Exodus 30

Exodus 30


“You shall makeI an altarII on which to offerIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “make” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
II “altar” = mizbeach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is an altar.
III “offer” = miqtar. 1x in OT. From qatar (to smoke or burn; especially of sacrifice – the fragrance of the offering). This is burn, to turn something into ritual smoke. It can also refer to the location of such an offering.

incense;IV you shall make it of acaciaV wood.VI 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “incense” = qetoreth. Related to “offer” in v1. From the same as qitor (thick smoke, vapor); from qatar (see note III above). This is smoke, incense, the scent of the sacrifice as it burned.
V “acacia” = shittah. This is acacia or shittim.
VI “wood” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.

It shall be one cubitVII longVIII and one cubit wide;IX

Notes on verse 2a

VII “cubit” = ammah. From the same as em (mother). This is a cubit, post, threshold, pivot. It is mother as the basic measure (the length of the forearm). It is also mother as the which bonds an entryway i.e. the base of the door.
VIII “long” = orek. From arak (to be long in a literal or figurative sense, to continue, defer, draw out). This is length, long, or forever.
IX “wide” = rochab. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is breadth, depth, thickness, expanse. It is width in a literal or figurative sense.

it shall be squareX and shall be two cubits high;XI its hornsXII shall be of one piece with it. 

Notes on verse 2b

X “be square” = raba + hayah. Raba is 12x in OT. From arba (four). This is to be square or four-sided. It may have a sense of sprawled out on all fours. Hayah is to be or become, to happen.
XI “high” = qomah. From qum (to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is tall, high, length, or height.
XII “horns” = qeren. This is horn or hill. It can be a flask or cornet, ivory, altar corner, mountain peak, or figuratively power.

You shall overlayXIII it with pureXIV gold,XV

Notes on verse 3a

XIII “overlay” = tsaphah. This is to spread, to cover with sheets (as with metal).
XIV “pure” = tahor. From taher (bright, which implies being pure or clean; to purge, cleanse, or purify; clean in a ritual sense or a moral one (i.e. moral or holy)). This is clean or pure in a literal, ritual, or ethical sense.
XV “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.

its topXVI and its sidesXVII all aroundXVIII and its horns, and you shall make for it a moldingXIX of gold all around. 

Notes on verse 3b

XVI “top” = gag. Perhaps from ga’ah (to rise up, increase, grow, be highly exalted; figuratively to be majestic). This is a housetop or other top. It can refer to the surface of an altar.
XVII “sides” = qir. Perhaps from qur (to dig, destroy, wall up). This is a wall, ceiling, surface, mason, or town.
XVIII “all around” = sabib. From sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.
XIX “molding” = zer. 10x in OT– all in Exodus. From zur (to push down, squeeze, crush, close) OR from zarar (to diffuse, sneeze). This is a border or molding. It can also refer to a crown.

And you shall make twoXX golden ringsXXI for it; underXXII its molding on two oppositeXXIII sidesXXIV of it you shall make them,

Notes on verse 4a

XX “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
XXI “rings” = tabbaath. From taba (to sink, drown, settle, or fasten). This is a signet ring or seal. It can also be used more broadly for rings in general.
XXII “under” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
XXIII Literally, “on two of its sides you shall place them on two of its sides.”
XXIV “sides” = tsela. Perhaps from tsala (to limp, be lame). This is rib, side, leaf, plank, side of a person or object; quarter of the sky.

and they shall holdXXV the polesXXVI for carryingXXVII it. 

Notes on verse 4b

XXV “hold” = hayah + bayit. Hayah is the same as “be square” in v2. See note X above. Bayit is probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XXVI “poles” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
XXVII “carrying” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.

You shall make the poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold. You shall placeXXVIII it in front ofXXIX the curtainXXX

Notes on verses 5-6a

XXVIII “place” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XXIX “in front of” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XXX “curtain” = paroketh. Perhaps from the same as perek (perhaps from a word meaning fracture or break apart, emphasizing the severity or the break; harshness, severity, cruelty; rigorously). This is something that separates – a screen, curtain, or veil.

that is above the arkXXXI of the covenant,XXXII in front of the coverXXXIII that is over the covenant, where I will meetXXXIV with you. 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXI “ark” = aron. Perhaps from arah (to gather or pluck). This is a chest, box, or coffin. It is used for the Ark of the Covenant.
XXXII “covenant” = eduth. From ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is testimony, ordinance, decree, warning, or witness.
XXXIII “cover” = kapporeth. From the same as kopher (ransom, bribe, price of a life; something that covers something else; a village, bitumen as a coating, a henna plant that dyes, a ransom price); from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel, cleanse, pardon). This is the lid on top of the ark – the mercy seat.
XXXIV “meet” = yaad. This is to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree. Here, it is to meet at a prearranged place/time or to gather as to go to war.

AaronXXXV shall offerXXXVI fragrantXXXVII incense on it; every morningXXXVIII when he dressesXXXIX the lampsXL he shall offer it, 

Notes on verse 7

XXXV “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
XXXVI “offer” = qatar. Related to “offer” and “incense” in v1. See note III above.
XXXVII “fragrant” = sam. 16x in OT. This is spice, fragrant, a sweet smell.
XXXVIII “every morning” = boqer + boqer. Literally, “morning by morning.” From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
XXXIX “dresses” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.
XL “lamps” = ner. This is to glisten. It is used for a lamp, candle, or light in a literal or figurative sense.

and when Aaron sets upXLI the lamps inXLII the evening, he shall offer it, a regularXLIII incense offering

Notes on verse 8a

XLI “sets up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XLII “in” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
XLIII “regular” = tamid. May come from a word that means to stretch. This word means an indefinite period of time. So, it could be regular or daily. It could also be constantly, continually, always, or perpetually.

beforeXLIV the LordXLV throughout your generations.XLVI 

Notes on verse 8b

XLIV “before” = paneh. Same as “in front of” in v6. See note XXIX above.
XLV “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “be” in v2. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note X above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XLVI “generations” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

You shall not offerXLVII unholyXLVIII incense on it or a burnt offeringXLIX

Notes on verse 9a

XLVII “offer” = alah. Same as “sets up” in v8. See note XL above.
XLVIII “unholy” = zur. This is to come from somewhere else – a stranger. It is to stop for lodging. Figuratively, it can also mean to profane or commit adultery.
XLIX “burnt offering” = olah. Related to “sets up” in v8. This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole things is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.

or a grain offering,L and you shall not pourLI a drink offeringLII on it. 10 OnceLIII a yearLIV Aaron shall perform the rite of atonementLV on its horns.

Notes on verses 9b-10a

L “grain offering” = minchah. This is a gift or an offering, particularly a sacrificial one that is generally bloodless and given spontaneously (voluntarily).
LI “pour” = nasak. Related to “drink offering” in v9. See note LI below.
LII “drink offering” = nesek. From nasak (to pour out or melt; used especially for libations or for the process of making cast metal; can also be used figuratively for anointing a king). This is a drink offering or a molten image.
LIII “once” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
LIV “year” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
LV “perform the rite of atonement” = kaphar. Related to “cover” in v6. See note XXXIII above.

Throughout your generations he shall perform the atonement for it once a year with the bloodLVI of the atoningLVII purification offering.LVIII It is most holyLIX to the Lord.”

Notes on verse 10b

LVI “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
LVII “atoning” = kippur. Related to “cover” in v6 & “perform the rite of atonement” in v10. 6x in OT. From the same as kopher (see note XXXIII above). This is atonement or expiation.
LVIII “purification offering” = chatta’ah. From chata’ (to miss or go wrong and so to sin, bear the blame; it can also include the sense of forfeiting or lacking). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.
LIX “most holy” = qodesh + qodesh. Literally, “holy of holies.” This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.

11 The Lord spokeLX to Moses,LXI 12 “When you takeLXII a censusLXIII

Notes on verses 11-12a

LX “spoke” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
LXI “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
LXII “take” = nasa. Same as “carrying” in v4. See note XXVII above.
LXIII “census” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).

of the IsraelitesLXIV to registerLXV them, at registrationLXVI all of themLXVII

Notes on verse 12b

LXIV “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is related to “hold” in v4. From banah (see note XXV above). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
LXV “register” = paqad. This is to attend to or visit – can be used for a friendly or violent encounter. So, it can be to oversee, care for, avenge, or charge.
LXVI “registration” = paqad. Same as “register” in v12. See note LXIV above.
LXVII “them” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.

shall giveLXVIII a ransomLXIX for their livesLXX to the Lord, so that no plagueLXXI may come uponLXXII them for being registered. 

Notes on verse 12c

LXVIII “give” = natan. Same as “place” in v6. See note XXVIII above.
LXIX “ransom” = kopher. Related to “cover” in v6 & “perform the rite of atonement” and “atoning” in v10. 17x in OT. 17x in OT. See note XXXIII above.
LXX “lives” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
LXXI “plague” = negeph. 7x in OT. From nagaph (to strike, beat, hurt, stumble, defeat, inflict disease). This is stumbling or any kind of blow. Figuratively, it can also refer to a disease or plague.
LXXII “come upon” = hayah. Same as “be square” in v2. See note X above.

13 This is what each oneLXXIII, LXXIV who is registered shall give: halfLXXV a shekelLXXVI

Notes on verse 13a

LXXIII “each one” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
LXXIV {untranslated} = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
LXXV “half” = machatsith. 16x in OT. From chatsah (to halve, divide, reach, participate). This is half or middle.
LXXVI “shekel” = sheqel. From shaqal (to weigh, spend, trade). This is shekel or sheqel. It is a unit of weight, generally used in trade.

according to the shekel of the sanctuaryLXXVII (the shekel is twentyLXXVIII gerahs),LXXIX half a shekel as an offeringLXXX to the Lord. 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXVII “sanctuary” = qodesh. Same as “most holy” in v10. See note LVIII above.
LXXVIII “twenty” = esrim. From the same as eser (ten, tenth). This is twenty or twentieth.
LXXIX “gerahs” = gerah. 5x in OT. From garar (to drag or drag off in a rough fashion, chew, sweep, destroy; to chew the cud). This is a gerah – a twentieth part of a shekel. It may come from the sense of a kernel for its roundness. A gerah could be a unit of weight or a coin of that weight.
LXXX “offering” = terumah. From rum (to be high, rise, exalted, become proud, display, offer, present, set apart, extol; to rise in a literal or figurative sense). This is offering, gift – a sacred offering. It could also be a tribute or a bribe.

14 Each oneLXXXI who is registered, from twenty years oldLXXXII and up,LXXXIII shall give the Lord’s offering.LXXXIV 

Notes on verse 14

LXXXI {untranslated} = abar. Same as {untranslated} in v13. See note LXXIII above.
LXXXI “old” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v12. See note LXIII above.
LXXXIII “up” = maal. Related to “sets up” in v8 & “burnt offering” in v9. From alah (see note XL above). This is the upper part, forward, high above, upwards, greater, heaven, or exceedingly.
LXXXIV “offering” = terumah. Same as “offering” in v13. See note LXXIX above.

15 The richLXXXV shall not give moreLXXXVI and the poorLXXXVII shall not give lessLXXXVIII than the half shekel, when you bringLXXXIX this offeringXC to the Lord to make atonement for your lives. 

Notes on verse 15

LXXXV “rich” = ashir. From ashar (to be rich, gain, accumulate). This is rich in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be noble or a rich person.
LXXXVI “give more” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
LXXXVII “poor” = dal. From dalal (to be low, hang, fade, be emptied, become poor, be oppressed). This is lean, weak, needy, poor. Properly, it is one who is dangling.
LXXXVIII “give less” = maat. This is diminished, decreased, reduced, insignificant. It is a broad sense of being small or becoming small. Figuratively, this can mean ineffective.
LXXXIX “bring” = natan. Same as “place” in v6. See note XXVIII above.
XC “offering” = terumah. Same as “offering” in v13. See note LXXIX above.

16 You shall takeXCI the atonementXCII moneyXCIII from the Israelites and shall designateXCIV it for the serviceXCV

Notes on verse 16a

XCI “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XCII “atonement” = kaphar. Same as “perform the rite of atonement” in v10. See note LIV above.
XCIII “money” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
XCIV “designate” = natan. Same as “place” in v6. See note XXVIII above.
XCV “service” = abodah. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is labor, service, bondage, job, servitude, worker. It can refer to any kind of work.

of the tentXCVI of meeting;XCVII before the Lord it will be a reminderXCVIII to the Israelites of the ransom givenXCIX for your lives.”

Notes on verse 16b

XCVI “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
XCVII “meeting” = moed. Related to “meet” in v6. From yaad (see note XXXIV above). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
XCVIII “reminder” = zikkaron. From zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention). This is remembrance, memorial, or record. It can also be a day that is memorable.
XCIX “ransom given” = kaphar. Same as “perform the rite of atonement” in v10. See note LIV above.

17 The Lord spoke to Moses, 18 “You shall make a bronzeC basinCI with a bronze standCII for washing.CIII

Notes on verses 17-18a

C “bronze” = nechosheth. Perhaps from nechushah (copper, bronze, brass – something made from this metal like a coin or fetter; something that is considered base in contrast to gold or silver.; from nachush (made of bronze or brass, coppery; figuratively, hard); from nachash (to divine, interpret omens, learn from experience, observe; to hiss). This is bronze, copper, steel, brass or something made from copper. So, it could be a coin or chains. It can also figuratively mean something considered lesser in contrast to gold or silver.
CI “basin” = kiyyor. From the same as kur (furnace, smelting pot). This is a firepot, basin, hearth, pulpit, scaffold.
CII “stand” = ken. 16x in OT. From the same as ken (to set upright; generally used figuratively for thus, so, afterwards, rightly so); perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is a stand, place, right, honest, office.
CIII “washing” = rachats. This is to wash, wash away – it can be complete or partial.

You shall putCIV it betweenCV the tent of meeting andCVI the altar, and you shall put waterCVII in it; 19 with the water Aaron and his sons shall wash their handsCVIII and their feet.CIX 

Notes on verses 18b-19

CIV “put” = natan. Same as “place” in v6. See note XXVIII above.
CV “between” = bayin. Same as “in” in v8. See note XLI above.
CVI {untranslated} = bayin. Same as “in” in v8. See note XLI above.
CVII “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
CVIII “hands” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CIX “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.

20 When they goCX into the tent of meeting or when they come nearCXI the altar to ministerCXII to makeCXIII an offering by fireCXIV to the Lord, they shall wash with water, so that they may not die.CXV 

Notes on verse 20

CX “go” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
CXI “come near” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
CXII “minister” = sharath. This is ministering, serving, or waiting on. It can refer to one offering service as a worshipper or one serving as a servant.
CXIII “make” = qatar. Same as “offer” in v7. See note XXXVI above.
CXIV “offering by fire” = ishsheh. From eshshah (a fire); from esh (fire, burning, flaming, hot; fire in a literal or figurative sense). This is an offering by fire or a burnt offering. More broadly, it can refer to any kind of sacrifice.
CXV “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

21 They shall wash their hands and their feet, so that they may not die: it shall be a perpetualCXVI ordinanceCXVII for them, for him and for his descendantsCXVIII throughout their generations.”

Notes on verse 21

CXVI “perpetual” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
CXVII “ordinance” = choq. From chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance It is something that is prescribed or something that is owed.
CXVIII “descendants” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.

22 The Lord spoke to Moses, 23 “TakeCXIX the finestCXX spices:CXXI of liquidCXXII myrrhCXXIII fiveCXXIV hundredCXXV shekels,

Notes on verses 22-23a

CXIX “take” = laqach. Same as “take” in v16. See note XCI above.
CXX “finest” = rosh. Same as “census” in v12. See note LXIII above.
CXXI “spices” = bosem. From the same as basam (spice, balsam tree). This is balsam, spice, perfume, odor, the balsam tree.
CXXII “liquid” = deror. 8x in OT. This is flowing quickly – hence flowing free, release, and liberty. It can also mean pure or clear.
CXXIII “myrrh” = mor. 12x in OT. From marar (to be bitter, embittered, weep, troubled). This is myrrh as liquid and bitter.
CXXIV “five” = chamesh. This is five, fifth.
CXXV “hundred” = meah. This is hundred or some number times one hundred (i.e. hundredfold or the base of two hundred, three hundred, etc.).

and of sweet-smellingCXXVI cinnamonCXXVII half as much, that is, two hundred fifty,CXXVIII and two hundred fifty of aromaticCXXIX cane,CXXX 

Notes on verse 23b

CXXVI “sweet-smelling” = bosem. Same as “spices” in v23. See note CXXI above.
CXXVII “cinnamon” = qinnamon. 3x in OT. Perhaps of Phoenician origin OR from a word meaning to erect. This is cinnamon. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnamon
CXXVIII “fifty” = chamishshim. Related to “five” in v23. From chamesh (see note CXXIV above). This is fifty.
CXXIX “aromatic” = bosem. Same as “spices” in v23. See note CXXI above.
CXXX “cane” = qaneh. Perhaps from qanah (to get, buy, redeem, create, possess). This is reed, branch, stalk, beam, or measuring rod.

24 and five hundred of cassiaCXXXI—measured by the sanctuary shekel—and a hinCXXXII of oliveCXXXIII oil,CXXXIV 

Notes on verse 24

CXXXI “cassia” = qiddah. 2x in OT. From the same as qodqod (the scalp or crown of the head); perhaps from qadad (to bow the head, stoop, bow in deference). This is cassia.
CXXXII “hin” = hin. From Egyptian hwn (jar, unit of measurement for liquid; around .48 liters). This is hin, a unit of measurement used for liquids. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hin
CXXXIII “olive” = zayit. This is olive tree, grove, or other parts of the olive tree like the branch or berry.
CXXXIV “oil” = shemen. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume. Used figuratively for fertile, lavish, rich.

25 and you shall make of these a sacredCXXXV anointingCXXXVI oil blended as by the perfumer;CXXXVII it shall be a holy anointing oil. 

Notes on verse 25

CXXXV “sacred” = qodesh. Same as “most holy” in v10. See note LVIII above.
CXXXVI “anointing” = mishchah. From mashach (to smear or anoint; to run oil on, to consecrate). This is the act of anointing, ointment, or a consecrated thing.
CXXXVII “blended as by the perfumer” = roqach + mirqachath + maaseh + raqach. Literally, “a perfume blended as the work of the perfumer.” Roqach is 2x in OT. From raqach (to blend an oil or ointment, prepare spices) OR from raq (thin, surely, only); {perhaps from raqaq (to spit)}. This is a blend of spices, perfume, ointment. Mirqachath. Related to roqach in v25. 4x in OT. From raqach (see above). This is a mixture or compound of spices or aromatic things. Maaseh is related to “make” in v1. From asah (see note I above). This is a work – any action whether positive or negative. It can also be a transaction, construction, activity, property, or something that is produced. Raqach is related to roqach + mirqachath. 7x in OT. See above.

26 With it you shall anointCXXXVIII the tent of meeting and the ark of the covenant 27 and the tableCXXXIX and allCXL its utensilsCXLI and the lampstandCXLII and its utensils and the altar of incense 28 and the altar of burnt offering with all its utensils and the basin with its stand; 

Notes on verses 26-28

CXXXVIII “anoint” = mashach. Related to “anointing” in v25. See note CXXXVI above.
CXXXIX “table” = shulchan. Perhaps from shalach (to send, send for, forsake). This is a table or meal.
CXL “all” = kol. Same as “each one” in v13. See note LXXIII above.
CXLI “utensils” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
CXLII “lampstand” = menorah. Related to “lamps” in v7. From the same as ner (see note XL above). This is a lampstand or candlestick.

29 you shall consecrateCXLIII them, so that they may be most holy; whateverCXLIV touchesCXLV them will become holy.CXLVI 

Notes on verse 29

CXLIII “consecrate” = qadash. Related to “most holy” in v10. From qodesh (see note LIX above). This is set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified. This is something or someone that is set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean.
CXLIV “whatever” = kol. Same as “each one” in v13. See note LXXIII above.
CXLV “touches” = naga. This is touch, reach, arrive, come near, strike. This is touching for any reason including sexual or violent.
CXLVI “become holy” = qadash. Same as “consecrate” in v29. See note CXLIII above.

30 You shall anoint Aaron and his sons and consecrate them to serve me as priests.CXLVII 31 You shall say to the Israelites: This shall be my holy anointing oil throughout your generations. 32 It shall not be usedCXLVIII in any ordinary anointing of the body,CXLIX and you shall make no other like it in composition;CL it is holy, and it shall be holy to you. 

Notes on verses 30-32

CXLVII “serve…as priests” = kahan. From kohen (a priest, one who officiates or acts as priest). This is officiating as a priest does over religious service. It can also figuratively mean donning regalia or formal ornamentation/attire.
CXLVIII “used” = yasak. 1x in OT. From the same as suk (to smear or pour oil; by implication, to anoint). This is to pour.
CXLIX “in any ordinary anointing of the body” = al + basar + adam. Literally, “on flesh of a human.” Basar is from basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts. Adam is perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
CL “composition” = mathkoneth. 5x in OT. From takan (to weigh, measure, estimate, balance –measuring any number of aspects; figuratively, to arrange, direct, mark off, or regulate). This is a measurement, standard, condition, quantity, or composition.

33 WhoeverCLI blendsCLII any like it or whoever puts any of it on an unqualified personCLIII shall be cut offCLIV from the people.”CLV

Notes on verse 33

CLI “whoever” = ish. Same as “them” in v12. See note LXVII above.
CLII “blends” = raqach. Same as “blended as by the perfumer.” See note CXXXVII above.
CLIII “unqualified person” = zur. Same as “unholy” in v9. See note XLVIII above.
CLIV “cut off” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
CLV “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

34 The Lord said to Moses, “TakeCLVI sweet spices,CLVII stacte,CLVIII and onycha,CLIX

Notes on verse 34a

CLVI “take” = laqach. Same as “take” in v16. See note XCI above.
CLVII “sweet spices” = sam. Same as “fragrant” in v7. See note XXXVII above.
CLVIII “stacte” = nataph. 2x in OT. From nataph (to drip, ooze, or drop; the process of gradual distillation that causes liquid to fall drop by drop; figuratively, prophesying or inspired speech). This is a drip or drop. It can refer to some kind of fragrant gum. It is often considered to be stacte, a sap from the balsam tree. It could also be styrax or opobalsamum. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stacte  
CLIX “onycha” = shecheleth. 1x in OT. From the same as shachal (to roar; a fierce lion). This is literally a scale or shell or distillation. It may be onycha or operculum, which is from a mussel. It might be from the cistus plant. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onycha

and galbanum,CLX sweet spices with pureCLXI frankincenseCLXII (an equal part of each),CLXIII 

Notes on verse 34b

CLX “galbanum” = chelbenah. 1x in OT. From the same as cheleb (fat, finest, marrow; fat in a literal or figurative sense; the richest or best part). This is some kind of fragrant gum, perhaps galbanum. The plant is ferula gummosa or ferula rubricaulis. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galbanum
CLXI “pure” = zak. 11x in OT. From zakak (to be bright, cleanse, transparent; to be morally pure). This is pure or clean.
CLXII “frankincense” = lebonah. From laban (white); from laben (to be or make white, to make bricks). This is frankincense – it may be because it is white itself or because its smoke is.
CLXIII “an equal part of each” = bad + bad + hayah. Literally, “will be part by part.” Bad is the same as “poles” in v4. See note XXVI above. Hayah is the same as “be square” in v2. See note X above.

35 and make an incense blended as by the perfumer,CLXIV seasoned with salt,CLXV pureCLXVI and holy, 36 and you shall beatCLXVII some of it into powderCLXVIII and put part of it before the covenant in the tent of meeting, where I shall meet with you; it shall be most holy for you. 37 When you make incense according to this composition, you shall not make it for yourselves; it shall be regardedCLXIX by you as holy to the Lord. 38 Whoever makes any like it to use as perfumeCLXX shall be cut off from the people.”

Notes on verses 35-38

CLXIV “blended as by the perfumer” = roqach + maaseh + raqach. See note CXXXVII above.
CLXV “seasoned with salt” = malach. 5x in OT. This is properly, to pulverize, temper together, dissipate, vanish. It can also mean to season or salt It could be to vanish like dust does.
CLXVI “pure” = tahor. Same as “pure” in v3. See note XIV above.
CLXVII “beat” = shachaq. 4x in OT. This is to rub off, wear away, pulverize.
CLXVIII “powder” = daqaq. 12x in OT. This is to crush, crumble, make dust, thresh, grind, be very small.
CLXIX “regarded” = hayah. Same as “be square” in v2. See note X above.
CLXX “use as perfume” = ruach. 11x in OT. Related to riach (scent, odor, perceive). This is to blow or breathe. It can imply to perceive, anticipate, or enjoy.

Image credit: “Display of incense for the Tabernacle replica at BYU.” – 1 is Frankincense, 2 is Myrrh, and 3 is Olive Oil. Photo by Ben P L, 2017.

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