Genesis 32

Genesis 32


JacobI wentII on his wayIII and the angelsIV of GodV metVI him; 

Notes on verse 1

I “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
II “went” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
III “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
IV “angels” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
V “God” = Elohim.
VI “met” = paga. This is to meet or happen, whether unintentionally or of violence. It can also be plead, spare, reach, or intercede.

and when Jacob sawVII them he said, “This is God’s camp!VIII” So he calledIX that placeX Mahanaim.XI

Notes on verse 2

VII “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
VIII “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
IX “called” = qara + shem. Literally “he called the name of” Qara is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth. Shem may be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
X “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
XI “Mahanaim” = Machanayim. Related to “camp” in v2. 13x in OT. From machaneh (see note VIII above). This is Mahanaim, meaning “two camps” or “double camp.” It is a place.

3 Jacob sentXII messengersXIII beforeXIV him to his brotherXV EsauXVI

Notes on verse 3a

XII “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XIII “messengers” = malak. Same as “angels” in v1. See note IV above.
XIV “before” = paneh. Literally “before his face.” From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XV “brother” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
XVI “Esau” = Esav. From asah (to squeeze, handle, or press) OR from asah (to do, make, accomplish, become). This is Esau, perhaps meaning rough as something one handles. It could also be doer, maker, or worker. See

in the landXVII of Seir,XVIII the countryXIX of Edom,XX 

Notes on verse 3b

XVII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XVIII “Seir” = Seir. From the same as sear (hair, hairy, rough); {from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, storm tossed; this is to toss in a literal or figurative sense)} OR from sa’iyr (goat, shaggy, devil, satyr). This is Seir, Edomite mountain region. It is the name of the people that live there and a particular Judean mountain. It may mean “the hairy guys,” “bucks,” “horrors,” “bristly,” or “riders on the storm.” See
XIX “country” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
XX “Edom” = Edom. From the same as adom (to be red or flushed). This is Edom or Idumaea. It means red.

instructingXXI them, “Thus you shall say to my lordXXII Esau: Thus says your servantXXIII Jacob, ‘I have lived with LabanXXIV as an alien,XXV and stayedXXVI until now; 

Notes on verse 4

XXI “instructing” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
XXII “lord” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
XXIII “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
XXIV “Laban” = Laban. From the same as laban (white); from laban (to be white or make a brick). This is Laban, meaning white.
XXV “lived…as an alien” = gur. Properly, this is the act of turning off the road for any reason. So, it means sojourning, becoming a guest. It can mean being fearful since one is outside of home territory. It can also mean dwelling, living, or inhabiting if one has turned off the root to encamp for a longer duration. This word is where the Hebrew “ger” comes from, which is the word translated “stranger” or “resident alien.”
XXVI “stayed” = achar. 17x in OT. This is to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay. It can also imply procrastination.

and I haveXXVII oxen,XXVIII donkeys,XXIX flocks,XXX

Notes on verse 5a

XXVII “have” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
XXVIII “oxen” = shor. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant). This is bull, ox, head of cattle, cow.
XXIX “donkeys” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.
XXX “flocks” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.

maleXXXI and female slaves;XXXII and I have sent to tellXXXIII my lord, in order that I may findXXXIV favorXXXV in your sight.’”XXXVI

Notes on verse 5b

XXXI “male” = ebed. Same as “servant” in v4. See note XXIII above.
XXXII “female slaves” = shiphchah. Root may mean to spread out – it would be the same root used in mishpachah, which means family or clan. This is maidservant, female slave, or female bondslave.
XXXIII “tell” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
XXXIV “find” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
XXXV “favor” = chen. From chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is grace, favor, kindness, beauty, precious.
XXXVI “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

The messengers returnedXXXVII to Jacob, saying, “We cameXXXVIII to your brother Esau, and he is coming to meetXXXIX you, and fourXL hundred menXLI are with him.” 

Notes on verse 6

XXXVII “returned” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
XXXVIII “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XXXIX “meet” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.
XL “four” = arba. From raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is four.
XLI “men” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.

Then Jacob was greatly afraidXLII and distressed;XLIII and he dividedXLIV the peopleXLV that were with him,

Notes on verse 7a

XLII “was…afraid” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
XLIII “distressed” = yatsar. 10x in OT. From the same as tsarar (to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary). This is to be narrow, pressed on. In a figurative sense, it can refer to being vexed or in distress.
XLIV “divided” = chatsah. 15x in OT. This is to halve, divide, reach, participate.
XLV “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

and the flocks and herdsXLVI and camels,XLVII into twoXLVIII companies,XLIX 

Notes on verse 7b

XLVI “herds” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
XLVII “camels” = gamal. From gamal (how one deals with someone whether positively or negatively – so to reward, requite; to wean or the work that goes into something ripening). This is a camel as an animal of labor or one that bears burdens. The English word “camel” is from a Semitic source, perhaps Hebrew or others.
XLVIII “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
XLIX “companies” = machaneh. Same as “camp” in v2. See note VIII above.

8 thinking, “If Esau comes to the oneL company and destroysLI it, thenLII the company that is leftLIII will escape.”LIV

Notes on verse 8

L “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
LI “destroys” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
LII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “have” in v5. See note XXVII above.
LIII “that is left” = shaar. Properly, this is swelling up i.e. being left over, a remnant, remaining, being redundant.
LIV “escape” = peletah. From paliyt (fugitive, refugee, or one who escaped); from palat (to escape, slip out, deliver, calve). This is deliverance or escape. It is the remnant that got away.

And Jacob said, “O God of my fatherLV AbrahamLVI and God of my father Isaac,LVII O LordLVIII 

Notes on verse 9a

LV “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
LVI “Abraham” = Abraham. Related to “father” in v9.  From the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (see note LV above) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
LVII “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
LVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “have” in v5. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note XXVII above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.

who said to me, ‘Return to your countryLIX and to your kindred,LX and I will do you good,’LXI 

Notes on verse 9b

LIX “country” = erets. Same as “land” in v3. See note XVII above.
LX “kindred” = moledet. From yalad (to bear, bring forth, beget, calve, act as midwife, show lineage). This is kindred, offspring, birthplace, lineage, native country, or family.
LXI “do…good” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.

10 I am not worthyLXII of the least of all the steadfast loveLXIII and all the faithfulnessLXIV that you have shownLXV to your servant,

Notes on verse 10a

LXII “am not worthy” = qaton. 4x in OT. Perhaps from qatan (least, small, young, little one; it is literally smaller whether in amount or size; figuratively smaller in the sense of younger or less important); from qut (grieved, cut off, to detest). This is to be small, diminished, insignificant, or unworthy.
LXIII “steadfast love” = chesed. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed. When done by God to humanity, this is mercy/loving kindness. When done by humanity to God, it is piety.
LXIV “faithfulness” = emet. From aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This is firmness or stability. Figuratively, it is faithfulness, truth, or trustworthiness. This is the same root that “amen” comes from.
LXV “shown” = asah. Related to “Esau” in v3. See note XVI above – second verb.

for with only my staffLXVI I crossedLXVII this Jordan;LXVIII and now I have becomeLXIX two companies. 

Notes on verse 10b

LXVI “staff” = maqqel. 18x in OT. This is a shoot with leaves growing from it or a staff. It could be a walking stick, a stick for guiding (e.g. sheep), a stick for striking like a war club, or a divining rod.
LXVII “crossed” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
LXVIII “Jordan” = Yarden. From yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
LXIX “become” = hayah. Same as “have” in v5. See note XXVII above.

11 DeliverLXX me, please,LXXI from the handLXXII of my brother, from the hand of Esau, for I am afraidLXXIII of him;

Notes on verse 11a

LXX “deliver” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.
LXXI “please” = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
LXXII “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LXXIII “afraid” = yare. Related to “was afraid” in v7. From the same as yare (see note XLII above). This is fearful or morally reverent.

he may come and killLXXIV us all, the mothersLXXV with the children.LXXVI 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXIV “kill” = nakah. Same as “destroys” in v8. See note LI above.
LXXV “mothers” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVI “children” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.

12 Yet you have said, ‘I will surely do you good,LXXVII and makeLXXVIII your offspringLXXIX

Notes on verse 12a

LXXVII “will surely do…good” = yatab + yatab. Same as “do…good” in v9. See note LXI above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
LXXVIII “make” = sum. Related to “called” in v2. See note IX above.
LXXIX “offspring” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.

as the sandLXXX of the sea,LXXXI which cannot be countedLXXXII because of their number.’”LXXXIII

Notes on verse 12b

LXXX “sand” = chol. From chul (whirling around so dancing as in a circle or writhing in pain; used particularly for the pain of childbirth or from writhing due to fear; can also be falling in pain or waiting). This is sand, perhaps because of its roundness or the way that the grains can whirl.
LXXXI “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.
LXXXII “counted” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.
LXXXIII “number” = rob. From rabab (to be or become much or many, multiply). This is any kind of abundance.

13 So he spentLXXXIV that nightLXXXV there, and from what he had with himLXXXVI he tookLXXXVII a presentLXXXVIII for his brother Esau, 

Notes on verse 13

LXXXIV “spent” = lun. This is to stop – usually to lodge for the night. It can imply dwelling, enduring, or staying permanently. Figuratively, it can mean being obstinate, particularly with one’s words – to complain.
LXXXV “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
LXXXVI “he had with him” = bo + yad. Literally “what came to his hand.” Bo is the same as “came” in v6. See note XXXVIII above. Yad is the same as “hand” in v11. See note LXXII above.
LXXXVII “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LXXXVIII “present” = minchah. This is a gift or an offering, particularly a sacrificial one that is generally bloodless and given spontaneously (voluntarily).

14 two hundred female goatsLXXXIX and twentyXC male goats,XCI two hundred ewesXCII and twenty rams,XCIII 

Notes on verse 14

LXXXIX “female goats” = ez. Perhaps from azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is a female goat, but can refer to male goats when plural.
XC “twenty” = esrim. From the same as eser (ten, tenth). This is twenty or twentieth.
XCI “male goats” = tayish. 4x in OT. Its roots may refer to butting. This is a male goat.
XCII “ewes” = rachel. This is a ewe or a sheep. The root of this word might mean to journey. This is where the name “Rachel” comes from.
XCIII “rams” = ayil. From the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power). This is strength so it is used to indicate things that are strong or powerful: political chiefs, rams, posts, trees, oaks.

15 thirtyXCIV milchXCV camels and their colts,XCVI fortyXCVII cowsXCVIII

Notes on verse 15a

XCIV “thirty” = sheloshim. From the same as shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is thirty or thirtieth.
XCV “milch” = yanaq. This is to suckle or to nurse. In a causative sense, it can mean to give milk. So, this word can be used for a nursing mother or for her suckling child.
XCVI “colts” = ben. Same as “children” in v11. See note LXXVI above.
XCVII “forty” = arbaim. Related to “four” in v6. From the same as arba (see note XL above). This is forty
XCVIII “cows” = parah. From the same as par (a young bull or ox); from parar (to break, defeat, frustrate, caste off, clean, cease). This is a heifer or cow.

and tenXCIX bulls,C twenty female donkeysCI and ten male donkeys.CII 

Notes on verse 15b

XCIX “ten” = eser. Related to “twenty” in v14. See note XC above.
C “bulls” = par. Related to “cows” in v15. See note XCVIII above.
CI “female donkeys” = athon. Perhaps from the same as eythan (continual, mighty, strong, ever-flowing, permanence). This is a female donkey as an animal that is patient and gentle.
CII “male donkeys” = ayir. 9x in OT. Perhaps from ur (to raise up, wake up, lift oneself up; to awake in a literal or figurative sense). This is a male donkey or a colt as an animal of labor who is newly domesticated to bear loads.

16 These he deliveredCIII into the hand of his servants, every droveCIV by itself,CV

Notes on verse 16a

CIII “delivered” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
CIV “every drove” = eder + eder. From adar (fail, missing) OR from adar (to dig, help, keep rank; properly, to muster troops as for battle; to miss or lack since you can see who is missing following muster; to arrange like a vineyard and so to hoe). This is arrangement – of animals, a flock or herd.
CV “by itself” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.

and said to his servants, “Pass onCVI aheadCVII of me, and putCVIII a spaceCIX between drove and drove.” 

Notes on verse 16b

CVI “pass on” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
CVII “ahead” = paneh. Same as “before” in v3. See note XIV above.
CVIII “put” = sum. Same as “make” in v12. See note LXXVIII above.
CIX “space” = revach. 2x in OT. From ravach (to be large, spacious, to refresh, breathe free). This is a space or room. It could be an enlargement, interval, or a respite.

17 He instructed the foremost,CX “When Esau my brother meetsCXI you, and asksCXII you, ‘To whom do you belong? Where are you going? And whose are these aheadCXIII of you?’ 18 then you shall say, ‘They belong to your servant Jacob; they are a present sent to my lord Esau; andCXIV moreover he is behind us.’” 

Notes on verses 17-18

CX “foremost” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
CXI “meets” = pagash. 14x in OT. This is to meet. It could be an incidental meeting or a violence encounter. It can also mean to have something in common or to agree.
CXII “asks” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
CXIII “ahead” = paneh. Same as “before” in v3. See note XIV above.
CXIV {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!

19 He likewise instructed the secondCXV and the thirdCXVI and all who followedCXVII the droves, “You shall say the same thingCXVIII to Esau when you meetCXIX him, 

Notes on verse 19

CXV “second” = sheni. Related to “two” in v7. See note XLVIII above.
CXVI “third” = shelishi. Related to “thirty” in v15. From the same as shalosh (see note XCIV above). This is third or one-third of something.
CXVII “followed” = halak. Same as “went” in v1. See note II above.
CXVIII “say the same thing” = amar + dabar + zeh +dabar. Literally “in this manner you shall speak.” Dabar is from dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense. Dabar is related to “same” in v29.  See note CXVIII above.
CXIX “meet” = matsa. Same as “find” in v5. See note XXXIV above.

20 and you shall say, ‘CXXMoreover your servant Jacob is behind us.’” For he thought, “I may appeaseCXXI himCXXII with the present that goes aheadCXXIII of me, and afterwards I shall see his face;CXXIV

Notes on verse 20a

CXX {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v18. See note CXIV above.
CXXI “appease” = kaphar. This is to appease, cover, pacify, cancel, make atonement, placate. Specifically, it can mean to cover with bitumen.
CXXII “him” = paneh. Same as “before” in v3. See note XIV above.
CXXIII “ahead” = paneh. Same as “before” in v3. See note XIV above.
CXXIV “face” = paneh. Same as “before” in v3. See note XIV above.

perhaps he will acceptCXXV me.”CXXVI 21 So the present passed on ahead of him;CXXVII and he himself spent that night in the camp.

Notes on verses 20b-21

CXXV “accept” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
CXXVI “me” = paneh. Same as “before” in v3. See note XIV above.
CXXVII “him” = paneh. Same as “before” in v3. See note XIV above.

22 The same night he got upCXXVIII and took his two wives,CXXIX his two maids,CXXX

Notes on verse 22a

CXXVIII “got up” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
CXXIX “wives” = ishshah. Related to “men” in v6. From ish (see note XLI above). This is woman, wife, or female.
CXXX “maids” = shiphchah. Same as “female slaves” in v5. See note XXXII above.

and his elevenCXXXI children,CXXXII and crossed the fordCXXXIII of the Jabbok.CXXXIV 

Notes on verse 22b

CXXXI “eleven” = echad + asar. Echad is the same as “one” in v8. See note L above. Asar is related to “twenty” in v14 & “ten” in v15. From the same as eser (see note XC above). This is ten or -teen.
CXXXII “children” = yeled. Related to “kindred” in v9. From yalad (see note LX above). This is something born – so, offspring, youth, fruit. It is the same word used in Isaiah 9:6 “for a child will be born to us.”
CXXXIII “ford” = ma’abar. Related to “crossed” in v10. From abar (see note LXVII above). This is passing or a ford. It is a place to cross a river or mountain. It can also refer more broadly to transit or, figuratively, for overwhelming.
CXXXIV “Jabbok” = Yabboq. 7x in OT. Probably from baqaq (to empty, devastate, demoralize, luxuriate, depopulate). This is Jabbok or Yabboq, meaning “emptying” or “he will empty.” See

23 He took them and sentCXXXV them across the stream,CXXXVI and likewiseCXXXVII everything that he had. 

Notes on verse 23

CXXXV “sent” = abar. Same as “crossed” in v10. See note LXVII above.
CXXXVI “stream” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.
CXXXVII “likewise” = abar. Same as “crossed” in v10. See note LXVII above.

24 Jacob was leftCXXXVIII alone;CXXXIX and a manCXL wrestledCXLI with him until daybreak.CXLII 

Notes on verse 24

CXXXVIII “left” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.
CXXXIX “alone” = bad. Same as “by itself” in v16. See note CV above.
CXL “man” = enosh. Related to “men” in v6 & “wives” in v22. See note XLI above.
CXLI “wrestled” = abaq. 2x in OT- both in this chapter. This is to wrestle or grapple. It could have a sense of evaporating like vapor.
CXLII “daybreak” = alah + shachar. Alah is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense. Shachar root may mean to look for in early hour or in a diligent way. This is dawn, early light, or morning.

25 When the man saw that he did not prevailCXLIII against Jacob, he struckCXLIV him on the hipCXLV socket;CXLVI

Notes on verse 25a

CXLIII “prevail” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
CXLIV “struck” = naga. This is touch, reach, arrive, come near, strike. This is touching for any reason including sexual or violent.
CXLV “hip” = yarek. Root may mean to be soft. This is thigh, side, body, shank. It can be used figuratively for genitalia.
CXLVI “socket” = kaph. From kaphaph (to bend – from a root meaning curve or bend down). This is palm of the hand or sole of the foot, footstep, grasp. Figuratively, it can also mean power.

and Jacob’s hip was put out of jointCXLVII as he wrestled with him. 26 Then he said, “Let me go,CXLVIII for the day is breaking.”CXLIX

But Jacob said, “I will not let you go, unless you blessCL me.” 

27 So he said to him, “What is your name?”CLI

And he said, “Jacob.” 

Notes on verses 25b-27

CXLVII “put out of joint” = yaqa. 8x in OT. This is dislocated, severed, alienated, or figuratively abandoned. It can also mean rotting, which causes pieces to drop off bit by bit.
CXLVIII “let…go” = shalach. Same as “sent” in v3. See note XII above.
CXLIX “day is breaking” = alah + shachar. Same as “daybreak” in v24. See note CXLII above.
CL “bless” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
CLI “name” = shem. Same as “called” in v2. See note IX above.

28 Then the man said, “You shall no longer be calledCLII Jacob, but Israel,CLIII for you have strivenCLIV with God and with humans,CLV and have prevailed.” 

29 Then Jacob asked him, “Please tell me your name.”

But he said, “Why is it that you ask my name?” And there he blessed him. 

Notes on verses 28-29

CLII “called” = amarshem. Amar is to say, speak, tell. Shem is the same as “called” in v2. See note IX above.
CLIII “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “God” in v1. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note V above). This is God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
CLIV “striven” = sarah. Related to “Israel” in v28. 2x in OT. See note CLIII above.
CLV “humans” = ish. Same as “men” in v6. See note XLI above.

30 So Jacob called the place Peniel,CLVI saying, “For I have seen God face to face, and yet my lifeCLVII is preserved.”CLVIII 

Notes on verse 30

CLVI “Peniel” = Penuel. Related to “before” in v3 & “God” in v1 & “Israel” in v28. 9x in OT. From paneh (see note XIV above) + el (see note V above). This is Peniel or Penuel, meaning “face of God.” It is a place name and a person’s name.
CLVII “life” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
CLVIII “preserved” = natsal. Same as “deliver” in v11. See note LXX above.

31 The sunCLIX roseCLX upon him as he passed Penuel, limpingCLXI because of his hip. 

Notes on verse 31

CLIX “sun” = shemesh. This is sun or toward the east. Its root may mean being brilliant. Figuratively, this could be a ray or an arch.
CLX “rose” = zarach. 18x in OT. This is to rise, shine, or dawn. It can also be used to describe symptoms of leprosy.
CLXI “limping” = tsala. 4x in OT. Perhaps from tsela (rib, side, leaf, plank, side of a person or object; quarter of the sky). Root may mean to curve. This is lame or limping.

32 Therefore to this day the IsraelitesCLXII do not eatCLXIII the thigh muscleCLXIV that is on the hip socket, because he struck Jacob on the hip socket at the thigh muscle.

Notes on verse 32

CLXII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “children” in v11. See note LXXVI above. Yisrael is the same as “Israel” in v28. See note CLIII above.
CLXIII “eat” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXIV “thigh muscle” = gid + nasheh. Gid is 7x in OT. Perhaps from gud (to attack, crowd upon).This is a tendon or sinew. Nasheh is 2x in OT. From nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive). This is a hip or, more particularly a nerve in the thigh.

Image credit: “Jacob and the Angel” by Carel Kneulman at the Hague, 1957.

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