Exodus 4

Exodus 4


1 Then MosesI answered,II “But supposeIII they do not believeIV me or listenV to me,VI

Notes on verse 1a

I “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
II “answered” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
III “but suppose” = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
IV “believe” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.
V “listen” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
VI “me” = qol. Literally, “my voice.” This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.

but say, ‘The LordVII did not appearVIII to you.’” 

The Lord said to him, “What is that in your hand?”IX

He said, “A staff.”X 

Notes on verses 1b-2

VII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
VIII “appear” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
IX “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
X “staff” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).

3 And he said, “ThrowXI it on the ground.”XII So he threw the staff on the ground, and it becameXIII a snake;XIV and Moses drew backXV fromXVI it. 

Notes on verse 3

XI “throw” = shalak. This is to throw, fling, or hurl. It can also be to throw away in a literal or figurative sense.
XII “ground” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XIII “became” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
XIV “snake” = nachash. Perhaps from nachash (to practice divination, learn by experience; to hiss as in whispering a spell). This is a serpent or snake. Used for the Serpent in the garden of Eden.
XV “drew back” = nus. This is to flee, vanish away, hide, escape, be displayed.
XVI “from” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

4 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Reach outXVII your hand, and seizeXVIII it by the tail”XIX—so he reached out his hand and graspedXX it, and it became a staff in his handXXI— 

Notes on verse 4

XVII “reach out” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XVIII “seize” = achaz. This is to grasp, catch, seize, take and hold in possession. It can also be to be afraid or hold back.
XIX “tail” = zanab. 11x in OT. Perhaps from zanb (to curtail, cut a tail off, attack from behind; perhaps from a word meaning to wag). This is a tail or stub – in a literal or figurative sense.
XX “grasped” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
XXI “hand” = kaph. From kaphaph (to bend – from a root meaning curve or bend down). This is palm of the hand or sole of the foot, footstep, grasp. Figuratively, it can also mean power.

“so that they may believe that the Lord, the GodXXII of their ancestors,XXIII the God of Abraham,XXIV the God of Isaac,XXV and the God of Jacob,XXVI has appeared to you.”

Notes on verse 5

XXII “God” = Elohim.
XXIII “ancestors” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIV “Abraham” = Abraham. Related to “ancestors” in v5. From the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (see note XXIII above) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
XXV “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
XXVI “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.

Again, the Lord said to him, “PutXXVII, XXVIII your handXXIX inside your cloak.”XXX

Notes on verse 6a

XXVII “put” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XXVIII {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
XXIX “hand” = yad. Same as “hand” in v2. See note IX above.
XXX “cloak” = cheq. Root may mean to enclose. This is bosom in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be arms, lap, or midst. It can also be care or cherish.

He put his handXXXI into his cloak; and when he took it out,XXXII, XXXIII his handXXXIV was leprous,XXXV as white as snow.XXXVI 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXI “hand” = yad. Same as “hand” in v2. See note IX above.=“hand” = yad. Same as “hand” in v2. See note IX above.
XXXII “took…out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIII {untranslated} = hinneh. Related to “but suppose” in v1. From hen (see note III above). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XXXIV “hand” = yad. Same as “hand” in v2. See note IX above.
XXXV “was leprous” = tsara. From tsaraath (leprosy or a mark). This is to have leprosy or be a leper.
XXXVI “snow” = sheleg. 19x in OT. Perhaps from shalag (to snow, to be white). This is snow or snowy.

7 Then God said, “Put your handXXXVII backXXXVIII into your cloak”—so he put his handXXXIX back into his cloak, and when he took it out,XL it was restoredXLI like the rest of his bodyXLII— 

Notes on verse 7

XXXVII “hand” = yad. Same as “hand” in v2. See note IX above.
XXXVIII “put…back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
XXXIX “hand” = yad. Same as “hand” in v2. See note IX above.
XL {untranslated} = cheq + hinneh. Cheq is the same as “cloak” in v6. See note XXX above. Hinneh is the same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XXXIII above.
XLI “restored” = shub. Same as “put…back” in v7. See note XXXVIII above.
XLII “body” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.

8 XLIIIIf they will not believe you or heedXLIV the firstXLV sign,XLVI they may believe the secondXLVII sign. 

Notes on verse 8

XLIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “became” in v3. See note XIII above.
XLIV “heed” = shama. Same as “listen” in v1. See note V above.
XLV “first” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
XLVI “sign” = qol +oth. Qol is the same as “me” in v1. See note VI above. Oth is from avah (to mark, sign, point out); OR from uth (to agree). This is a sign in a literal or figurative sense. It could be a flag or monument. It could be evidence or a mark. It could also be an omen or a miracle. 
XLVII “second” = acharon. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is end, last, coming behind, to loiter, later. It can also refer to the west.

9 XLVIIIIf they will not believe even these twoXLIX signs or heed you,L you shall takeLI some waterLII from the NileLIII

Notes on verse 9a

XLVIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “became” in v3. See note XIII above.
XLIX “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
L “you” = qol. Literally, “your voice.” Same as “me” in v1. See note VI above.
LI “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LII “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
LIII “Nile” = Yeor. From Egyptian yeor (river). This is the Nile as the main river in Egypt. It is also used for the Tigris for its similar status in Assyria. It can also more generally mean river, steam, channel, or flood.

and pour it onLIV the dry ground;LV andLVI the water that you shall take from the Nile will become bloodLVII on the dry ground.”LVIII

Notes on verse 9b

LIV “pour…on” = shaphak. This is to pour out, gust, or slip. It can be to pour as blood, a drink offering, or molten metal. It can also mean to create a mound. Figuratively, it can refer to killing, or spending money.
LV “dry ground” = yabbashah. 14x in OT– word used for dry land in Genesis 1:9-10. From yabesh (to dry up, be withered, be dry; to be ashamed, confused, or disappointed). This is dry land or dry ground.
LVI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “became” in v3. See note XIII above.
LVII “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
LVIII “dry ground” = yabbeshet. Related to “dry ground” in v9. 2x in OT. From yabesh (see note LV above). This is dry land.

10 But Moses said to the Lord, “OLIX my Lord,LX I have never beenLXI eloquent,LXII

Notes on verse 10a

LIX “O” = biy. 12x in OT. Perhaps from ba’ah (to inquire, search, boil, or swell out. Figuratively, it could be to sincerely desire). This is O, I pray – it is used to make a request or to speak to someone of higher social status. It is always followed by, “my lord.” In the Bible it is used in addressing a higher status human, an angel, and also God.
LX “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
LXI {untranslated} = enosh. From anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is human, humankind, another. It is mortal.
LXII “eloquent” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.

 neither in the pastLXIII nor even nowLXIV that you have spokenLXV to your servant;LXVI but I am slowLXVII of speechLXVIII and slow of tongue.”LXIX 

Notes on verse 10b

LXIII “past” = temol. May be from ethmol (formerly, before, yesterday, time); {from et (with, among, beside, including, toward, near); from anah (to meet, happen, approach)} + mul (front, opposite, toward); {from mul (to cut short, circumcise, blunt, destroy)}. This is ago, recently, yesterday, past.
LXIV “now” = shilshom. From shalash (to make triplicate, do a third time); from the same as shalosh (three, fork, three times). This is three days ago, before, yesterday in the past.
LXV “spoken” = dabar. Related to “eloquent” in v10. See note LXII above.
LXVI “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
LXVII “slow” = kabed. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is heavy, grievous, sore. It can also be weighty in the sense of gravitas. The word for “glory” in Hebrew comes from this root (kabod).
LXVIII “speech” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
LXIX “tongue” = lashon. This is tongue, talker, language, or wedge. It can also be a tongue of flame or a water cove.

11 Then the LordLXX said to him, “Who givesLXXI speech to mortals?LXXII Who makesLXXIII them muteLXXIV or deaf,LXXV

Notes on verse 11a

LXX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
LXXI “gives” = sum. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
LXXII “mortals” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
LXXIII “makes” = sum. Same as “gives” in v11. Se note LXXI above.
LXXIV “mute” = illem. 6x in OT. From the same as alam (to bind or tie fast; to be silent or speechless, whether voluntary or involuntary). This is mute or speechless.
LXXV “deaf” = cheresh. 9x in OT. From charash (to scratch, which implies etching or plowing; to manufacture regardless of materials used; figuratively, to devise or conceal; secrecy – hence, being silent, left alone, or speechless). This is deaf or a someone who is deaf in a literal or figurative sense.

seeingLXXVI or blind?LXXVII Is it not I, the Lord?LXXVIII 12 Now go,LXXIX and I will be with your mouthLXXX and teachLXXXI you what you are to speak.” 

Notes on verses 11b-12

LXXVI “seeing” = piqqeach. 2x in OT. From paqach (open, as opening one’s senses, particularly eyes; figuratively, being watchful). This is seeing or clear-sighted. Figuratively, it can mean wise.
LXXVII “blind” = ivver. From avar (to blind, put out). This is blindness or someone who is blind. It can be used literally or figuratively.
LXXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
LXXIX “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
LXXX “mouth” = peh. Same as “speech” in v10. See note LXVIII above.
LXXXI “teach” = yarah. This is to throw, shoot, be stunned. It is to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach. This is the same root that “Jerusalem” and “Torah” draw from.

13 But he said, “O my Lord,LXXXII pleaseLXXXIII sendLXXXIV someone else.”LXXXV 

14 Then the angerLXXXVI of the LordLXXXVII was kindledLXXXVIII against Moses

Notes on verses 13-14a

LXXXII “Lord” = Adonai. Same as “Lord” in v10. See note LX above.
LXXXIII “please” = na. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XXVIII above.
LXXXIV “send” = shalach. Same as “reach out” in v4. See note XVII above.
LXXXV {untranslated} = yad + shalach. Yad is the same as “hand” in v2. See note IX above. Shalach is the same as “reach out” in v4. See note XVII above.
LXXXVI “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
LXXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
LXXXVIII “kindled” = charah. Perhaps related to charar (to be hot, burn, glow, melt, be scorched; figuratively, to incite passion, be angry). This is to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn. Figuratively it is a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy.

and he said, “What of your brotherLXXXIX AaronXC the Levite?XCI I knowXCII that he can speak fluently;XCIII

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXIX “brother” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
XC “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
XCI “Levite” = Leviyyi. From Levi (Levi; perhaps meaning “attached”; Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants); perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levite or levitical.
XCII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XCIII “can speak fluently” = dabar + dabar. Same as “spoken” in v10. See note LXV above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

even nowXCIV he is coming outXCV to meetXCVI you, and when he seesXCVII you his heartXCVIII will be glad.XCIX 

Notes on verse 14c

XCIV {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XXXIII above.
XCV “coming out” = yatsa. Same as “took…out” in v6. See note XXXII above.
XCVI “meet” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.
XCVII “sees” = raah. Same as “appear” in v1. See note VIII above.
XCVIII “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XCIX “be glad” = sameach. From samach (to rejoice, be glad; properly, to brighten up; also used figuratively). This is glad or joyful.

15 You shall speak to him and putC the wordsCI in his mouth; and I will be with your mouth and with his mouth, and will teach you what you shall do.CII 16 He indeed shall speak for you to the people;CIII, CIV he shall serveCV as a mouth for you, and you shall serve as God for him. 17 Take in your hand this staff, with which you shall performCVI the signs.”

Notes on verses 15-17

C “put” = sum. Same as “gives” in v11. See note LXXI above.
CI “words” = dabar. Same as “eloquent” in v10. See note LXII above.
CII “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
CIII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
CIV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “became” in v3. See note XIII above.
CV “serve” = hayah. Same as “became” in v3. See note XIII above.
CVI “perform” = asah. Same as “do” in v15. See note CII above.

18 Moses went backCVII to his father-in-lawCVIII JethroCIX and said to him, “Please let me goCX back to my kindredCXI in EgyptCXII and see whether they are still living.”CXIII

And Jethro said to Moses, “Go in peace.”CXIV 

Notes on verse 18

CVII “back” = shub. Same as “put…back” in v7. See note XXXVIII above.
CVIII “father-in-law” = chathan. Perhaps from chathan (bridegroom, son-in-law; someone who is related through marriage; figuratively can be a child who is circumcised). This is to intermarry, make an alliance through marriage, father-in-law, son-in-law, give one’s daughter in marriage.
CIX “Jethro” = Yithro. 10x in OT. From yether (a remainder or excess; abundant, superiority; a cord a free-hanging rope); from yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel). This is Jethro, or Yithro, meaning excellent or remnant.
CX “let…go” = halak. Same as “go” in v12. See note LXXIX above.
CXI “kindred” = ach. Same as “brother” in v14. See note LXXXIX above.
CXII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
CXIII “living” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
CXIV “peace” = shalom. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).

19 The LordCXV said to Moses in Midian,CXVI “Go back to Egypt; for allCXVII thoseCXVIII who were seekingCXIX your lifeCXX are dead.”CXXI 

Notes on verse 19

CXV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
CXVI “Midian” = Midyan. From the same as madon (strife, contention, brawling); from din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, strive). This is Midian or a Midianite. It means strife or place of judgment.
CXVII “all” = kol. This is all or every
CXVIII “those” = enosh. Same as {untranslated} in v10. See note LXI above.
CXIX “seeking” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.
CXX “life” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
CXXI “are dead” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

20 So Moses took his wifeCXXII and his sons,CXXIII putCXXIV them on a donkey,CXXV and went back to the landCXXVI of Egypt; and Moses carriedCXXVII the staff of God in his hand.CXXVIII

Notes on verse 20

CXXII “wife” = ishshah. Related to {untranslated} in v10. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (see note LXI above). This is woman, wife, or female.
CXXIII “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXIV “put” = rakab. This is to ride an animal or in some vehicle. It can also mean bringing on a horse.
CXXV “donkey” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.
CXXVI “land” = erets. Same as “ground” in v3. See note XII above.
CXXVII “carried” = laqach. Same as “take” in v9. See note LI above.
CXXVIII “hand” = yad. Same as “hand” in v2. See note IX above.

21 And the LordCXXIX said to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, see that you perform beforeCXXX PharaohCXXXI all the wondersCXXXII that I have put in your power;CXXXIII but I will hardenCXXXIV his heart, so that he will not let the people go.CXXXV 

Notes on verse 21

CXXIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
CXXX “before” = paneh. Same as “from” in v3. See note XVI above.
CXXXI “Pharaoh” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pharaoh
CXXXII “wonders” = mopheth. Perhaps from yaphah (to be beautiful, decorate; root means being bright, which implies being beautiful). This is a wonder, miracle, symbol, sign, or omen.
CXXXIII “power” = yad. Same as “hand” in v2. See note IX above.
CXXXIV “harden” = chazaq. Same as “grasped” in v4. See note XX above.
CXXXV “let…go” = shalach. Same as “reach out” in v4. See note XVII above.

22 Then you shall say to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says the Lord:CXXXVI IsraelCXXXVII is my firstbornCXXXVIII son. 23 I said to you, “Let my son goCXXXIX that he may worshipCXL me.” But you refused to let him go;CXLI nowCXLII I will killCXLIII your firstborn son.’”

Notes on verses 22-23

CXXXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
CXXXVII “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “God” in v5. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note XXII above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
CXXXVIII “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
CXXXIX “let…go” = shalach. Same as “reach out” in v4. See note XVII above.
CXL “worship” = abad. Related to “servant” in v10. See note LXVI above.
CXLI “let…go” = shalach. Same as “reach out” in v4. See note XVII above.
CXLII “now” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XXXIII above.
CXLIII “kill” = harag. This is to strike with deadly intent so it can be kill, destroy, murder, or put to death.

24 CXLIVOn the way,CXLV at a place where they spent the night,CXLVI the LordCXLVII metCXLVIII him and triedCXLIX to killCL him. 

Notes on verse 24

CXLIV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “became” in v3. See note XIII above.
CXLV “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
CXLVI “place where they spent the night” = malon. 8x in OT. From lun (to stop – usually to lodge for the night; can imply dwelling, enduring, or staying permanently; figuratively, can mean being obstinate, particularly with one’s words – to complain). This is an inn, encampment, caravanserai, or other place to pass the night.
CXLVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
CXLVIII “met” = pagash. 14x in OT. This is to meet. It could be an incidental meeting or a violence encounter. It can also mean to have something in common or to agree.
CXLIX “tried” = baqash. Same as “seeking” in v19. See note CXIX above.
CL “kill” = mut. Same as “are dead” in v19. See note CXXI above.

25 But ZipporahCLI took a flintCLII and cut offCLIII her son’s foreskin,CLIV

Notes on verse 25a

CLI “Zipporah” = Tsipporah. 3x in OT. From the same as tsippor (bird, sparrow; little bird); from tsaphar (to skip about, maybe to depart). This is Zipporah, meaning bird.
CLII “flint” = tsor. Related to “Egypt” in v18. 2x in OT. From the same as tsar (flint, pebble) OR from tsur (see note CXII above). This is a flint or sharp stone that can be used as a knife.
CLIII “cut off” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
CLIV “foreskin” = orlah. 16x in OT. Perhaps from arel (uncircumcised, unskilled, exposed, forbidden); from arel (to strip or expose, restrain; to remove in a literal or figurative sense). This is foreskin or uncircumcised. It can also mean forbidden.

and touchedCLV Moses’ feetCLVI with it, and said, “Truly you are a bridegroomCLVII of blood to me!” 26 So he let him alone.CLVIII It was then she said, “A bridegroom of blood by circumcision.”CLIX

Notes on verses 25b-26

CLV “touched” = naga. This is touch, reach, arrive, come near, strike. This is touching for any reason including sexual or violent.
CLVI “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.
CLVII “bridegroom” = chathan. Related to “father-in-law” in v18. From chathan (see note CVIII above). This is bridegroom, husband, or son-in-law.
CLVIII “let…alone” = raphah. This is to slacken in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be to hang, be feeble, fail, drop, be helpless, relax, slink, subside, or wait.
CLIX “circumcision” = mulah. Related to “past” in v10. 1x in OT. From mul (see note LXIII above). This is circumcision.

27 The LordCLX said to Aaron, “Go into the wildernessCLXI to meet Moses.”

So he went; and he met him at the mountainCLXII of God and kissedCLXIII him. 28 Moses toldCLXIV Aaron all the words of the LordCLXV with which he had sent him, and all the signs with which he had chargedCLXVI him. 

Notes on verses 27-28

CLX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
CLXI “wilderness” = midbar. Related to “eloquent” and “spoken” in v10. From dabar (see note LXII above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
CLXII “mountain” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
CLXIII “kissed” = nashaq. This is to kiss in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to touch, rule, or equip with weapons.
CLXIV “told” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
CLXV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
CLXVI “charged” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).

29 Then Moses and Aaron went and assembledCLXVII all the eldersCLXVIII of the Israelites.CLXIX 30 Aaron spoke all the words that the LordCLXX had spoken to Moses, and performed the signs in the sightCLXXI of the people. 31 The people believed; and when they heard that the LordCLXXII had given heedCLXXIII to the Israelites

Notes on verses 29-31a

CLXVII “assembled” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
CLXVIII “elders” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
CLXIX “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “sons” in v20. See note CXXIII above. Yisrael is the same as “Israel” in v22. See note CXXXVII above.
CLXX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
CLXXI “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CLXXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note VII above.
CLXXIII “given heed” = paqad. This is to attend to or visit – can be used for a friendly or violent encounter. So, it can be to oversee, care for, avenge, or charge.

and that he had seen their misery,CLXXIV they bowed downCLXXV and worshiped.CLXXVI

Notes on verse 31b

CLXXIV “misery” = oniy. From anah (to be bowed down; humility or being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is misery, poverty, or affliction.
CLXXV “bowed down” = qadad. 15x in OT. Properly, this means to shrivel up. So it is used for bowing one’s head, bowing down, or stooping. It can be used to show deference.
CLXXVI “worshiped” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.

Image credit: “Prostration of Moses before the Burning Bush in the Catholic Church of Ntra. Stma” in Duisberg. Photo by Jordi, 2016.

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