Genesis 19

Genesis 19


The twoI angelsII cameIII to SodomIV in the evening,

Notes on verse 1a

I “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
II “angels” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
III “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
IV “Sodom” = Sedom. Perhaps from sadam (to burn) OR from sadad (to plow a field) or shadad (to be violent) or from sadad (to join) or yasad (to assemble) + –m (their). This is Sodom or Sedom. It is a city near the Dead Sea. It may mean “scorch” or “burnt” as a reference to the volcanic area. It could also mean “wet fields, “demons,” “divisions,” “breasts, “or “their assembly.” See

and LotV was sittingVI in the gatewayVII of Sodom.

Notes on verse 1b

V “Lot” = Lot. From the same as lot (envelope, veil); from lut (to wrap, envelop). This is Lot, “covering.”
VI “sitting” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
VII “gateway” = shaar. May be related to sha’ar (to calculate or reckon; may come from a root that means to open up or split). This is a gate, door, or other opening like a port.

When Lot sawVIII them, he roseIX to meetX them, and bowed downXI with his faceXII to the ground.XIII 

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
IX “rose” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
X “meet” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.
XI “bowed down” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.
XII “face” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
XIII “ground” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

He said, “XIVPlease,XV my lords,XVI turn asideXVII, XVIII

Notes on verse 2a

XIV {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XV “please” = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
XVI “lords” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
XVII “turn aside” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
XVIII {untranslated} = na. Same as “please” in v2. See note XV above.

to your servant’sXIX houseXX and spend the night,XXI and washXXII your feet;XXIII

Notes on verse 2b

XIX “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
XX “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XXI “spend the night” = lun. This is to stop – usually to lodge for the night. It can imply dwelling, enduring, or staying permanently. Figuratively, it can mean being obstinate, particularly with one’s words – to complain.
XXII “wash” = rachats. This is to wash, wash away – it can be complete or partial.
XXIII “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.

then you can rise earlyXXIV and goXXV on your way.”XXVI

They said, “No; we will spend the night in the square.”XXVII 

Notes on verse 2c

XXIV “rise early” = shakam. This is leaning one’s shoulder into a burden or load, whether a person or an animal. Thus, it meant starting or rising early.
XXV “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XXVI “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
XXVII “square” = rechob. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is a wide, open place like a plaza, square, or avenue.

But he urgedXXVIII them strongly; so they turned aside to him and enteredXXIX his house; and he madeXXX them a feast,XXXI

Notes on verse 3a

XXVIII “urged” = patsar. 7x in OT. This is to urge, press, peck it. Figuratively, it can mean to stun or refer to stubbornness.
XXIX “entered” = bo. Same as “came” in v1. See note III above.
XXX “made” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XXXI “feast” = mishteh. From shathah (to drink literally or figuratively; a drinker). This is drink or the act of drinking. So it is a feast or banquet, as occasions with drinking.

and bakedXXXII unleavened bread,XXXIII and they ate.XXXIV 

Notes on verse 3b

XXXII “baked” = aphah. This is to cook or bake – particularly used of meat.
XXXIII “unleavened bread” = matstsah. From matsats (to drain out). This is unleavened bread – bread that is sweet rather than becoming sour with the flavor of yeast. Can also be used to refer to the festival of Passover, the staple food of which is commonly transliterate matzoh from this word.
XXXIV “ate” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.

But before they lay down,XXXV the menXXXVI of the city,XXXVII

Notes on verse 4a

XXXV “lay down” = shakab. This is to lie down, lodge. It is lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons.
XXXVI “men” = enosh. From anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is human, humankind, another. It is mortal.
XXXVII “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.

the men of Sodom, both youngXXXVIII and old,XXXIX all the peopleXL to the lastXLI man, surroundedXLII the house; 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXVIII “young” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
XXXIX “old” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
XL “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XLI “last” = qatseh. From qatsah (to cut off, cut short; figuratively, to destroy). This is end, brink, border, edge, frontier. It can refer to that which is within set boundaries.
XLII “surrounded” = sabab. This is turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch. It is to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense.

and they calledXLIII to Lot, “Where are the menXLIV who came to you tonight?XLV Bring them outXLVI to us, so that we may knowXLVII them.” 

Notes on verse 5

XLIII “called” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
XLIV “men” = ish. Related to “men” in v4. Perhaps from enosh (see note XXXVI above). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XLV “tonight” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
XLVI “bring…out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.

Lot went outXLVIII of the doorXLIX to the men, shutL the doorLI after him, 

Notes on verse 6

XLVIII “went out” = yatsa. Same as “bring…out” in v5. See note XLVI above.
XLIX “door” = petach. From patach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense, loosen, plow, carve). This is opening, door, gate, entrance.
L “shut” = sagar. This is to shut up, imprison, lock, hand over, or figuratively surrender.
LI “door” = delet. From dalah (to draw, lift up; properly, to dangle; draw water; figuratively, to deliver). This is something that swings like a door, gate, leaf, lid, or other opening.

and said, “I begLII you, my brothers,LIII do not act so wickedly.LIV

Notes on verse 7

LII “beg” = na. Same as “please” in v2. See note XV above.
LIII “brothers” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
LIV “act so wickedly” = ra’a’. This is to be evil, bad, afflict. Properly, it means to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces. Figuratively, it is to cause something to be worthless. It is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense – something that displeases, does harm or mischief, punishes or vexes.

 Look,LV I have two daughtersLVI who have not known a man;LVII

Notes on verse 8a

LV “look” = hinneh + na. Hinneh is the same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XIV above. Na is the same as “please” in v2. See note XV above.
LVI “daughters” = bat. Related to “house” in v2. From ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (see note XX above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
LVII “man” = ish. Same as “men” in v5. See note XLIV above.

let me bring them out to you, and doLVIII to them as you please;LIX onlyLX do nothingLXI to these men,LXII for they have come under the shelterLXIII of my roof.”LXIV 

Notes on verse 8b

LVIII “do” = asah. Same as “made” in v3. See note XXX above.
LIX “please” = tob + ayin. Literally “according to what is good in your eyes.” Tob is from tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good. Ayin is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
LX “only” = raq. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit.
LXI “nothing” = aldabar. Dabar is from dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LXII “men” = ish. Same as “men” in v5. See note XLIV above.
LXIII “shelter” = tsel. From tsalal (to be or become dark, shade; this is the shade as during twilight or shadow as associated with something opaque). This is shade in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be shadow, shade, protection, shelter, or defense.
LXIV “roof” = qorah. 5x in OT. From qarah (to happen, meet, bring about) OR from qur (to dig, destroy, wall up). This is a roof, rafter, or beam.

But they replied, “StandLXV back!”LXVI

And they said, “This fellowLXVII came here as an alien,LXVIII and he would play the judge!LXIX

Notes on verse 9a

LXV “stand” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
LXVI “back” = haleah. 16x in OT. This is beyond, far away, to this point, back, forward.
LXVII “fellow” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
LXVIII “alien” = gur. Properly, this is the act of turning off the road for any reason. So, it means sojourning, becoming a guest. It can mean being fearful since one is outside of home territory. It can also mean dwelling, living, or inhabiting if one has turned off the root to encamp for a longer duration. This word is where the Hebrew “ger” comes from, which is the word translated “stranger” or “resident alien.”
LXIX “play the judge” = shaphat + shaphat. This is to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, or govern. It can refer to God judging or to human judges. This is pronouncing a verdict in favor or against so it implies consequences or punishment. It can also mean to litigate or govern as one with authority. The word is repeated twice – the second time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

Now we will deal worseLXX with you than with them.” Then they pressedLXXI hard against the manLXXII Lot, and came nearLXXIII the doorLXXIV to break it down.LXXV 

Notes on verse 9b

LXX “deal worse” = ra’a’. Same as “act so wickedly” in v7. See note LIV above.
LXXI “pressed” = patsar. Same as “urged” in v3. See note XXVIII above.
LXXII “man” = enosh. Same as “men” in v4. See note XXXVI above.
LXXIII “came near” = nagash. Same as “stand” in v9. See note LXV above.
LXXIV “door” = delet. Same as “door” in v6. See note LI above.
LXXV “break…down” = shabar. This is break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear. It is bursting in a literal or figurative sense.

10 But the menLXXVI inside reached outLXXVII their handsLXXVIII and brought Lot intoLXXIX the house with them, and shut the door.LXXX 

Notes on verse 10

LXXVI “men” = ish. Same as “men” in v5. See note XLIV above.
LXXVII “reached out” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
LXXVIII “hands” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LXXIX “brought…into” = bo. Same as “came” in v1. See note III above.
LXXX “door” = delet. Same as “door” in v6. See note LI above.

11 And they struckLXXXI with blindnessLXXXII the menLXXXIII who were at the doorLXXXIV of the house, both smallLXXXV and great,LXXXVI

Notes on verse 11a

LXXXI “struck” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
LXXXII “blindness” = sanverim. 3x in OT. This is a sudden blindness. It is used of the men of Sodom being struck with blindness in Genesis 19 and the Arameans being struck with blindness when they were attacking and Elisha prayed to God in 2 Kings 6.
LXXXIII “men” = ish. Same as “men” in v5. See note XLIV above.
LXXXIV “door” = petach. Same as “door” in v6. See note XLIX above.
LXXXV “small” = qatan. From quwt (grieved, cut off, to detest). This is least, small, young, little one. It is literally smaller whether in amount or size. Figuratively it is smaller in the sense of younger or less important.
LXXXVI “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.

 so that they were unableLXXXVII to findLXXXVIII the door.LXXXIX

Notes on verse 11b

LXXXVII “were unable” = laah. 19x in OT. This is to be weary or exhausted, parched, faint, or tired. It could also mean to be impatient, or have a hard time. Figuratively, this could refer to being grieved or disgusted. This is the root verb that Leah comes from.
LXXXVIII “find” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
LXXXIX “door” = petach. Same as “door” in v6. See note XLIX above.

12 Then the menXC said to Lot, “Have you anyone else here? Sons-in-law,XCI sons,XCII daughters, or anyone you have in the city—bring them out of the place.XCIII 

Notes on verse 12

XC “men” = ish. Same as “men” in v5. See note XLIV above.
XCI “sons-in-law” = chatan. From chatan (to ally in marriage; to give one’s daughter away in marriage). This is bridegroom, husband, or son-in-law.
XCII “sons” = ben. Related to “house” in v2 & “daughters” in v8. See note LVI above.
XCIII “place” = maqom. Related to “rose” in v1. From qum (see note IX above). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.

13 For we are about to destroyXCIV this place, because the outcryXCV against its people has become greatXCVI beforeXCVII the Lord,XCVIII and the Lord has sentXCIX us to destroy it.” 

Notes on verse 13

XCIV “destroy” = shachat. This is to go to ruin, perish, decay, batter, cast off, lose, one who destroys. This can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
XCV “outcry” = tseaqah. From tsaaq (to cry out or call together, to shriek; by implication, calling for an assembly). This is a cry for help, shriek or outcry.
XCVI “become great” = gadal. Related to “great” in v11. See note LXXXVI above.
XCVII “before” = paneh. Literally “before the face of.” From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XCVIII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XCIX “sent” = shalach. Same as “reached out” in v10. See note LXXVII above.

14 So Lot went out and saidC to his sons-in-law, who were to marryCI his daughters, “Up,CII get outCIII of this place; for the Lord is about to destroy the city.” But he seemedCIV toCV his sons-in-law to be jesting.CVI

Notes on verse 14

C “said” = dabar. Related to “nothing” in v8. See note LXI above.
CI “marry” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.  
CII “up” = qum. Same as “rose” in v1. See note IX above.
CIII “get out” = yatsa. Same as “bring…out” in v5. See note XLVI above.
CIV “seemed” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v13. See note XCVIII above.
CV “to” = ayin. Literally “in the sight of.” Same as “please” in v8. See note LIX above.
CVI “jesting” = tsachaq. 13x in OT. This is to laugh, mock, play, make sport. It is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way. This is the root of “Isaac.”

15 When morningCVII dawned,CVIII the angels urgedCIX Lot, saying,

Notes on verse 15a

CVII “morning” = shachar. Root may mean to look for in early hour or in a diligent way. This is dawn, early light, or morning.
CVIII “dawned” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
CIX “urged” = uts. 10x in OT. This is to press, hurry, narrow, be close.

“Get up,CX takeCXI your wifeCXII and your two daughters who are here,CXIII or else you will be consumedCXIV in the punishmentCXV of the city.” 

Notes on verse 15b

CX “get up” = qum. Same as “rose” in v1. See note IX above.
CXI “take” = laqach. Same as “marry” in v14. See note CI above.
CXII “wife” = ishshah. Related to “men” in v4 & “men” in v5. From ish (see note XLIV above). This is woman, wife, or female.
CXIII “are here” = matsa. Same as “find” in v11. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXIV “consumed” = saphah. This is to capture, sweep away, scrape, remove, heap up, scatter, ruin, or perish.
CXV “punishment” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.

16 But he lingered;CXVI so the menCXVII seizedCXVIII him and his wifeCXIX and his two daughters by the hand,

Notes on verse 16a

CXVI “lingered” = mahah. 9x in OT. Perhaps from mah (what, how long). This is to delay, question, linger, be reluctant.
CXVII “men” = ish. Same as “men” in v5. See note XLIV above.
CXVIII “seized” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
CXIX “him and his wife” = yad + yad + ishshah. Yad is the same as “hands” in v10. See note LXXVIII above. Ishshah is the same as “wife” in v15. See note CXII above.

the Lord being mercifulCXX to him, and they brought him out and leftCXXI him outsideCXXII the city. 

Notes on verse 16b

CXX “being merciful” = chemlah. 2x in OT. From chamal (to spare, commiserate, show compassion). This is compassion or mercy.
CXXI “left” = yanach. Perhaps from the same as nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is to lay down, let alone, pacify, cast down, or deposit. It can also mean to allow something or someone to stay.
CXXII “outside” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.

17 When they had brought them outside, they said, “FleeCXXIII for your life;CXXIV do not lookCXXV back or stopCXXVI anywhere in the Plain;CXXXVII flee to the hills, or else you will be consumed.” 

Notes on verse 17

CXXIII “flee” = malat. This is to be smooth, which implies to escape as slipping away from. It can also be release, rescue, deliver, or preserve. It can be used specifically to meaning giving birth or making sparks.
CXXIV “life” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
CXXV “look” = nabat. This is to behold, look at intently, consider, or scan. It can mean to have respect or regard someone favorably.
CXXVI “stop” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
CXXVII “Plain” = kikkar. From karar (to dance or whirl). This is round so it can refer to a circle, a circular region, a weight used for measurement, money, a loaf of bread that is round, a cover, a plain, or a valley in the Jordan.

18 And Lot said to them, “Oh,CXXVIII no, my lords;CXXIX 19 CXXXyour servant has found favorCXXXI with you,CXXXII

Notes on verses 18-19a

CXXVIII “oh” = na. Same as “please” in v2. See note XV above.
CXXIX “lords” = adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans. Frequently, this form is used to refer to God. It means someone who is in control.
CXXX {untranslated} = hinneh + na. See note LV above.
CXXXI “favor” = chen. From chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is grace, favor, kindness, beauty, precious.
CXXXII “with you” = ayin. Literally “in your sight.” Same as “please” in v8. See note LIX above.

and you have shownCXXXIII me great kindnessCXXXIV in savingCXXXV my life; but I cannotCXXXVI flee to the hills,

Notes on verse 19b

CXXXIII “shown” = asah. Same as “made” in v3. See note XXX above.
CXXXIV “kindness” = chesed. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed. When done by God to humanity, this is mercy/loving kindness. When done by humanity to God, it is piety.
CXXXV “saving” = chayah. This is to live or keep alive in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be revive, nourish, or save.
CXXXVI “cannot” = lo + yakol. Yakol is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.

for fear the disasterCXXXVII will overtakeCXXXVIII me and I die.CXXXIX 

Notes on verse 19c

CXXXVII “disaster” = ra’. Related to “act so wickedly” in v7. From ra’a’ (see note LIV above). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
CXXXVIII “overtake” = dabaq. This is to follow closely or abide fast, to cling or be joined together. Figuratively, it can mean to catch something by chasing after it, to overtake, or to stick. A man clings to his wife in Genesis 2:24, Shechem was deeply attracted to Dinah in Genesis 34:3, Ruth clung to Naomi in Ruth 1:14, Solomon clung to his foreign wives and concubines in 1 Kings 11:2. It is also used of a tongue sticking to the mouth, pursuing or overtaking as in battle, and also clinging to God.
CXXXIX “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

20 Look,CXL that city is nearCXLI enough to fleeCXLII to, and it is a little one.CXLIII Let me escapeCXLIV, CXLV there—is it not a little one?—and my life will be saved!” 

Notes on verse 20

CXL “look” = hinneh + na. See note LV above.
CXLI “near” = qarob. From qarab (to come near, offer, make ready). This is near whether nearby, related, near in time, or allied.
CXLII “flee” = nus. This is to flee, vanish away, hide, escape, be displayed.
CXLIII “little one” = mitsar. 5x in OT. From tsaar (to be brought low, small, little one; figuratively, be insignificant or ignoble). This is something small in size or few in number. It could also be a short period of time or a thing that is not significant.
CXLIV “escape” = malat. Same as “flee” in v17. See note CXXIII above.
CXLV {untranslated} = na. Same as “please” in v2. See note XV above.

21 He said to him, “Very well,CXLVI I grantCXLVII youCXLVIII this favorCXLIX too, and will not overthrowCL the city of which you have spoken.CLI 

Notes on verse 21

CXLVI “very well” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XIV above.
CXLVII “grant” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
CXLVIII “you” = paneh. Same as “before” in v13. See note XCVII above.
CXLIX “favor” = dabar. Same as “nothing” in v8. See note LXI above.
CL “overthrow” = haphak. This is to turn, overturn, change, return, turn over, pervert.
CLI “spoken” = dabar. Same as “said” in v14. See note C above.

22 Hurry,CLII escape there, for I can do nothing until you arriveCLIII there.” Therefore the city was calledCLIV Zoar.CLV 

Notes on verse 22

CLII “hurry” = mahar. This is being liquid, which implies flowing. So, this word implies hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense.
CLIII “arrive” = bo. Same as “came” in v1. See note III above.
CLIV “called” = qara + shem. Qara is the same as “called” in v5. See note XLIII above. Shem may be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
CLV “Zoar” = Tsoar. Related to “little one” in v20. 10x in OT. From tsaar (see note CXLIII above). This is Zoar or Tsoar, a city whose name means “insignificance” or “little.”

23 The sunCLVI had risenCLVII on the earthCLVIII when Lot came to Zoar.

Notes on verse 23

CLVI “sun” = shemesh. This is sun or toward the east. Its root may mean being brilliant. Figuratively, this could be a ray or an arch.
CLVII “risen” = yatsa. Same as “bring…out” in v5. See note XLVI above.
CLVIII “earth” = erets. Same as “ground” in v1. See note XIII above.

24 Then the Lord rained on Sodom and GomorrahCLIX sulfurCLX and fireCLXI from the Lord out of heaven;CLXII 

Notes on verse 24

CLIX “Gomorrah” = Amorah. 19x in OT. From amar (to bind sheaves, heap; discipline as piling on blows) OR from am (people) + yarah (describes many small iterations combining to a bigger effect like many raindrops, lots of arrows, etc.). This is the city Gomorrah in the Jordan Valley. It may mean “people of fear,” “submersion,” “tyrannical dealings,” “people who shoot arrows,” “throes,” or “sheave.” See
CLX “sulfur” = gophrith. 7x in OT. From the same as gopher (a gopher tree or gopher wood – used for construction; perhaps the cypress; root may mean to house). This is cypress resin or brimstone. This could be understood as sulfur since both substances are similarly flammable. This is where the “gopher” in gopher wood comes from.
CLXI “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXII “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.

25 and he overthrew those cities, and all the Plain, and all the inhabitantsCLXIII of the cities, and what grewCLXIV on the ground.CLXV 26 But Lot’s wife, behind him, looked back, and she became a pillarCLXVI of salt.CLXVII

Notes on verses 25-26

CLXIII “inhabitants” = yashab. Same as “sitting” in v1. See note VI above.
CLXIV “grew” = tsemach. 12x in OT. From tsamach (to sprout, grow – literal or figurative). This is a sprout or growth, literal or figurative.
CLXV “ground” = adamah. From the same as adam (man, humankind); perhaps from ‘adom (to be red). This is ground, earth, soil as red, or land.
CLXVI “pillar” = netsib. 12x in OT. From natsab (to station, appoint, establish, take a stand). This is something that stands like a pillar, statute, or post. It could also be an officer, a garrison, or a military post.
CLXVII “salt” = melach. Perhaps from malach (properly, to pulverize, temper together, dissipate; also to season or salt). This is powder; used for salt or salt pit.

27 AbrahamCLXVIII went earlyCLXIX in the morningCLXX to the place where he had stoodCLXXI beforeCLXXII the Lord; 

Notes on verse 27

CLXVIII “Abraham” = Abraham. From the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
CLXIX “went early” = shakam. Same as “rise early” in v2. See note XXIV above.
CLXX “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
CLXXI “stood” = amad. Same as “stop” in v17. See note CXXVI above.
CLXXII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v13. See note XCVII above.

28 and he lookedCLXXIII down towardCLXXIV Sodom and Gomorrah and toward all theCLXXV landCLXXVI of the Plain

Notes on verse 28a

CLXXIII “looked” = shaqaph. This is to look down or look out. Properly, it is looking by leaning out a window. It can be peeping or gazing.
CLXXIV “toward” = al + paneh. Same as “before” in v13. See note XCVII above.
CLXXV {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “before” in v13. See note XCVII above.
CLXXVI “land” = erets. Same as “ground” in v1. See note XIII above.

and sawCLXXVII the smokeCLXXVIII of the land going upCLXXIX like the smoke of a furnace.CLXXX

Notes on verse 28b

CLXXVII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XIV above.
CLXXVIII “smoke” = qitor. 4x in OT. Perhaps from qatar (to smoke or burn; especially of sacrifice – the fragrance of the offering); perhaps from qetoreth (smoke, incense, the scent of the sacrifice as it burned) or perhaps from Qatar (to shut in or join). This is smoke, clouds, vapor.
CLXXIX “going up” = alah. Same as “dawned” in v15. See note CVIII above.
CLXXX “furnace” = kibshan. 4x in OT. From kabash (to subdue, tread down, trample, disregard, violate, assault, or conquer). This is a kiln or furnace – especially one used to smelt metals.

29 So it was that, when GodCLXXXI destroyed the cities of the Plain, God rememberedCLXXXII Abraham, and sent Lot out of the midstCLXXXIII of the overthrow,CLXXXIV when he overthrew the cities in which Lot had settled.CLXXXV

Notes on verse 29

CLXXXI “God” = Elohim.
CLXXXII “remembered” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
CLXXXIII “midst” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
CLXXXIV “overthrow” = haphekah. Related to “overthrow” in v21. 1x in OT. From hephek (); from haphak (see note CL above). This is an overthrow or destruction.
CLXXXV “settled” = yashab. Same as “sitting” in v1. See note VI above.

30 Now Lot went up out of Zoar and settled in the hills with his two daughters, for he was afraidCLXXXVI to stayCLXXXVII in Zoar; so he livedCLXXXVIII in a caveCLXXXIX with his two daughters. 

Notes on verse 30

CLXXXVI “was afraid” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
CLXXXVII “stay” = yashab. Same as “sitting” in v1. See note VI above.
CLXXXVIII “lived” = yashab. Same as “sitting” in v1. See note VI above.
CLXXXIX “cave” = mearah. Perhaps from ur (to be made naked, exposed, or bare). This is a cave, cavern, den, or hole.

31 And the firstbornCXC said to the younger,CXCI “Our fatherCXCII is old,CXCIII and there is not a manCXCIV on earth to come in to us after the mannerCXCV of all the world.CXCVI 

Notes on verse 31

CXC “firstborn” = bekirah. 6x in OT. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn – specifically referring to a firstborn daughter.
CXCI “younger” = tsair. Related to “little one” in v20 & “Zoar” in v22. From tsaar (see note CXLIII above). This is little, young, least, younger, few in number, low in value.
CXCII “father” = ab. Related to “Abraham” in v27. See note CLXVIII above.
CXCIII “old” = zaqen. Related to “old” in v4. From the same as zaqan (see note XXXIX above). This is old, aged, or elder.
CXCIV “man” = ish. Same as “men” in v5. See note XLIV above.
CXCV “manner” = derek. Same as “way” in v2. See note XXVI above.
CXCVI “world” = erets. Same as “ground” in v1. See note XIII above.

32 Come,CXCVII let us make our father drinkCXCVIII wine,CXCIX and we will lieCC with him, so that we may preserveCCI offspringCCII through our father.” 

Notes on verse 32

CXCVII “come” = halak. Same as “go” in v2. See note XXV above.
CXCVIII “make…drink” = shaqah. This is to give water to, to cause to drink – to irrigate, drown. It can be used for watering plants or giving water to flocks.
CXCIX “wine” = yayin. Root may mean to effervesce, referring to the fermentation process. This is wine, grape, or banquet. It can imply intoxication.
CC “lie” = shakab. Same as “lay down” in v4. See note XXXV above.
CCI “preserve” = chayah. Same as “saving” in v19. See note CXXXV above.
CCII “offspring” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.

33 So they made their father drink wine that night; and the firstborn went in,CCIII and lay with her father; he did not know when she lay down or when she rose. 

34 On the next day, the firstborn said to the younger, “Look,CCIV I lay last night with my father; let us make him drink wine tonight also; then you go in and lie with him, so that we may preserve offspring through our father.” 

35 So they made their father drink wine that night also; and the younger rose, and lay with him; and he did not know when she lay down or when she rose. 36 Thus bothCCV the daughters of Lot became pregnantCCVI by their father. 

Notes on verses 33-36

CCIII “went in” = bo. Same as “came” in v1. See note III above.
CCIV “look” = hen. Related to {untranslated} in v2. See note XIV above.
CCV “both” = shenayim. Same as “two” in v1. See note I above.
CCVI “became pregnant” = harah. This is to conceive or be pregnant – it can be literal or figurative.

37 The firstborn boreCCVII a son, and namedCCVIII him Moab;CCIX he is the ancestorCCX of the Moabites to this day. 

Notes on verse 37

CCVII “bore” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
CCVIII “named” = qara + shem. Literally “called his name.” See note CLIV above.
CCIX “Moab” = Moab. Related to “Abraham” in v27 & “father” in v31. May be from ab (see note CLXVIII above). This is Moab or Moabite. Name could mean “from her father” in reference to the incestuous relationship between Lot and his daughters. The name could also mean, more pleasantly, “seed of a father” or “desirable land.” See
CCX “ancestor” = ab. Same as “father” in v31. See note CXCII above.

38 The younger also bore a son and namedCCXI him Ben-ammi;CCXII he is the ancestor of the AmmonitesCCXIII to this day.

Notes on verse 38

CCXI “named” = qara + shem. Literally “called his name.” See note CLIV above.
CCXII “Ben-ammi” = Ben-ammi. Related to “house” I v2 & “daughters” in v8 & “sons” in v12 & “people” in v4. 1x in OT. From ben (see note LVI above) + am (see note XL above). This is Ben-ammi, meaning “son of my people.”
CCXIII “Ammonites” = ben + Ammon. Literally “sons of Ammon.” Ben is the same as “sons” in v12. See note XCII above. Ammon is related to “people” in v4 & “Ben-Ammi” in v38. From im (with, against, before, beside); {from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} OR from am (see note XL above). This is Ammon or Ammonite. It is a group descended from Lot as well as their land east of Jordan. It may mean “tribal,” “people,” or, unkindly, “inbred.”

Image credit: “The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah” by John Martin, 1852.

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