Genesis 10

Genesis 10


These are the descendantsI of Noah’sII sons,III

Notes on verse 1a

I “descendants” = toledoth. From yalad (to bear, bring forth; can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage). This is generations descent, family, or history.
II “Noah’s” = Noach. From nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is Noah or Noach, meaning rest.
III “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.

Shem,IV Ham,V and Japheth;VI childrenVII were bornVIII to them after the flood.IX

Notes on verse 1b

IV “Shem” = Shem. 17x in OT. From the same as shem (name, fame, renown; indicates something essential about a person –about their individuality; can also mean honor, authority, or character); perhaps from sum (to put, place, set). This is Shem, meaning name.
V “Ham” = Cham. 16x in OT. Perhaps from the same as cham (hot, warm); from chamam (to be warm, heat; to be hot in a literal or figurative sense; to mate). This is Ham, meaning “hot” or “protective wall.” See
VI “Japheth” = Yepheth. 11x in OT. From pathah (to be simple, entice, deceive, persuade, allure, be silly); from pethi (simple, silly, foolish, easily deceived); from pathah (to be wide open, deceive, entice, persuade, to be simple, delude). This Japheth, meaning expansion.
VII “children” = ben. Same as “sons” in v1. See note III above.
VIII “were born” = yalad. Related to “descendants” in v1. See note I above.
IX “flood” = mabbul. 13x in OT. Perhaps from yabal (to bring, carry, flow, lead forth). This is a flood or deluge.

2 The descendantsX of Japheth: Gomer,XI Magog,XII Madai,XIII

Notes on verse 2a

X “descendants” = ben. Same as “sons” in v1. See note III above.
XI “Gomer” = Gomer. 6x in OT. From gamar (to end, perfect, or accomplish; end as to complete or end as a failure). This is Gomer, meaning “completion.”
XII “Magog” = Magog. 4x in OT. From the same as Gog (Gog); perhaps from gag (rooftop, roof; a place of wisdom). This is “place of Gog” or “agent of Gog.” See &
XIII “Madai” = Maday. 16x in OT. Perhaps from madad (to measure) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}}. OR from Old Persian mada (a Mede); perhaps from Proto-Iranian madyah (“in the middle”). This is Maday or Madai. It is also used to refer to Media or the Medes. The Hebrew derivation may mean “measured by the Lord” or “out of abundance.” The other derivation may mean “central.” See  &

Javan,XIV Tubal,XV Meshech,XVI and Tiras.XVII 

Notes on verse 2b

XIV “Javan” = Yavan. 11x in OT. From the same as yonah (dove or pigeon; used to refer to the exiles coming home, to describe sails of ships; also figuratively for mourning or as a description of beauty); perhaps from yayin (wine; root means to effervesce) OR from yaven (mud, mire, swamp). This is Javan or Yavan. It also sometimes refers to Greece or Ionians. It is Javan, his descendants, and their territory. It means either “dove,” “clay,” or “mud man.” See
XV “Tubal” = Tubal. Perhaps related to “flood” in v1. 8x in OT. Perhaps from tebel (world, confusion, inhabited part of the earth; the whole world); {from yabal (see note IX above) OR related to Hittite Tabal (a Luwian state in Anatolia). This is Tubal, perhaps meaning “answer,” “restore,” “return an answer,” “flowing forth,” or “world.” See &
XVI “Meshech” = Meshek. 9x in OT. From mashak (to draw, drag, or pull; to sow, march, remove, draw along, continue, extend, or prolong) OR from meshek (price, precious) OR perhaps related to Mushki or Mekshi (Anatolian or Georgian tribe; perhaps meaning “worker” or “agriculturalist”). This is Meshech or Meshek, referring to the person, their descendants, and their territory. It means “departed” or “drawn out.” See &  &
XVII “Tiras” = Tiras. 2x in OT. Perhaps from rasas (to moisten) OR related to Teresh or Tursha (part of the Sea Peoples, origin unclear) OR related to Greek Thrake (Thrace; {from thrasso (to trouble, stir)}). This is Tiras the person or his descendants. It may mean “desire” or “moisturizer.” See & & &

The descendants of Gomer: Ashkenaz,XVIII Riphath,XIX and Togarmah.XX 

Notes on verse 3

XVIII “Ashkenaz” = Ashkenaz. 3x in OT. Perhaps from esh (fire, burning, flaming, hot; fire in a literal or figurative sense) + –k (like) + from naza (to sprinkle) OR related to Assyrian Ashkuza or Asguza or Asgunza (a people who were in modern day Armenia). This is Ashkenaz – the person, their descendants, and their territory. It may mean “fire like sprinkles” or “so fire is scattered.” It is also where “Ashkenazi Jews” take their name from, although it is not a matter of direct descent, but rather an association with the Ashkenaz being people of the Rhineland. See &
XIX “Riphath” = Riphath or Diphath. 2x in OT. Perhaps from ripa (dried grain, dried fruit) OR rapha (properly, to repair by stitching – figuratively to heal or cure; to make whole) OR rapha (to lower, be slack – in a literal or figurative sense) OR perhaps related to Paphlagonians or Sauromatians (peoples suggested by Josephus) OR related to Riphean Mountains (feature in Greek geography; some suggest the Celts as ones who arrived by way of these mountains); {from Greek riphe (wind gust)}. A person and their descendants. It may be “fruit,” “grain,” “crushers,” “healers.” See & see & see
XX “Togarmah” = Togarmah. 4x in OT. Perhaps from gerem (bone); {from garam (to leave a remainder, reserve for later; break bones)} OR related to Thargamos (perhaps an ancestor of the Phrygians; some people in modern day Armenia). It is a person, their descendants, and their territory. It may mean heaviness or sorrow or bone breaker. See &

The descendants of Javan: Elishah,XXI Tarshish,XXII Kittim,XXIII and Rodanim.XXIV 

Notes on verse 4

XXI “Elishah” = Elishah. 3x in OT. Probably of foreign origin – perhaps from Hittite or Ugaritic Alashiya or Alasiya (name for all or part of Cyprus) OR from el (God, god) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe; in a causative sense, to free someone). It is not the same spelling as the prophet Elisha. A person and their descendants and territory. It may mean “God is my salvation” or “God supports.” See &
XXII “Tarshish” = Tarshish. Perhaps from the same as tarshish (a gemstone like yellow jasper, beryl, or topaz) OR from Persian Tarshata (his excellency) OR from tarsata (feared, revered) OR from rashash (to break down, shatter; perhaps subjection) OR tor (dove) + shayish (alabaster, white, crystal). This is Tarshish – a port city on the Mediterranean – exact whereabouts unknown today. See
XXIII “Kittim” = Kitti. 8x in OT. Perhaps from Pre-Greek Kiton (Cyprus). It is Kittim, Chittim, or another name for Cyprus or others who come from Islands. It is the person, their offspring, and their territory. It may mean “bruisers” See &
XXIV “Rodanim” = Dodanim. 2x in OT. Perhaps related to Greek Rhodos (island of Rhodes); perhaps from Phoenician hr’d (snake) or Greek rhodon (rose) or rhoia (pomegranate). This is Rodanim or Dodanim. See

5 From these the coastlandXXV peoplesXXVI spread.XXVII

Notes on verse 5a

XXV “coastland” = i. Perhaps from avah (to desire, crave, wish for, lust after). This is coastland, island, or region. It is a desirable place to live – dry land, coast.
XXVI “peoples” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.
XXVII “spread” = parad. This is to divide, break through, scatter, sever, stretch, to spread oneself, or to be out of joint.

These are the descendantsXXVIII of Japheth in their lands,XXIX with their own language,XXX by their families,XXXI in their nations.XXXII

Notes on verse 5b

XXVIII “descendants” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XXIX “lands” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XXX “language” = lashon. This is tongue, talker, language, or wedge. It can also be a tongue of flame or a water cove.
XXXI “families” = mishpachah. From the same as shiphcah (maid, maidservant); root means to spread out. This is one’s circle of relatives – clan, family, kindred.
XXXII “nations” = goy. Same as “peoples” in v5. See note XXVI above.

The descendants of Ham: Cush,XXXIII Egypt,XXXIV Put,XXXV and Canaan.XXXVI 

Notes on verse 6

XXXIII “Cush” = Kush. Perhaps from Egyptia k’sh (Cush). This is Cush or his descendants. Also, Ethiopia – a place south of the Nile Valley. See
XXXIV “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
XXXV “Put” = Put. 7x in OT. Origin unclear. It is Put, his descendants and their territory. It may be a Persian tribe, Libya people, or related to the Kingdom of Aksum, which includes Ethiopia and Eritrea. See
XXXVI “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See

The descendants of Cush: Seba,XXXVII Havilah,XXXVIII Sabtah,XXXIX

Notes on verse 7a

XXXVII “Seba” = Seba. 4x in OT. From saba (to drink, become drunk, be a drunk, to drink one’s fill) OR of foreign origin. This is Seba, perhaps meaning “drunkard.” It is the person, their descendants, and their territory.
XXXVIII “Havilah” = Chavilah. 7x in OT. Perhaps from chul (whirling around so dancing as in a circle or writhing in pain; used particularly for the pain of childbirth or from writhing due to fear; can also be falling in pain or waiting). This is Havilah or Chavilah. It is a personal name as well as a place name whose location is not known. It may mean “circular.”
XXXIX “Sabtah” = Sabta. 2x in OT. Perhaps from sabat (to beat, break) OR from sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense) OR of foreign origin. This is the person as well as the land where their descendants lived. It may mean “breaking through” or “encirclement.” See

Raamah,XL and Sabteca.XLI The descendants of Raamah: ShebaXLII and Dedan.XLIII 

Notes on verse 7b

XL “Raamah” = Ramah. 5x in OT. From the same as from raam (thunder); {from raam (to trouble, be agitated, irritated, angered; a peal of thunder)} OR from rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense) OR related to Rhammanitae (a Sabean people in the Arabian Peninsula). This is Raamah or Rama, perhaps meaning “trembling” or “thundering” or “exalted.” It is the person, the tribe of their descendants, and the place they settled. See
XLI “Sabteca” = Sabteka. 2x in OT. Perhaps related to “Sabtah” in v7. From sabat (see note XXXIX above) OR from sabab (see note XXXIX above) + ka’a (being disheartened). It may mean “beating,” “encircle,” or “depression.” See
XLII “Sheba” = Sheba. Perhaps related to “Seba” in v7. From Ethiopic (mean) OR from Hebrew saba (see note XXXVII above) OR from shaba (to take captive) OR from shubb (to splinter) OR from sheba (seven, oath). This is Sheba or Sabean – a person or their descendants. It also refers to the place where they lived either in southwestern Arabia or in Africa. See
XLIII “Dedan” = Dedan. 11x in OT. Perhaps from dada (to lead slowly) OR yadad (to love with affection) OR yadad (to draw lots). This is the person and their offspring. Their territory may be at the “north-west coast of the present Persian Gulf.” It may mean “leading gently” or “low.”  See &

8 Cush became the father ofXLIV Nimrod;XLV he was the firstXLVI on earthXLVII to becomeXLVIII a mighty warrior.XLIX 

Notes on verse 8

XLIV “became the father of” = yalad. Same as “were born” in v1. See note VIII above.
XLV “Nimrod” = Nimrod. 4x in OT. Perhaps from marad (to rebel, revolt) OR of foreign origin. This is Nimrod, said to be the founder of Shinar. It may mean “rebel” or “strong” or “cultivation.” See
XLVI “was the first” = chalal. This is to pierce, which implies to wound. It is used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word. It can also mean to begin as though one opened a wedge. Also, to eat something as a common thing.
XLVII “earth” = erets. Same as “lands” in v5. See note XXIX above.
XLVIII “become” = hayah. Perhaps related to “Madai” in v2. See note XIII above.
XLIX “mighty warrior” = gibbor. From gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is strong, mighty, or powerful. This can imply a warrior, hero, or tyrant.

He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; therefore it is said, “Like Nimrod a mightyL hunterLI beforeLII the Lord.”LIII 

Notes on verse 9

L “mighty” = gibbor. Same as “mighty warrior” in v8. See note XLIX above.
LI “hunter” = tsayid. 17x in OT. From tsud (to hunt, to lie in wait in order to catch an animal; used figuratively for capturing people). This is hunting, catch, the chase. It can also refer to provisions or lunch for a journey.
LII “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LIII “Lord” = YHVH. Perhaps related to “Madai” in v2 & “become” in v8. See note XIII above.

10 The beginningLIV of his kingdomLV was Babel,LVI

Notes on verse 10a

LIV “beginning” = reshith. From rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is beginning, first place, highest rank, chief thing.
LV “kingdom” = mamlakah. From the same as melek (king, royal). This is kingdom, dominion, sovereignty, rule. It can also refer to the realm.
LVI “Babel” = Babel. Perhaps from balal (to anoint, mix, overflow) OR from Akkadian Bbilim; perhaps from earlier Sumerian name Ca-dimirra (gate of god). This is Babylon or Babel. See

Erech,LVII and Accad,LVIII allLIX of them in the land of Shinar.LX 

Notes on verse 10b

LVII “Erech” = Erek. 1x in OT. From arak (to arrange by setting in a row; to set a battle, estimate, put in order, or compare) or related to Akkadian Uruk (Uruk); from Sumerian unug (abode, place; a site on earth where gods and goddesses dwell); from uru (city, dwelling). This is Erek, a place in Babylon. See
LVIII “Accad” = Akkad. 1x in OT. Perhaps from Akkadian akkadu (Akkadian); from kadurru (marks, bounds); {from kiam (thus) + ki (how) + dararu (roam)}. This is Accad, a city in Babylon. It may mean strengthen or fortress. See
LIX “all” = Kalneh. Note – this word is spelled similarly to kol, which means all or every. 3x in OT. It is Calneh or Calno. It is unclear if this was also a city or just an older way of saying “all of them.” Alternately, it could be Kulnia, Kullani, or Kullanhi in Northern Syria. See
LX “Shinar” = Shinar. 8x in OT – 4x in Gen, 1x in Jos, 1x in Isa, 1x in Dan, and 1x in Zech. This is the word used for Babylon in the Tower of Babel story. May be a corruption of Hebrew for two rivers or two cities. May also be a form of the Akkadian Shumeru (Sumer – what the Akkadians called the non-Semitic speaking peoples of Mesopotamia who called themselves ug sag gig ga or sang-ngiga. Lit. the black-headed people. These people called their land kiengi – the place of the noble lords). See &

11 From that land he went into Assyria,LXI and builtLXII Nineveh,LXIII Rehoboth-ir,LXIV Calah,LXV and 

Notes on verse 11

LXI “Assyria” = Ashshur. From Akkadian Ashshur (“City of god Ashshur”) OR related to Hebrew ashar (to go straight, advance, proceed, direct, guide, be level, be honest, be blessed or happy). This is Assyria, referring to the place and its inhabitants. It is also a name – Ashshur, a descendant of Shem. See
LXII “built” = banah. Related to “sons” in v1. See note III above.
LXIII “Nineveh” = Nineveh. 17x in OT. From Akkadian Ninua or Old Babylonian Ninuwa; from nina (literally, a fish). This is Nineveh, meaning house of fish. This could be a literal reference to fish or a reference to the goddess Ishtar. See
LXIV “Rehoboth-ir” = Rechoboth-iyr. Rechoboth is 4x in OT. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is Rehoboth or Rehoboth-ir. It is the name of a well and several cities. It means “broad places” or “streets.” Iyr is from uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
LXV “Calah” = Kelach. 2x in OT. From the same as kelach (full strength, vigor, maturity). It is Calah or Kelach, an Assyrian city. It may be Nimrud. See  

12 ResenLXVI between Nineveh and Calah; that is the greatLXVII city.LXVIII 

Notes on verse 12

LXVI “Resen” = Resen. 1x in OT. From the same as resen (halter, bridle, the jaw, or armor). This is Resen, an Assyrian city.
LXVII “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
LXVIII “city” = iyr. Same as “ir” in “Rehoboth-ir” in v11. See note LXIV above.

13 Egypt became the father of Ludim,LXIX Anamim,LXX Lehabim,LXXI Naphtuhim,LXXII 

Notes on verse 13

LXIX “Ludim” = Ludim. Perhaps related to “descendants” in v1. 3x in OT. From the same as Lud (Lud, Lydia; person, descendants, and territory; name of two different countries); {perhaps from luz (to turn aside) or from yalad (see note I above)} OR from Lyridan luwdja (Luwia, Lydus, the peoples’ first king); {perhaps from Proto-Indo-Eudropean hilewdh (people)}. This is Ludim or Lydians. It may mean “twisted” or “productivity.” See &
LXX “Anamim” = Anamim. 2x in OT. Perhaps from anah (to answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify; to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk; singing, shouting, testifying, etc.) + mayim (water, waters, or waterway in a general sense; figuratively, juice, urine, or semen).  This is a tribe, perhaps near Egypt. It may mean “responding waters.” See
LXXI “Lehabim” = Lehabim. 2x in OT. From the same as lahab (flame, flashing, bright; figuratively, a blade or the point of a spear). This is a tribe whose name means “flames.”  It may be a tribe in Libya. See
LXXII “Naphtuhim” = Naphtuchim. 2x in OT. Perhaps from patah ((to be wide open, deceive, entice, persuade, to be simple, delude). This is a tribe – probably in Egypt. It may mean “openings” or “engravers.” See

14 Pathrusim,LXXIII Casluhim,LXXIV and Caphtorim,LXXV from which the PhilistinesLXXVI come.

Notes on verse 14

LXXIII “Pathrusim” = Pathrusim. 2x in OT. From Pathros (Pathros, a name for southern Egypt); {from Egyptian pe-te-res (south land)} OR from patar (to interpret). This is Pathros or someone from there. It is a tribe in southern Egypt. It may mean “south land, “place of interpretation,” or “belonging to Athor.” See
LXXIV “Casluhim” = Kasluchim. 2x in OT. Perhaps from kasal (to lack strength, falsely linking unrelated things). This is, perhaps, the ancestor of the Philistines. See
LXXV “Caphtorim” = Kaphtori. 3x in OT. From Kaphtor (Caphtor; perhaps another name for Crete – the home base of the Philistines); from the same as kaphtor (capital of a pillar, knob, a wreath-like decoration on a candelabrum) or from kapar (to make a wall) or from katar (to protect, redeem). This is someone who comes from Caphtor, perhaps Crete. It may mean “protected,” “redeemed,” “crown,” “cup,” or “pomegranate.” See
LXXVI “Philistines” = Pelishti. From Pelesheth (Philistia); from palash (to mourn, wallow, maybe roll in). This is Philistines. Their name may mean “griever” or “burrower” or “weakener.” See

15 Canaan became the father of SidonLXXVII his firstborn,LXXVIII and Heth,LXXIX 

Notes on verse 15

LXXVII “Sidon” = Tsidon. From Phoenician tsydon (Sidon; probably meaning fishery or fishing town). This is Sidon – a city in Phoenicia. See &
LXXVIII “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
LXXIX “Heth” = Cheth. 14x in OT. Perhaps from chathath (to be shattered, crack, terrify, discourage, break down; it could be beaten down violently or from confusion or terror); from Hittite chiti (Hittite); perhaps related to Hatti (place in Anatolia where the Hattians lived). This is Heth or Cheth. It may mean “terror” or “fearsome.” It is perhaps the earliest ancestor of the Hittites. See

16 and the Jebusites,LXXX the Amorites,LXXXI the Girgashites,LXXXII 

Notes on verse 16

LXXX “Jebusites” = Yebusi. From yebus (threshing place; one of the former names of Jerusalem); from bus (to trample down, tread in a literal or figurative sense; to loathe, pollute, squirm). This is Jebusite, meaning treaders or threshers.
LXXXI “Amorites” = Emori. From amar (to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report). This is Amorite or Emori, perhaps meaning talkers.
LXXXII “Girgashites” = Girgashi. 7x in OT. Perhaps from Chaldean (clay, clod) OR related to an Arabic word (black mud) OR related to Hebrew garar (to drag out or dray away). This is Girgashite – those who live in a place that has clay soil or black mud. See

17 the Hivites,LXXXIII the Arkites,LXXXIV the Sinites,LXXXV 

Notes on verse 17

LXXXIII “Hivites” = Chivvi. Probably from the same as chavyah (life-giving, which implies the place where one lives like a village or place where one camps); probably from the same as Chavvah (Eve, life-giver); from chavah (show, tell, live, declare). This is Hivite, perhaps meaning villagers or tent villagers.
LXXXIV “Arkites” = Arqi. 2x in OT. Perhaps from araq (to gnaw, to flee). This is Arkite, someone from Arka or Erek. It is perhaps “belonging to Arka,” “fugitives” or “gnawers.” See
LXXXV “Sinites” = Sini. 2x in OT. Origin unclear. This is Sinite – taken from someone’s name. They may be a group from northern Lebanon. See

18 the Arvadites,LXXXVI the Zemarites,LXXXVII and the Hamathites.LXXXVIII Afterward the families of the CanaanitesLXXXIX spread abroad.XC 

Notes on verse 18

LXXXVI “Arvadites” = Arvadi. 2x in OT. From Arvad (Arvad, “wandering”); from arad (to flee, to be free) or from rud (to wander). This is someone from Arvad. It means “wandering” or “place of fugitives.”
LXXXVII “Zemarites” = Tsemari. 2x in OT. From the same as tsemer (wool, shaggy thing). This is Zemarite, a group in Canaan and the place where they live. It means “wooly.”
LXXXVIII “Hamathites” = Chamathi. 2x in OT. From Chamath (Hamath, Hemath; “walled”; a place in Syria); {from the same as chemeth (waterskin or bottle); perhaps from the same as chomah (a wall for protection); from the same as cham (father-in-law – one’s husband’s father; perhaps from a root meaning to join)} or from chamam (to be hot). This is Hamathite, someone from Hamath. It means “people of fortification,” “citadel,” “defense,” “hotness,” or “waterskin.” See
LXXXIX “Canaanites” = Knaaniy. Related to “Canaan” in v6. From Kna’an (see note XXXVI above). This is Cananite, which in some instances would imply a peddler or sometimes used in place of Ishmaelite. See
XC “spread abroad” = puts. This is to dash in pieces, scatter, disperse, drive.

19 And the territoryXCI of the Canaanites extendedXCII from Sidon, in the direction ofXCIII Gerar,XCIV as far as Gaza,XCV

Notes on verse 19a

XCI “territory” = gebul. Perhaps from gabal (to border, twist like rope). This is boundary, limit, coast, space. Properly, it is a line that is twisted, which implies a boundary and, by extension, the boundaries of a territory or other enclosed space.
XCII “extended” = hayah. Same as “to become” in v8. See note XLVIII above.
XCIII “in the direction of” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XCIV “Gerar” = Gerar. Perhaps related to “Girgashites” in v16. 10x in OT. From garar (see note LXXXII above). This is Gerar, south of Gaza of the Philistines. It may mean “rolling country.”
XCV “Gaza” = Azzah. From az (strong or mighty; power, vehemence, greedy); from azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively. A Late Hebrew word). This is Gaza or Azzah – a Philistine city. It means “strong.”

and in the direction of Sodom,XCVI Gomorrah,XCVII Admah,XCVIII and Zeboiim,XCIX as far as Lasha.C 20 These are the descendants of Ham, by their families, their languages, their lands, and their nations.

Notes on verses 19b-20

XCVI “Sodom” = Sedom. Perhaps from sadam (to burn) OR from sadad (to plow a field) or shadad (to be violent) or from sadad (to join) or yasad (to assemble) + –m (their). This is Sodom or Sedom. It is a city near the Dead Sea. It may mean “scorch” or “burnt” as a reference to the volcanic area. It could also mean “wet fields, “demons,” “divisions,” “breasts, “or “their assembly.” See
XCVII “Gomorrah” = Amorah. 19x in OT. From amar (to bind sheaves, heap; discipline as piling on blows) OR from am (people) + yarah (describes many small iterations combining to a bigger effect like many raindrops, lots of arrows, etc.). This is the city Gomorrah in the Jordan Valley. It may mean “people of fear,” “submersion,” “tyrannical dealings,” “people who shoot arrows,” “throes,” or “sheave.” See
XCVIII “Admah” = Admah. 5x in OT. From adamah (ground, dirt, earth); from the same as adam (man, humankind); perhaps from ‘adom (to be red). This is the city Admah near the Dead Sea. It may mean “earthy” or “red ground.” See
XCIX “Zeboiim” = Tseboim. 5x in OT. From the same as tsebi (gazelle) OR from tsaba (to be a group). This is Zeboiim, a city near the Dead Sea. It may mean “collectives,” “beautiful ones,” or “gazelles.” See
C “Lasha” = Lesha. 1x in OT. Perhaps from l’ (to, for, of) + sha’a (to delight in, stare at). This is on the border of Canaan, east of Jordan. It may mean “boiling spring” or “to be delighting in.”  See

21 To Shem also, the fatherCI of all the children of Eber,CII the elderCIII brotherCIV of Japheth, children were born. 

Notes on verse 21

CI “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
CII “Eber” = Eber. 15x in OT. From the same as eber (the region beyond, passage, quarter, opposite side; generally the east); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Eber, meaning “region beyond.” It is the name of several people and also may be the root of the word “Hebrew.”
CIII “elder” = gadol. Same as “great” in v12. See note LXVII above.
CIV “brother” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.

22 The descendants of Shem: Elam,CV Asshur,CVI Arpachshad,CVII Lud,CVIII and Aram.CIX 

Notes on verse 22

CV “Elam” = Eylam. Probably from alam (to bind or tie fast; to be silent or speechless, whether voluntary or involuntary). This is Elam – a name, his descendants, and their land. It may mean “hidden” in the sense of distant.
CVI “Asshur” = Ashshur. Same as “Assyria” in v11. See note LXI above.
CVII “Arpachshad” = Arpakshad. 9x in OT. This is Arpachshad and the place where he and his descendants lived. It may mean “boundary of the Chaldeans,” or it may sound like “light trickles as if he were a breast,” “he gathers mascara like a demon” or “Nile in a Bottle – What a Boob!”  See
CVIII “Lud” = Lud. Related to “Ludim” in v3. 5x in OT. See note LXIX above.
CIX “Aram” = Aram. Perhaps from ‘armon (any fortified building – castle, citadel, palace) OR from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively). This is Aram, Syria, Mesopotamia – meaning elevated or citadel. See

23 The descendants of Aram: Uz,CX Hul,CXI Gether,CXII and Mash.CXIII 

Notes on verse 23

CX “Uz” = Uts. 8x in OT. From uts (to plan, take counsel, consult). This is Uz – a personal name as well as the places where their descendants settled in Edom. It may be a Horite name. It may mean “consultation,” “contemplation,” “counselor,” or “inner strength.” See
CXI “Hul” = Chul. Perhaps related to “Havilah” in v7. 2x in OT. From chul (see note XXXVIII above.). This is Hul – the person and the place his descendants lived. It may mean “circle.”
CXII “Gether” = Gether. 2x in OT. From gath (winepress) + raah (to see) OR from gath (wine press) + tur (to explore) OR from gur (to fear). This is Gether – the person and the place his descendants lived. It may mean “winepress of vision,” “circle of the winepress,” or “fear.” See
CXIII “Mash” = Mash. 1x in OT. Related to “Meshech” in v2. From Meshech (see note XVI above). This is Mash, referring to the person, their descendants, and their territory. It means “departed” or “drawn out.” See &  &

24 Arpachshad became the father of Shelah;CXIV and Shelah became the father of Eber. 25 To Eber were born twoCXV sons: the nameCXVI of the oneCXVII was Peleg,CXVIII for in his days the earth was divided,CXIX and his brother’s name was Joktan.CXX 

Notes on verses 24-25

CXIV “Shelah” = Shelach. 9x in OT. From shelach (a weapon, spear, defense, plant, shoot, branch, missile); {from shalach (to send, send for, forsake, give a slave freedom). This is Shelah, Shelach, or Salah. It may mean “sent out,” branch,” “javelin,” or “request.” See
CXV “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
CXVI “name” = shem. Related to “Shem” in v1. See note IV above.
CXVII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CXVIII “Peleg” = Peleg. 7x in OT. From palag (to split or divide in a literal or figurative sense; to confound). This is Peleg, perhaps meaning “earthquake” or “division.”
CXIX “divided” = palag. Related to “Peleg” in v25. 4x in OT. See note CXVIII above.
CXX “Joktan” = Yoqtan. 6x in OT. Perhaps from qaton (to be small, diminished, insignificant, or unworthy); perhaps from qatan (least, small, young, little one; it is literally smaller whether in amount or size; figuratively smaller in the sense of younger or less important). This is Joktan, ancestor of various Arabian peoples. It may mean “he will be made little.”

26 Joktan became the father of Almodad,CXXI Sheleph,CXXII Hazarmaveth,CXXIII Jerah,CXXIV 

Notes on verse 26

CXXI “Almodad” = Almodad. 2x in OT. Perahps from el (God, a god) + meh (what?) + madad (to measure) or dod (beloved, uncle). This is Almodad, the person and his offspring. It may mean “immeasurable,” “God is beloved,” or “how God loves.” See  
CXXII “Sheleph” = Shelaph. 2x in OT. From shalaph (to draw out, pluck off). This is Sheleph and his offspring. It means “drawn out” or “extract.”
CXXIII “Hazarmaveth” = Chatsarmaveth. 2x in OT. From chatser (enclosure or court – a yard that is fenced in; a village or hamlet that is walled in); {from chatsar (to blow a trumpet, trumpeter, to surround); from chatsotsrah (trumpet)} + maveth (death, deadliness, the dead, or the place where the dead go; figuratively, pestilence or ruin); {from mut (to die in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Hazarmaveth and his offspring. It may mean “village of death” – a city in Arabia.
CXXIV “Jerah” = Yerach. 2x in OT. From the same as yareach (moon); from the same as yerach (month). This is Jerah and his offspring and the place they lived in Arabia. It means “moon.”

27 Hadoram,CXXV Uzal,CXXVI Diklah,CXXVII 

Notes on verse 27

CXXV “Hadoram” = Hadoram. 4x in OT. Perhaps from hadad (to thunder) + rum (to be high, lofty, exalted) OR from dor (generation) + rum (see above) OR from hadar (glory) + rum (see above) OR from hada (to charm a snake) + rum (see above). This is Hadoram and his offspring as well as others of the same name. It may mean “thunder is exalted,” “a noble generation,” “exalted glory,” and “exalted snake charmer.” See
CXXVI “Uzal” = Uzal. 2x in OT. From azal (to go away, disappear, evaporate). This is Uzal and his offspring as well as the place where they lived, which is not now known. It may mean “vanish” or “going away.” See
CXXVII “Diklah” = Diqlah. 2x in OT. Perhaps from daqal (to rock back and forth, wave). This is Diklah as well as the tribe of his offspring in Arabia. It may mean “palm tree.” See

28 Obal,CXXVIII Abimael,CXXIX Sheba, 29 Ophir,CXXX Havilah, and Jobab;CXXXI all these were the descendants of Joktan. 

Notes on verses 28-29

CXXVIII “Obal” = Obal. 1x in OT. From Arabic (to be bulky or bare) OR from ub (to become cloudy) + bal (not). This is Obal and his offspring. It may mean “bulky,” “stout,” “bare,” “not clouded,” or “not covered.” See
CXXIX “Abimael” = Abimael. Related to “father” in v21. 2x in OT. From ab (see note CI above) + unknown word. This is Abimael and his offspring. It may mean “a father is El” or “father of Mael.”
CXXX “Ophir” = Ophir. 13x in OT. This is Ophir, a son of Joktan, his lineage, and a place where there is gold.
CXXXI “Jobab” = Yobab. 9x in OT. From yabab (to cry out, lament, to shout shrilly). This is Jobab and his offspring as well as others. It may mean “howler.”

30 The territoryCXXXII in which they lived extended from MeshaCXXXIII in the direction of Sephar,CXXXIV the hill country of the east.CXXXV 31 These are the descendants of Shem, by their families, their languages, their lands, and their nations.

32 These are the families of Noah’s sons, according to their genealogies,CXXXVI in their nations; and from these the nations spread abroad on the earth after the flood.

Notes on verses 30-32

CXXXII “territory” = moshab. From yashab (to sit and so to remain and so to dwell; sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly; can mean settling or marrying; continue, endure, or establish). This is dwelling, seat, assembly, settlement, population.
CXXXIII “Mesha” = Mesha. 1x in OT. From mush (to remove) OR from mashash (to feel, feel for). This is Mesha – part of the boundary of the Joktanites in Arabia. It may mean “retreat.” See
CXXXIV “Sephar” = Sephar. 1x in OT. From the same as sepher (writing itself or something that is written like a document, book, letter, evidence, bill, scroll, or register); from saphar (to tally or record something; to enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare). This is Sephar, a location in southern Arabia. It may mean “census” or “counting.” See
CXXXV “east” = qedem. Perhaps from qadam (to come in front or be in front; to meet, anticipate, confront, receive, or rise; sometimes to meet for help). This is front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity.
CXXXVI “genealogies” = toledoth. Same as “descendants” in v1. See note I above.

Image credit: “Nimrod” by David Scott, circa 1832.

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