Exodus 28

Exodus 28


“Then bring nearI to you your brotherII AaronIII and his sonsIV with him,

Notes on verse 1a

I “bring near” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
II “brother” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
III “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
IV “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.

from amongV the Israelites,VI to serve me as priestsVII

Notes on verse 1b

V “among” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
VI “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “sons” in v1. See note IV above. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
VII “serve…as priests” = kahan. From kohen (a priest, one who officiates or acts as priest). This is officiating as a priest does over religious service. It can also figuratively mean donning regalia or formal ornamentation/attire.

Aaron and Aaron’s sons: NadabVIII and Abihu,IX EleazarX and Ithamar.XI 

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “Nadab” = Nadab. From nadab (to offer voluntarily, incite, impel; to volunteer to be a soldier or offer freely). This is Nadab, a name meaning “liberal” or “willing” or “volunteer” or “generous” or “noble.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Nadab.html
IX “Abihu” = Abihu. 12x in OT. From ab (father in a literal or figurative sense – grandfather, chief, ancestor) + hu (third person pronoun – he, she, it). This is Abihu, a name meaning “he is father” or “worshipper of God.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Abihu.html 
X “Eleazar” = Elazar. Related to “Israelites” in v1. From el (see note VI above) + azar (to help, protect, support, ally; properly, to surround so as to provide aid). This is Eleazar or Elazar meaning “God has helped” or “God is helper.”
XI “Ithamar” = Ithamar. From i (coastland, island, or region. It is a desirable place to live – dry land, coast); {perhaps from avah (to desire, crave, wish for, lust after)} + tamar (root may mean being erect; a date palm or other palm tree; the root of Tamar’s name); {from the same as tomer (palm tree, the trunk of that tree, a post)}. This is Ithamar, a name meaning “land of palms” or “coast of the palm tree” or “palm coast.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Ithamar.html

You shall makeXII sacredXIII vestmentsXIV for the gloriousXV adornmentXVI of your brother Aaron. 

Notes on verse 2

XII “make” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XIII “sacred” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.
XIV “vestments” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.
XV “glorious” = kabod. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.
XVI “adornment” = tipharah. From paar (to beautify or adorn, to gleam; can refer to showing honor or glorifying someone; also to boast or to shake a tree for harvest). This is beautiful, splendor, adornment, honor, bravery.

And you shall speakXVII to allXVIII who are skillful,XIX

Notes on verse 3a

XVII “speak” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
XVIII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XIX “skillful” = chakam + leb. Literally, “wise of heart.” Chakam is from chakam (to be wise or teach wisdom; this is wisdom in thought, word, or action). This is wise, skillful, cunning, or artful. Leb may be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.

whom I have endowedXX with skill,XXI so that they make Aaron’s vestments to consecrateXXII him for my priesthood.XXIII 

Notes on verse 3b

XX “endowed” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
XXI “skill” = ruach + chokmah. Literally, “spirit of wisdom.” Ruach is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit. Chokmah is related to “skillful” in v3. From chakam (see note XIX above). This is wisdom, wit, or skillfulness.
XXII “consecrate” = qadash. Related to “sacred” in v2. From qodesh (see note XIII above). This is set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified. This is something or someone that is set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean.
XXIII “priesthood” = kahan. Same as “serve…as priests” in v1. See note VII above.

These are the vestments that they shall make: a breastpiece,XXIV an ephod,XXV a robe,XXVI

Notes on verse 4a

XXIV “breastpiece” = choshen. May come from a word that means to hold within or sparkle. It is a breastpiece, perhaps with special reference to a pocket or having gems. It is only used of the high priest’s breastpiece.
XXV “ephod” = ephod. This is an ephod, shoulder piece – perhaps a breastplate or apron. It can refer specifically to a ritual garment worn by the high priest. Alternately, it can refer to an image.
XXVI “robe” = meil. From maal (to cover up; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to be unfaithful or transgress). This is a robe, mantle, or cloak – an outer garment.

a checkeredXXVII tunic,XXVIII a turban,XXIX and a sash.XXX When they make these sacred vestments for your brother Aaron and his sons to serve me as priests, 

Notes on verse 4b

XXVII “checkered” = tashbets. 1x in OT. From shabats (to weave in a checkered pattern, braided, embroidered, setting gems in gold, filigree). This is checkered or broidered.
XXVIII “tunic” = kethoneth. Root may mean to cover. This is a tunic, coat, or other kind of garment.
XXIX “turban” = mitsnepheth. 12x in OT. From tsanaph (to wrap or wind up). This is turban or diadem. It is worn as a mark of status – like a king or high priest.
XXX “sash” = abnet. 9x in OT. This is a sash or belt.

they shall useXXXI gold,XXXII blue,XXXIII

Notes on verse 5a

XXXI “use” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XXXII “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.
XXXIII “blue” = tekeleth. Perhaps from shechelet (something that is in incense; maybe onycha, a mussel); from the same as shachal (lion). This is violet or blue. It refers to a mussel that contains a dye or things dyed using that dye.

purple,XXXIV and crimson yarnsXXXV and fine linen.XXXVI

Notes on verse 5b

XXXIV “purple” = argaman. This is purple or red-purple. It can refer to the color or something dyed in that color.
XXXV “crimson yarns” = tola + shani. Tola is a worm or maggot, perhaps a crimson-grub of species coccus ilicis. It is used in the manufacture of red dye. So, this word could be crimson, purple, or something dyed in those colors. It could also refer to an oppressor. Shani is crimson or scarlet. It can also refer to the insect that the red dye is made from (coccus ilicis), the color of that dye, or things dyed with it (like thread).
XXXVI “fine linen” = shesh. This refers to byssus flax, a bleached fabric – white linen. It can also figuratively refer to marble.

“They shall make the ephod of gold, of blue, purple, and crimson yarns, and of fine twistedXXXVII linen, skillfullyXXXVIII worked.XXXIX  It shall haveXL twoXLI

Notes on verses 6-7a

XXXVII “twisted” = shazar. All in Exodus. This is to twist or twine.
XXXVIII “skillfully” = chashab. This is properly to braid or interpenetrate. Literally it is to create or to wear. Figuratively, it can mean plotting – generally in a negative sense. More broadly, this can also mean think, consider, or make account of.
XXXIX “worked” = maaseh. Related to “make” in v2. From asah (see note XII above). This is a word – any action whether positive or negative. It can also be a transaction, construction, activity, property, or something that is produced.
XL “have” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
XLI “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.

shoulder piecesXLII attachedXLIII to its two edges,XLIV so that it may be joined together.XLV 

Notes on verse 7b

XLII “shoulder pieces” = katheph. Root may mean to clothe. This is shoulder, side, corner.
XLIII “attached” = chabar. This is to unite, ally, attach, touch. It is to join in a literal or figurative sense. Also, specially, using magic knots or spells to fascinate or connect.
XLIV “edges” = qatsah. From qatseh (end, brink, border, edge, frontier; that which is within set boundaries); from qatsah (to cut off, cut short; figuratively, to destroy). This is an end, corner, outer limit, coast, corner, fringe.
XLV “joined together” = chabar. Same as “attached” in v7. See note XLIII above.

The decorated bandXLVI onXLVII it shall be of the same workmanshipXLVIII and materials,XLIX of gold, of blue, purple, and crimson yarns, and of fine twisted linen.

Notes on verse 8

XLVI “decorated band” = chesheb. Related to “skillfully” in v6. 8x in OT – 7x in Exodus & 1x in Leviticus of the ephod. From chashab (see note XXXVIII above). This is a woven band or belt, artistically rendered.
XLVII {untranslated} = aphuddah. Related to “ephod” in v4. 3x in OT. From the same as ephod (see note XXV above). This is ephod, ornament, or metal plating.
XLVIII “workmanship” = maaseh. Same as “worked” in v6. See note XXXIX above.
XLIX “materials” = min + hayah. Literally, “from being.” Min is from, out of, more than. Hayah is the same as “have” in v7. See note XL above.


You shall takeL two onyxLI stonesLII and engraveLIII on them the namesLIV of the sons of Israel, 

Notes on verse 9

L “take” = laqach. Same as “use” in v5. See note XXXI above.
LI “onyx” = shoham. 11x in OT. This is some kind of gem – it may be an onyx or beryl. The root may mean to blanch.
LII “stones” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
LIII “engrave” = pathach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
LIV “names” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.

10 sixLV of their names on the oneLVI stone and the names of the remainingLVII six on the otherLVIII stone, in the order of their birth.LIX 

Notes on verse 10

LV “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
LVI “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
LVII “remaining” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.
LVIII “other” = sheni. Related to “two” in v7. From shanah (see note XLI above). This is double, again, another, second.
LIX “order of…birth” = toledoth. From yalad (to bear, bring forth; can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage). This is generations descent, family, or history.

11 As aLX gemLXI cutterLXII engravesLXIII signets,LXIV

Notes on verse 11a

LX {untranslated} = maaseh. Same as “worked” in v6. See note XXXIX above.
LXI “gem” = eben. Same as “stones” in v9. See note LII above.
LXII “cutter” = charash. From charash (to scratch, which implies etching or plowing; to manufacture regardless of materials used; figuratively, to devise or conceal; a sense of secrecy; hence, being silent or left alone; speechless). This is an artisan, regardless of medium. So, for example, it could be an engrave, a blacksmith, a mason, and so on.
LXIII “engraves” = pittuach. Related to “engrave” in v9. 10x in OT. From pathach (see note LIII above). This is a sculpture or inscription.
LXIV “signets” = chotham. 14x in OT. From chatham (to seal, close up, shut, stop, bring to an end; used especially for affixing a seal). This is a seal or signet ring.

so you shall engraveLXV the two stones with the names of the sons of Israel; you shallLXVI mountLXVII them in settingsLXVIII of gold filigree. 

Notes on verse 11b

LXV “engrave” = pathach. Same as “engrave” in v9. See note LIII above.
LXVI “shall” = asah. Same as “make” in v2. See note XII above.
LXVII “mount” = musabbah. 4x in OT. Perhaps from musab (surrounding, winding around); from the same as sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is mount, enclosed, swinging. Broadly, it’s a reversal, like the other side of a gem or the change of a name.  
LXVIII “settings” = mishbetsah. Related to “checkered” in v4. 9x in OT– 8x of items for Temple worship. From shabats (see note XXVII above). This is filigree, interwove, brocade, gems set in gold.

12 You shall setLXIX the two stones on the shoulder pieces of the ephod, as stones of remembranceLXX for the sons of Israel, and Aaron shall bearLXXI their names beforeLXXII the LordLXXIII on his two shouldersLXXIV for remembrance. 

Notes on verse 12

LXIX “set” = sum. Related to “names” in v9. See note LIV above.
LXX “remembrance” = zikkaron. From zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention). This is remembrance, memorial, or record. It can also be a day that is memorable.
LXXI “bear” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
LXXII “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXXIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “have” in v7. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note XL above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
LXXIV “shoulders” = katheph. Same as “shoulder pieces” in v7. See note XLII above.

13 You shall make settings of gold filigree 14 and two chainsLXXV of pureLXXVI gold, twistedLXXVII

Notes on verses 13-14a

LXXV “chains” = sharsherah. 7x in OT. From the same as shor (body, umbilical cord, core of strength); {perhaps from sharar (enemy or watcher); akin to shur (to behold, see, watch, perceive; to spy out, lie in wait, lurk for; can also be to care for)} OR from sharash (to root into soil or uproot); {from shoresh (a root, depth, line, heel, bottom; root in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is a chain. When it’s an architectural element, it may well be a garland.
LXXVI “pure” = tahor. From taher (bright, which implies being pure or clean; to purge, cleanse, or purify; clean in a ritual sense or a moral one (i.e. moral or holy)). This is clean or pure in a literal, ritual, or ethical sense.
LXXVII “twisted” = migbaloth + asah. Migbaloth is 1x in OT. From the same as gebul (boundary, limit, coast, space; properly, a line that is twisted, which implies a boundary and, by extension, the boundaries of a territory or other enclosed space); perhaps from gabal (to border, twist like rope). This is something twisted like a cord. It can also refer to a border or edge. Asah is the same as “make” in v2. See note XII above.

like cords,LXXVIII and you shall attachLXXIX the cordedLXXX chains to the settings.

15 “You shall make a breastpiece of judgment,LXXXI

Notes on verses 14b-15a

LXXVIII “cords” = maaseh + aboth. Maaseh is the same as “worked” in v6. See note XXXIX above. Aboth is from abath (to weave, wind, or interlace). This is a cord, string, band, wreath, branch, or foliage.
LXXIX “attach” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LXXX “corded” = aboth. Same as “cords” in v14. See note LXXVIII above.
LXXXI “judgment” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.

in skilledLXXXII work;LXXXIII you shall make it in the styleLXXXIV of the ephod;LXXXV of gold, of blue, purple, and crimson yarns, and of fine twisted linen you shall make it. 

Notes on verse 15b

LXXXII “skilled” = chashab. Same as “skillfully” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.
LXXXIII “work” = maaseh. Same as “worked” in v6. See note XXXIX above.
LXXXIV “style” = maaseh. Same as “worked” in v6. See note XXXIX above.
LXXXV “ephod” = ephod. Same as “ephod” in v4. See note XXV above.

16 It shall be squareLXXXVI and doubled,LXXXVII a spanLXXXVIII in lengthLXXXIX and a span in width.XC 

Notes on verse 16

LXXXVI “be square” = raba + hayah. Raba is 12x in OT. From arba (four). This is to be square or four-sided. It may have a sense of sprawled out on all fours. Hayah is the same as “have” in v7. See note XL above.
LXXXVII “doubled” = kaphal. 5x in OT– all in reference to the tabernacle and the breastplate. This is to double over, fold, repeat.
LXXXVIII “span” = zeret. 7x in OT. Perhaps from zarah (to scatter or toss around; to disperse, cast away, scrutinize). This is the distance that you get when you spread your fingers, which is to say, a span.
LXXXIX “length” = orek. From arak (to be long in a literal or figurative sense, to continue, defer, draw out). This is length, long, or forever.
XC “width” = rochab. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is breadth, depth, thickness, expanse. It is width in a literal or figurative sense.

17 You shall setXCI in it fourXCII rowsXCIII of stones.

Notes on verse 17a

XCI “set” = male + milluah. Male is the same as “endowed” in v3. See note XX above. Milluah is related to “endowed” in v3. 3x in OT. From millu (fulfilling; used either of inlaid gems or other settings; consecration, ordination, or sacrifices related to that); from male (see note XX above). This is something enclosed – like a setting for jewelry. It can also be filigree.
XCII “four” = arba. Related to “be square” in v16. See note LXXXVI above.
XCIII “rows” = tur. May come from a word that means to arrange in an evenly spaced way. So, it can be row or wall.

A row of carnelian,XCIV chrysolite,XCV and emeraldXCVI shall be the firstXCVII row; 

Notes on verse 17b

XCIV “carnelian” = odem. 3x in OT. From the same as adom (to be red or flushed). This is some kind of red stone like a carnelian or a ruby.
XCV “chrysolite” = pitdah. 4x in OT. Perhaps related to Sanskrit pita (yellow). This is some kind of gem, perhaps a chrysolite or a topaz.
XCVI “emerald” = bareqeth. 3x in OT. From baraq (lightning; figuratively, a gleaming or glittering; concretely, a flashing sword); from baraq (to flash, a flash of lightning). This is a precious stone that flashes. It could be a carbuncle or an emerald.
XCVII “first” = echad. Same as “one” in v10. See note LVI above.

18 and the secondXCVIII row a turquoise,XCIX a sapphire,C and a moonstone;CI 

Notes on verse 18

XCVIII “second” = sheni. Same as “other” in v10. See note XLI above.
XCIX “turquoise” = nophek. 4x in OT.  This is a gemstone. It may come from a word that means to gleam or shine. It could be a turquoise or an emerald.
C “sapphire” = sappir. 11x in OT. Perhaps from Sanskrit sanipriya (“dark-colored stone – lit “dear to Saturn”) OR from saphar (to tally or record something; to enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare); {from sepher (writing itself or something that is written like a document, book, letter, evidence, bill, scroll, or register)}. This is a sapphire or lapis lazuli – a gem. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/sapphire
CI “moonstone” = yahalom. 3x in OT. From halam (to strike, hammer, smash, beat, overcome, conquer). This is a hard gemstone. It could be diamond or moonstone or jasper.

19 and the thirdCII row a jacinth,CIII an agate,CIV and an amethyst;CV 

Notes on verse 19

CII “third” = shelishi. From shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is third or one-third of something.
CIII “jacinth” = leshem. 2x in OT. This is a gemstone. It might be amber or jacinth.
CIV “agate” = shebo. 2x in OT. Perhaps related to shabah (to take captive, keep, a captor). This is some kind of sparkling precious stone. It may be an agate.
CV “amethyst” = achlamah. 2x in OT. Perhaps from chalam (properly, to bind solidly and so to be plump; to be healthy or strong, to recover; figuratively, to dream). This is a precious gem, perhaps an amethyst.

20 and the fourthCVI row a beryl,CVII an onyx, and a jasper;CVIII they shall beCIX setCX in gold filigree. 

Notes on verse 20

CVI “fourth” = rebii. Related to “be square” in v16 & “four” in v17. From the same as arba (see note LXXXVI above). This is fourth, a quarter, or square.
CVII “beryl” = tarshish. 7x in OT. Perhaps from Persian Tarshata (his excellency) OR from tarsata (feared, revered) OR from rashash (to break down, shatter; perhaps subjection) OR tor (dove) + shayish (alabaster, white, crystal). This is some kind of gem – it might be yellow jasper, topaz, or beryl. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Tarshish.html#.XoD6bKhKhPY
CVIII “jasper” = yashepheh. 3x in OT. Perhaps a loan word from Persian, rendered similarly in Arabic and perhaps related to Assyrian. Root may mean to polish. This is some kind of precious gem, perhaps a jasper.
CIX “be” = hayah. Same as “have” in v7. See note XL above.
CX “set” = shabatsmilluah. Shabats is related to “checkered” in v4 & “settings” in v11. 2x in OT. See note XXVII above. Milluah is the same as “set” in v17. See note XCI above.

21 There shall be twelveCXI stones with names corresponding to the names of the sons of Israel; they shall be like signets, eachCXII engravedCXIII with its name,CXIV for the twelve tribes.CXV 

Notes on verse 21

CXI “twelve” = shenayim + asar. Shenayim is the same as “two” in v7. See note XLI above. Asar is from the same as eser (ten). This is -teen or -teenth.
CXII “each” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
CXIII “engraved” = pittuach. Same as “engraves” in v11. See note LXIII above.
CXIV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “have” in v7. See note XL above.
CXV “tribes” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.

22 You shall make for the breastpiece chainsCXVI of pure gold, twistedCXVII like cords, 23 and you shall make for the breastpiece two ringsCXVIII of gold and putCXIX the two rings on the two edges of the breastpiece. 24 You shall put the two cords of gold in the two rings at the edges of the breastpiece; 25 the two ends of the two cords you shall attachCXX to the two settings

Notes on verses 22-25a

CXVI “chains” = sharshah. Related to “chains” in v14. 1x in OT. From the same as sharsherah (see note LXXV above). This is a chain.
CXVII “twisted” = gabluth. Related to “twisted” in v14. 2x in OT. From the same as gebul (see note LXXVII above). This is twisting – can refer to a chain or lace.
CXVIII “rings” = tabbaath. From taba (to sink, drown, settle, or fasten). This is a signet ring or seal. It can also be used more broadly for rings in general.
CXIX “put” = natan. Same as “attach” in v14. See note LXXIX above.
CXX “attach” = natan. Same as “attach” in v14. See note LXXIX above.

and so attachCXXI it in frontCXXII to the shoulder pieces of the ephod.CXXIII 26 You shall make two rings of gold and putCXXIV them at the two ends of the breastpiece, on its insideCXXV edgeCXXVI

Notes on verses 25b-26a

CXXI “attach” = natan. Same as “attach” in v14. See note LXXIX above.
CXXII “front” = mul + paneh. Mul is perhaps from mul (to cut short, circumcise, blunt, destroy). This is in front of, opposite, with, abrupt. Literally, it refers to some kind of precipice. Paneh is the same as “before” in v12. See note LXXII above.
CXXIII “ephod” = ephod. Same as “ephod” in v4. See note XXV above.
CXXIV “put” = sum. Same as “set” in v12. See note LXIX above.
CXXV “inside” = bayit. Related to “sons” in v1. Probably from banah (see note IV above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
CXXVI “edge” = saphah. This is lip, edge, border, bank – used for a boundary. It can also be speech or language.

nextCXXVII to the ephod.CXXVIII 27 You shall make two rings of gold and attachCXXIX them in front to the lower partCXXX of the two shoulder pieces of the ephod,CXXXI

Notes on verses 26b-27a

CXXVII “next” = eber. From abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is the place across or beyond, by, from, other, the opposite side, against, over. It often refers to the other side of the Jordan river or toward the east.
CXXVIII “ephod” = ephod. Same as “ephod” in v4. See note XXV above.
CXXIX “attach” = natan. Same as “attach” in v14. See note LXXIX above.
CXXX “lower part” = mattah. 19x in OT. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is downwards, bottom, under, lower.
CXXXI “ephod” = ephod. Same as “ephod” in v4. See note XXV above.

atCXXXII its joiningCXXXIII aboveCXXXIV the decorated band of the ephod.CXXXV 

Notes on verse 27b

CXXXII “at” = ummah. From im (with, against, before, beside); from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is close by, alike, parallel, corresponding.
CXXXIII “joining” = machbereth. Related to “attached” in v7. 8x in OT – all in reference to the tabernacle and vestments in Exodus. From chabar (see note XLIII above). This is something joined like a seam or a set.
CXXXIV “above” = maal. From alah (to go up, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense). This is the upper part, forward, high above, upwards, greater, heaven, or exceedingly.
CXXXV “ephod” = ephod. Same as “ephod” in v4. See note XXV above.

28 The breastpiece shall be boundCXXXVI by its rings to the rings of the ephodCXXXVII with a blue cord,CXXXVIII so that it may lieCXXXIX on the decorated band of the ephodCXL and so that the breastpiece shall not come looseCXLI from the ephod.CXLII 

Notes on verse 28

CXXXVI “bound” = rakas. 2x in OT – both in reference to the vestments in Exodus. This is to tie or bind.
CXXXVII “ephod” = ephod. Same as “ephod” in v4. See note XXV above.
CXXXVIII “cord” = pathil. 11x in OT. From pathal (to twist, twine, wrestle, struggle, behave in an unsavory way). This is a cord, string, twine, lace, thread.
CXXXIX “lie” = hayah. Same as “have” in v7. See note XL above.
CXL “ephod” = ephod. Same as “ephod” in v4. See note XXV above.
CXLI “come loose” = zachach. 2x in OT. This is to remove or come loose.
CXLII “ephod” = ephod. Same as “ephod” in v4. See note XXV above.

29 So Aaron shall bear the names of the sons of Israel in the breastpiece of judgment on his heartCXLIII when he goesCXLIV into the holyCXLV place, for a continualCXLVI remembrance before the Lord. 

Notes on verse 29

CXLIII “heart” = leb. Same as “skillful” in v3. See note XIX above.
CXLIV “goes” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
CXLV “holy” = qodesh. Same as “sacred” in v2. See note XIII above.
CXLVI “continual” = tamid. May come from a word that means to stretch. This word means an indefinite period of time. So, it could be regular or daily. It could also be constantly, continually, always, or perpetually.

30 In the breastpiece of judgment you shall putCXLVII the UrimCXLVIII and the Thummim,CXLIX and they shall be on Aaron’s heart when he goes in before the Lord; thus Aaron shall bear the judgment of the Israelites on his heart before the Lord continually.

Notes on verse 30

CXLVII “put” = natan. Same as “attach” in v14. See note LXXIX above.
CXLVIII “Urim” = urim. 7x in OT. From ur (fire, light, the east); {from or (to be or become light, shine)}. This is Urim, meaning lights. It is placed in the breastplate of the high priest and used for casting lots (divining God’s will) along with the Thummim.
CXLIX “Thummim” = Tummim. 5x in OT. Probably from the same as tom (completeness or full measure; blameless, moral innocence, prosperity, or integrity; a portion of the high priest’s breastplate); from tamam (to finish or accomplish; to make perfect, demonstrate that you are upright; consume; to complete in a literal or figurative sense). This is Thummim or Tummim, meaning perfection or truth. It is placed in the breastplate of the high priest and used for casting lots (divining God’s will) along with the Urim.

31 “You shall make the robe of the ephodCL allCLI of blue. 32 It shall have an openingCLII for the headCLIII in the middleCLIV of it,

Notes on verses 31-32a

CL “ephod” = ephod. Same as “ephod” in v4. See note XXV above.
CLI “all” = kalil. Related to “all” in v3. 15x in OT. From kalal (see note XVIII above). This is entire, perfect, pure, or wholly. For a burnt offering, it can mean burned wholly.
CLII “opening” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
CLIII “head” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
CLIV “middle” = tavek. Same as “among” in v1. See note V above.

with a wovenCLV bindingCLVI, CLVII aroundCLVIII its edge,

Notes on verse 32b

CLV “woven” = maaseh + arag. Maaseh is the same as “worked” in v6. See note XXXIX above. Arag is 13x in OT. This is to weave or plait. It can also refer to someone who weaves.
CLVI “binding” = saphah. Same as “edge” in v26. See note CXXVI above.
CLVII {untranslated} = hayah + peh. Hayah is the same as “have” in v7. See note XL above. Peh is the same as “opening” in v32. See note CLII above.
CLVIII “around” = sabib. Related to “mount” in v11. From sabab (see note LXVII above). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.

like the opening in a garment,CLIX so that it mayCLX not be torn.CLXI 33 On its lower hemCLXII you shall make pomegranatesCLXIII of blue, purple, and crimson yarns, all around the lower hem, with bellsCLXIV of gold betweenCLXV them all around— 34 a golden bell and a pomegranate alternating all around the lower hem of the robe. 

Notes on verses 32c-34

CLIX “garment” = tachra. 2x in OT – both of the priestly vestment in Exodus. Perhaps from charah (to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn; figuratively a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy). This is a garment, perhaps a coat of mail or linen corselet.
CLX “may” = hayah. Same as “have” in v7. See note XL above.
CLXI “be torn” = qara. This is to tear or cut out in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to revile or to apply eye make up – as though they are made to look larger.
CLXII “hem” = shul. 11x in OT. May come from a word that refuses to hanging. So, it is a lower hem or a robe’s train.
CLXIII “pomegranates” = rimmon. Of foreign origin OR from ramam (to rise in a literal or figurative sense; to get up or exalt). This is a pomegranate or a decoration in that shape. It can also refer to the pomegranate tree.
CLXIV “bells” = paamon. 7x in OT. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a bell, as something played by striking it.
CLXV “between” = tavek. Same as “among” in v1. See note V above.

35 Aaron shall wearCLXVI it when he ministers,CLXVII and its soundCLXVIII shall be heardCLXIX when he goes into the holy place before the Lord and when he comes out,CLXX so that he may not die.CLXXI

Notes on verse 35

CLXVI “wear” = hayah. Same as “have” in v7. See note XL above.
CLXVII “ministers” = sharath. This is ministering, serving, or waiting on. It can refer to one offering service as a worshipper or one serving as a servant.
CLXVIII “sound” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
CLXIX “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
CLXX “comes out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXI “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

36 “You shall make a rosetteCLXXII of pure gold and engraveCLXXIII on it, like the engravingCLXXIV of a signet, ‘Holy to the Lord.’ 37 You shall fastenCLXXV it on the turban with a blue cord;CLXXVI it shall be on the front of the turban. 38 It shall be on Aaron’s forehead,CLXXVII

Notes on verses 36-38a

CLXXII “rosette” = tsiyts. 15x in OT. From tsuts (to twinkle, shine, blossom; figuratively to flourish). This is a blossom or flower. In the sense of glistening, it could also be a polished plate or the wing of a bird.
CLXXIII “engrave” = pathach. Same as “engrave” in v9. See note LIII above.
CLXXIV “engraving” = pittuach. Same as “engraves” in v11. See note LXIII above.
CLXXV “fasten” = sum. Same as “set” in v12. See note LXIX above.
CLXXVI “cord” = pathil. Same as “cord” in v28. See note CXXXVIII above.
CLXXVII “forehead” = metsach. 13x in OT. May come from a word meaning conspicuous. This is a forehead. Figuratively, it can be impudent.

and Aaron shall takeCLXXVIII on himself any guiltCLXXIX incurred in the holy offerings that the Israelites consecrate asCLXXX their sacred donations;CLXXXI it shall alwaysCLXXXII be on his forehead, in order that they may find favorCLXXXIII before the Lord.

Notes on verse 38b

CLXXVIII “take” = nasa. Same as “bear” in v12. See note LXXI above.
CLXXIX “guilt” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.
CLXXX {untranslated} = kol. This is “all” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CLXXXI “donations” = mattanah. Related to “attach” in v14. 17x in OT. From mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (see note LXXIX above). This is a gift, offering of sacrifice, present, bribe.
CLXXXII “always” = tamid. Same as “continual” in v29. See note CXLVI above.
CLXXXIII “find favor” = ratson. From ratsah (to be pleased with, delight, take pleasure in, or accept with favor; to approve or consent regarding something; can be used specifically of satisfying debts or being pardoned). This is delight shown in favor, good will, something that is accepted or acceptable.

39 “You shall make the checkeredCLXXXIV tunic of fine linen, and you shall make a turban of fine linen, and you shall make a sash embroidered with needlework.CLXXXV

40 “For Aaron’s sons you shall make tunics andCLXXXVI sashes and headdresses;CLXXXVII you shall make them for their glorious adornment. 

Notes on verses 39-40

CLXXXIV “make the checkered” = shabats. Same as “set” in v20. See note CX above.
CLXXXV “embroidered with needlework” = maaseh + raqam. Maaseh is the same as “worked” in v6. See note XXXIX above. Raqam is 9x in OT– 8x in Exodus of materials for the tabernacle and priesthood & 1x in Psalm 139:15 of being “intricately woven in the depths of the earth.” This is to embroider, weave, vary color, fabricate.
CLXXXVI {untranslated} = asah. Same as “make” in v2. See note XII above.
CLXXXVII “headdresses” = migbaoth. 4x in OT. Perhaps from gibah (hill or little hill); from the same as Geba (Geba or Gibeah; hillock); from the same as gabia (cup, bowl, flower; root might mean being convex). This is a headdress, cap, or turban of some kind.

41 You shall putCLXXXVIII them on your brother Aaron and on his sons with him and shall anointCLXXXIX them and ordainCXC themCXCI and consecrate them, so that they may serve me as priests. 

Notes on verse 41

CLXXXVIII “put” = labash. This is to wrap around, which implies clothing oneself or someone else. This is wrapping around in a literal or figurative way.
CLXXXIX “anoint” = mashach. This is smear, paint, spread, or paint. It can also be to rub with oil or, otherwise stated, to anoint. This implies a consecration. This root verb is where the word “messiah” comes from.
CXC “ordain” = male. Same as “endowed” in v3. See note XX above.
CXCI “them” = yad. Literally, “their hand.” This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

42 You shall make for them linenCXCII undergarmentsCXCIII to coverCXCIV their nakedCXCV flesh;CXCVI

Notes on verse 42a

CXCII “linen” = bad. Perhaps from badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is white linen as a fabric of divide fibers, flaxen thread, or yarn.
CXCIII “undergarments” = miknas. 5x in OT. From kanas (to gather, assemble, enfold). This is an undergarment or breeches.
CXCIV “cover” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
CXCV “naked” = ervah. From arah (to be bare, empty, raze, uncover, discover, demolish). This is nakedness, nudity – particularly as a reference to genitals, shame, or blemish.
CXCVI “flesh” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.

they shall reachCXCVII from the hipsCXCVIII to the thighs;CXCIX 43 They shall be worn by Aaron and his sons when they go into the tentCC of meetingCCI or when they come nearCCII the altarCCIII

Notes on verses 42b-43a

CXCVII “reach” = hayah. Same as “have” in v7. See note XL above.
CXCVIII “hips” = mothen. This is the waist, slender, or small of back. It can also refer to the loins when in plural.
CXCIX “thighs” = yarek. Root may mean to be soft. This is thigh, side, body, shank. It can be used figuratively for genitalia.
CC “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
CCI “meeting” = moed. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
CCII “come near” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
CCIII “altar” = mizbeach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is an altar.

to minister in the holy place, so that they do not bringCCIV guilt on themselves and die. This shall be a perpetualCCV ordinanceCCVI for him and for his descendantsCCVII afterCCVIII him.

Notes on verse 43b

CCIV “bring” = nasa. Same as “bear” in v12. See note LXXI above.
CCV “perpetual” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
CCVI “ordinance” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.
CCVII “descendants” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
CCVIII “after” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.

Image credit: “Moses and Joshua in the Tabernacle” by James Jacques Joseph Tissot, between circa 1896 and circa 1902.

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