is Perizzite, perhaps meaning rural or wild one.
XCI “Hivites” = Chivvi. Probably from the same as chavyah (life-giving, which implies the place where one lives like a village or place where one camps); probably from the same as Chavvah (Eve, life-giver); from chavah (show, tell, live, declare). This is Hivite, perhaps meaning villagers or tent villagers.
XCII “Jebusites” = Yebusi. From yebus (threshing place; one of the former names of Jerusalem); from bus (to trample down, tread in a literal or figurative sense; to loathe, pollute, squirm). This is Jebusite, meaning treaders or threshers.

9 XCIIIThe cryXCIV of the Israelites has now come to me; I have also seen howXCV the Egyptians oppressXCVI them.XCVII 

Notes on verse 3:9

XCIII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v3:2. See note XLIII above.
XCIV “cry” = tseaqah. Same as “cry” in v3:7. See note LXX above.
XCV “how” = lachats. 12x in OT. From lachats (to press or squeeze; figuratively, oppress, afflict, or distress). This is oppression or affliction.
XCVI “oppress” = lachats. Related to “how” in v3:9. 19x in OT. See note XCV above.
XCVII Literally, “the oppression with which Egypt oppressed them.”

10 So come,XCVIII I will sendXCIX you to PharaohC to bringCI my people, the Israelites, out of Egypt.” 

Notes on verse 3:10

XCVIII “come” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XCIX “send” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
C “Pharaoh” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. Seehttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pharaoh
CI “bring” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.

11 But Moses said to God, “Who am I that I should goCII to Pharaoh, and bring the Israelites out of Egypt?” 

12 He said, “I will beCIII with you; and this shall be the signCIV for you that it is I who sent you: when you have brought the people out of Egypt, you shall worshipCV God on this mountain.”

Notes on verses 3:11-12

CII “go” = halak. Same as “come” in v3:10. See note XCVIII above.
CIII “be” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v2:23. See note I above.
CIV “sign” = oth. From avah (to mark, sign, point out); OR from uth (to agree). This is a sign in a literal or figurative sense. It could be a flag or monument. It could be evidence or a mark. It could also be an omen or a miracle. 
CV “worship” = abad. Related to “slavery” in v2:23. See note IX above.

13 But Moses said to God, “IfCVI I comeCVII to the Israelites and say to them, ‘The God of your ancestorsCVIII has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’CIX what shall I say to them?” 

Notes on verse 3:13

CVI {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v3:2. See note XLIII above.
CVII “come” = bo. Same as “came” in v3:1. See note XXXIII above.
CVIII “ancestors” = ab. Same as “father” in v3:6. See note LXII above.
CIX “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.

14 God said to Moses, “I am who I am.” He said further, “Thus you shall say to the Israelites, ‘I am has sent me to you.’” 15 God also said to Moses, “Thus you shall say to the Israelites, ‘The Lord, the God of your ancestors, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you’:

This is my name forever,CX
and this my titleCXI for all generations.CXII

Notes on verses 3:14-15

CX “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
CXI “title” = zeker. Related to “remembered” in v2:24. From zakar (see note XVI above). This is remembrance, renown, memento, recollection, or commemoration.
CXII “all generations” = dor + dor. Literally, “of generation, generation.” From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

4:10 But Moses said to the Lord, “OCXIII my Lord,CXIV I have never beenCXV eloquent,CXVI

Notes on verse 4:10a

CXIII “O” = biy. 12x in OT. Perhaps from ba’ah (to inquire, search, boil, or swell out. Figuratively, it could be to sincerely desire). This is O, I pray – it is used to make a request or to speak to someone of higher social status. It is always followed by, “my lord.” In the Bible it is used in addressing a higher status human, an angel, and also God.
CXIV “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
CXV {untranslated} = enosh. From anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is human, humankind, another. It is mortal.
CXVI “eloquent” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v3:1. From dabar (see note XXXII above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.

 neither in the pastCXVII nor even nowCXVIII that you have spokenCXIX to your servant;CXX

Notes on verse 4:10b

CXVII “past” = temol. May be from ethmol (formerly, before, yesterday, time); {from et (with, among, beside, including, toward, near); from anah (to meet, happen, approach)} + mul (front, opposite, toward); {from mul (to cut short, circumcise, blunt, destroy)}. This is ago, recently, yesterday, past.
CXVIII “now” = shilshom. From shalash (to make triplicate, do a third time); from the same as shalosh (three, fork, three times). This is three days ago, before, yesterday in the past.
CXIX “spoken” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v3:1 & “eloquent” in v4:10. See note XXXII above.
CXX “servant” = ebed. Related to “slavery” in v2:23 & “worship” in v3:12. From abad (see note IX above). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.

but I am slowCXXI of speechCXXII and slow of tongue.”CXXIII 

Notes on verse 4:10c

CXXI “slow” = kabed. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is heavy, grievous, sore. It can also be weighty in the sense of gravitas. The word for “glory” in Hebrew comes from this root (kabod).
CXXII “speech” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
CXXIII “tongue” = lashon. This is tongue, talker, language, or wedge. It can also be a tongue of flame or a water cove.

11 Then the Lord said to him, “Who givesCXXIV speech to mortals?CXXV Who makesCXXVI them muteCXXVII or deaf,CXXVIII

Notes on verse 4:11a

CXXIV “gives” = sum. Related to “name” in v3:13. See note CIX above.
CXXV “mortals” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
CXXVI “makes” = sum. Same as “gives” in v4:11. See note CXXIV above.
CXXVII “mute” = illem. 6x in OT. From the same as alam (to bind or tie fast; to be silent or speechless, whether voluntary or involuntary). This is mute or speechless.
CXXVIII “deaf” = cheresh. 9x in OT. From charash (to scratch, which implies etching or plowing; to manufacture regardless of materials used; figuratively, to devise or conceal; secrecy – hence, being silent, left alone, or speechless). This is deaf or a someone who is deaf in a literal or figurative sense.

seeingCXXIX or blind?CXXX Is it not I, the Lord?CXXXI 12 Now go, and I will be with your mouth and teachCXXXII you what you are to speak.” 

13 But he said, “O my Lord,CXXXIII please sendCXXXIV someone else.”CXXXV 

Notes on verses 4:11b-13

CXXIX “seeing” = piqqeach. 2x in OT. From paqach (open, as opening one’s senses, particularly eyes; figuratively, being watchful). This is seeing or clear-sighted. Figuratively, it can mean wise.
CXXX “blind” = ivver. From avar (to blind, put out). This is blindness or someone who is blind. It can be used literally or figuratively.
CXXXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3:2. See note XXXVII above.
CXXXII “teach” = yarah. This is to throw, shoot, be stunned. It is to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach. This is the same root that “Jerusalem” and “Torah” draw from.
CXXXIII “Lord” = Adonai. Same as “Lord” in v4:10. See note CXIV above.
CXXXIV {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v3:3. See note XLVIII above.
CXXXV “else” = yad. Same as “from” in v3:8. See note LXXVII above.

14 Then the angerCXXXVI of the LordCXXXVII was kindledCXXXVIII against Moses

Notes on verse 4:14a

CXXXVI “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
CXXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3:2. See note XXXVII above.
CXXXVIII “was kindled” = charah. Perhaps related to charar (to be hot, burn, glow, melt, be scorched; figuratively, to incite passion, be angry). This is to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn. Figuratively it is a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy.

and he said, “What of your brotherCXXXIX AaronCXL the Levite?CXLI I know that he can speak fluently;CXLII

Notes on verse 4:14b

CXXXIX “brother” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
CXL “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. Seehttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
CXLI “Levite” = Leviyyi. From Levi (Levi; perhaps meaning “attached”; Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants); perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levite or levitical.
CXLII “speak fluently” = dabar + dabar. Same as “spoken” in v4:10. See note CXIX above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

evenCXLIII now he is coming outCXLIV to meetCXLV you, and when he sees you his heartCXLVI will be glad.CXLVII 

Notes on verse 4:14c

CXLIII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v3:2. See note XLIII above.
CXLIV “coming out” = yatsa. Same as “bring” in v3:10. See note CI above.
CXLV “meet” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.
CXLVI “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
CXLVII “glad” = sameach. From samach (to rejoice, be glad; properly, to brighten up; also used figuratively). This is glad or joyful.

15 You shall speak to him and putCXLVIII the wordsCXLIX in his mouth; and I will be with your mouth and with his mouth, and will teach you what you shall do.CL 16 He indeed shall speak for you to the people; he shall serveCLI as a mouth for you, and you shall serve as God for him. 

Notes on verses 4:15-16

CXLVIII “put” = sum. Same as “gives” in v4:11. See note CXXIV above.
CXLIX “words” = dabar. Same as “eloquent” in v4:10. See note CXVI above.
CL “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
CLI “serve” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v2:23. See note I above.

17 TakeCLII in your handCLIII this staff,CLIV with which you shall performCLV the signs.”

Notes on verse 4:17

CLII “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CLIII “hand” = yad. Same as “from” in v3:8. See note LXXVII above.
CLIV “staff” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).
CLV “perform” = asah. Same as “do” in v4:15. See note CL above.

Image credit: “Moses before the Burning Bush” by Gebhard Fugel, circa 1920.

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