Genesis 36

Genesis 36


1 These are the descendantsI of EsauII (that is, Edom).III 

Notes on verse 1

I “descendants” = toledot. From yalad (to bear, bring forth; can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage). This is generations descent, family, or history.
II “Esau” = Esav. From asah (to squeeze, handle, or press) OR from asah (to do, make, accomplish, become). This is Esau, perhaps meaning rough as something one handles. It could also be doer, maker, or worker. See
III “Edom” = Edom. From the same as adom (to be red or flushed). This is Edom or Idumaea. It means red.

Esau tookIV his wivesV from the Canaanites:VI

Notes on verse 2a

IV “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
V “wives” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
VI “Canaanites” = bat + Kna’an. Literally “daughters of Canaan.” Bat is from ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense. Kna’an is from kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See

AdahVII daughterVIII of ElonIX the Hittite,X

Notes on verse 2b

VII “Adah” = Adah. 8x in OT. From adah (adorning oneself with ornaments, decorate). This is Adah, meaning “ornament.”
VIII “daughter” = bat. Same as “Canaanites” in v2. See note VI above.
IX “Elon” = Elon. 6x in OT. From ayil (oaks); from the same as ulam (porch, hall); from the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power) OR from alam (to bind or tie fast; to be silent or speechless, whether voluntary or involuntary). This is Elon, a terebinth or oak. It is a personal name of several people in the Bible.
X “Hittite” = Chitti. From cheth (Heth or Cheth; one of Canaan’s sons from whom perhaps the Hittites descend) OR from hatat (terror, lacking strength or courage); perhaps from hata (to seize; often used of coals from a fire). This is Hittite – perhaps meaning terrors or terrible. See

OholibamahXI daughter of AnahXII sonXIII of ZibeonXIV the Hivite,XV 

Notes on verse 2c

XI “Oholibamah” = Oholibamah. 8x in OT. From ohel (tent, covering, home, or side pillar); {perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear)} + bamah (root might mean being high; height, wave, or elevation). This is Oholibamah or Aholibamah, meaning “tent of the high place” or “tent of the height.”
XII “Anah” = Anah. 12x in OT. From anah (to answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify; to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk; singing, shouting, testifying, etc.). This is Anah, a personal name. It means “answer,” “task,” “affliction,” or “song.” See
XIII “son” = bat. Literally “daughter.” Same as “Canaanites” in v2. See note VI above.
XIV “Zibeon” = Tsibon. 8x in OT. Perhaps from tseba (dye, something dipped). This is Zibeon, meaning “hyena” or “variegated.”
XV “Hivite” = Chivvi. Probably from the same as chavyah (life-giving, which implies the place where one lives like a village or place where one camps); probably from the same as Chavvah (Eve, life-giver); from chavah (show, tell, live, declare). This is Hivite, perhaps meaning villagers or tent villagers.

and Basemath,XVI Ishmael’sXVII daughter, sisterXVIII of Nebaioth.XIX 

Notes on verse 3

XVI “Basemath” = Basemath. 7x in OT. From the same as bosem (balsam, spice, perfume, odor; the balsam tree); from the same as basam (spice, balsam tree). This is Basemath or Basmath. It may mean “perfume” or “fragrance.” It refers to one of Esau’s wives and one of Solomon’s daughters.
XVII “Ishmael’s” = Yishmael. From shama (hear, call, consent, or consider; implies listening intelligently, giving attention; obedience and action are often implied) + el (God, a god). This is Ishmael, meaning “God hears” or “God will hear.”
XVIII “sister” = achot. From the same as ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean another or together.
XIX “Nebaioth” = Nebayoth. 5x in OT. From nabat (to behold, look at intently, consider, or scan; to have respect or regard someone favorably) OR from nabah (to be high or noticeable) OR from naba (to prophesy). This is Nebaioth, his lineage and the territory they inhabited. It means “high places,” “seen,” regarded,” “having prophesied,” “visions,” or “scopes.”  See 

Adah boreXX EliphazXXI to Esau; Basemath bore Reuel;XXII 

Notes on verse 4

XX “bore” = yalad. Related to “descendants” in v1. See note I above.
XXI “Eliphaz” = Eliphaz. Related to “Ishmael” in v3. 15x in OT. From el (see note XVII above) + paz (refined gold, pure gold); {from pazaz (being refined; gold as refined)}. This is Eliphaz, meaning “God is fine gold” or “God of gold.”
XXII “Reuel” = Reuel. Related to “Ishmael” in v3 & “Eliphaz” in v4. 11x in OT. From raah (perhaps association with, keep company) + el (see note XVII above).  This is Reuel, meaning “friend of God.”

5 and Oholibamah bore Jeush,XXIII Jalam,XXIV and Korah.XXV These are the sonsXXVI of Esau who were born to him in the landXXVII of Canaan.

Notes on verse 5

XXIII “Jeush” = Yeush. 9x in OT. From ush (to help, hasten). This is Jeush or Yeush, meaning “he comes to help” or “hasty.”
XXIV “Jalam” = Yalam.4x in OT. From alam (to hide, conceal, a dissembler; to conceal in a literal or figurative sense). This is Jalam or Yalam, perhaps meaning “occult,” “young man,” “he will hide,” “he will be hidden,” or “in him it will be hidden.” See
XXV “Korah” = Qorach. From qarach (to shave bald, perhaps frozen). This is Korah, perhaps meaning “ice,” “frost,” “hail,” or “baldness.” See
XXVI “sons” = ben. Related to “Canaanites” in v2. See note VI above.
XXVII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

6 Then Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, and all the membersXXVIII of his household,XXIX his cattle,XXX all his livestock,XXXI

Notes on verse 6a

XXVIII “members” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XXIX “household” = bayit. Related to “Canaanites” in v2 & “sons” in v5. Probably related to banah (see note VI above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XXX “cattle” = miqneh. From qanah (to get, acquire, purchase, move to jealousy, buyer, keep cattle). This is something that is bought, which implies property or possession. However, it is generally used of livestock – cattle, flock, herds.
XXXI “livestock” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.

and all the propertyXXXII he had acquiredXXXIII in the land of Canaan; and he movedXXXIV to a land some distance fromXXXV his brotherXXXVI Jacob.XXXVII 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXII “property” = qinyan. Related to “cattle” in v6. 10x in OT. From qanah (see note XXX above) This is something that has been purchased or otherwise gotten. It is a possession, creation, or wealth.
XXXIII “acquired” = rakash. 5x in OT. This is to get, acquire property, collect.
XXXIV “moved” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XXXV “some distance from” = paneh. Literally “away from the presence of.” From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XXXVI “brother” = ach. Related to “sister” in v3. See note XVIII above.
XXXVII “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.

For their possessionsXXXVIII wereXXXIX too greatXL for them to liveXLI together;XLII

Notes on verse 7a

XXXVIII “possessions” = rekush. Related to “acquired” in v6. From rakash (see note XXXIII above). This is property, riches, possessions.
XXXIX “were” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
XL “too great” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
XLI “live” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XLII “together” = yachad. From yachad (to join, be united). This is a unit, both, altogether, unitedness, alike.

the land where they were stayingXLIII couldXLIV not supportXLV them

Notes on verse 7b

XLIII “staying” = magor. From gur (properly, the act of turning off the road for any reason; sojourning, becoming a guest; can mean being fearful since one is outside of home territory; also dwelling, living, or inhabiting if one has turned off the root to encamp for a longer duration). This is a dwelling place, a temporary lodging. It can also mean to be fearful as one might be in a strange place.
XLIV “could” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
XLV “support” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.

because ofXLVI their livestock.XLVII So Esau settledXLVIII in the hill country of Seir;XLIX Esau is Edom.

Notes on verses 7c-8

XLVI “because of” = paneh. Same as “some distance from” in v6. See note XXXV above.
XLVII “livestock” = miqneh. Same as “cattle” in v6. See note XXX above.
XLVIII “settled” = yashab. Same as “live” in v7. See note XLI above.
XLIX “Seir” = Seir. From the same as sear (hair, hairy, rough); {from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, storm tossed; this is to toss in a literal or figurative sense)} OR from sa’iyr (goat, shaggy, devil, satyr). This is Seir, Edomite mountain region. It is the name of the people that live there and a particular Judean mountain. It may mean “the hairy guys,” “bucks,” “horrors,” “bristly,” or “riders on the storm.” See

These are the descendants of Esau, ancestorL of the Edomites, in the hill country of Seir. 10 These are the namesLI of Esau’s sons: Eliphaz son of Adah the wife of Esau; Reuel, the son of Esau’s wife Basemath. 11 The sons of Eliphaz were Teman,LII

Notes on verses 9-11a

L “ancestor” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
LI “names” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
LII “Teman” = Teman. 11x in OT. From the same as yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is Teman, a place in north Edom and a chief. It means “the south.” See

Omar,LIII Zepho,LIV Gatam,LV and Kenaz.LVI 

Notes on verse 11b

LIII “Omar” = Omar. 3x in OT. From amar (to say, answer, challenge). This is Omar, meaning “talkative,” “eloquent,” or “he says.” See
LIV “Zepho” = Tsepho. 3x in OT. From tsaphah (to look out, look around, spy watchman, sentinel; leaning out to look far away; to await or observe). This is Zepho, Zephi, Tsepho, or Tsephi. It may mean “gazing” or “observant.”
LV “Gatam” = Gatam. 3x in OT. This is Gatam, meaning unclear.
LVI “Kenaz” = Qenaz. 11x in OT. Perhaps from qanaz (to hunt, set a trap). This is Kenaz. It may mean “hunting” or “hunter.”

12 (TimnaLVII was a concubine of Eliphaz, Esau’s son; she bore AmalekLVIII to Eliphaz.) These were the sons of Adah, Esau’s wife. 13 These were the sons of Reuel: Nahath,LIX Zerah,LX

Notes on verses 12-13a

LVII “Timna” = Timna. 6x in OT. From mana (to hold back, refuse, restrain, deny in a positive or in a negative sense). This is Timna, perhaps meaning “restraint.”
LVIII “Amalek” = Amaleq. Perhaps from amal (to work – hard labor) OR from am (people or nation; a tribe, troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals); {from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} + laqaq (to lap, lick) OR from am (see above) + malaq (to wring, nip; to remove a bird’s head). This is Amalek or Amalekite. It may mean “people that wring,” “people that lap,” “nippers,” or “lickers.” See &
LIX “Nahath” = Nachath. 5x in OT. From nacheth (to sink or descend, settle, press down, be broken). This is Nahath, perhaps meaning “quiet.”
LX “Zerah” = Zerach. From zarach (to rise, shine, or dawn; can also describe symptoms of leprosy). This is Zerah or Zerach. It is a name that means “rising” or “dawn.”

Shammah,LXI and Mizzah.LXII These were the sons of Esau’s wife, Basemath. 14 These were the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah, daughterLXIII of Anah son of Zibeon: she bore to Esau Jeush, Jalam, and Korah.

Notes on verses 13b-14

LXI “Shammah” = Shammah. 7x in OT. From the same as shammah (desolation, horror, dismay, waste); from shamem (to be appalled, astonished; to stun or devastate, be destitute). This is Shammah. It means “appalling desolation” or “waste.” See
LXII “Mizzah” = Mizzah. 3x in OT. From the same as mazeh (empty, sucked out, exhausted). This is Mizzah. It may mean fainting because one is terrified.
LXIII “son” = bat. Literally “daughter.” Same as “Canaanites” in v2. See note VI above.

15 These are the clansLXIV of the sons of Esau. The sons of Eliphaz the firstbornLXV of Esau: the clansLXVI Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz, 16 Korah, Gatam, and Amalek; these are the clans of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; they are the sons of Adah. 17 These are the sons of Esau’s son Reuel: the clansLXVII Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah; these are the clans of Reuel in the land of Edom; they are the sons of Esau’s wife Basemath. 18 These are the sons of Esau’s wife Oholibamah: the clansLXVIII Jeush, Jalam, and Korah; these are the clans born of Esau’s wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah. 19 These are the sons of Esau (that is, Edom), and these are their clans.

Notes on verses 15-19

LXIV “clans” = alluph. From alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is a friend, something gentle like a tame bull. It can also refer to someone who is noble or a leader like a captain, guide, or governor.
LXV “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
LXVI “clans” = alluph. Literally “clan of.” Same as “clans” in v15. See note LXIV above. Each clan listed in this and the next verse if proceeded by this word (i.e. “clan of Teman, clan of Omar…”
LXVII “clans” = alluph. Literally “clan of.” Same as “clans” in v15. See note LXIV above. It follows the same pattern as described in note LXVI above.
LXVIII “clans” = alluph. Literally “clan of.” Same as “clans” in v15. See note LXIV above. It follows the same pattern as described in note LXVI above.

20 These are the sons of Seir the Horite,LXIX the inhabitantsLXX of the land: Lotan,LXXI Shobal,LXXII Zibeon, Anah, 

Notes on verse 20

LXIX “Horite” = Chori. 6x in OT. From the same as chor (a hole, den, cavity); {from the same as chur (hole; a hole that was bored; a crevice where a snake lives; the cell of a prison)} OR from harar (to be the center radiating warmth, ruler, fever). This is Horite, a people group from Edom. It’s also a personal name. It may mean “cave dweller,” “noble,” hollow,” or “central authority.” See
LXX “inhabitants” = yashab. Same as “live” in v7. See note XLI above.
LXXI “Lotan” = Lotan. 7x in OT. From lut (to wrap, envelop). This is Lotan, meaning “covering.” The name shares a root with Lot.
LXXII “Shobal” = Shobal. 9x in OT. From the same as shobel (the train of a skirt that flows after a woman). This is Shobal, meaning “flowing,” “wavy,” or “overflowing.” See

21 Dishon,LXXIII Ezer,LXXIV and Dishan;LXXV these are the clans of the Horites, the sons of Seir in the land of Edom. 22 The sons of Lotan were HoriLXXVI and Heman;LXXVII and Lotan’s sister was Timna. 

Notes on verses 21-22

LXXIII “Dishon” = Dishon. 7x in OT. From dishon (mountain goat, antelope; a ritually clean animal); from dush (to trample, break, tear). This is Dishon.
LXXIV “Ezer” = Etser. 5x in OT. From atsar (to store up, hoard) OR from Arabic (covenant). This is Ezer or Etser. It means “treasure,” “treasury,” or “covenant.” See
LXXV “Dishan” = Dishan. Related to “Dishon” in v21. 5x in OT. From Dishon (see note LXXIII above). This is Dishan.
LXXVI “Hori” = Chori. Related to “Horite” in v20. 4x in OT. From the same as Chori (see note LXIX above). This is Hori. It may mean “cave dweller,” “noble,” hollow,” or “central authority.” See
LXXVII “Hemam” = Hemam. 1x in OT. From Homam (Homam, Hemam, a name meaning “raging”); from hamam (being noisy, confused, thrown into confusion, trouble, cause a commotion, disturb, rout, damage, destroy). This is Hemam, a name.

23 These are the sons of Shobal: Alvan,LXXVIII Manahath,LXXIX Ebal,LXXX Shepho,LXXXI and Onam.LXXXII 

Notes on verse 23

LXXVIII “Alvan” = Alvan. 2x in OT. From alah (to go up, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense). This is Alvan or Alian, a name meaning “lofty,” “tall,” or “rising.” See
LXXIX “Manahath” = Manachath. 3x in OT. From nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is Manahath, a personal name meaning, “rest,” “settlement,” or “resting place.” It shares a root with the name “Noah.” See
LXXX “Ebal” = Eybal. 8x in OT. Perhaps from avah (to bend, twist) + balah (to grow old, wear out, consume, waste, enjoy, fail, decay). This is Ebal, which is a personal name and the name of a mountain. It may come from a root that means being bald. So, it may mean “heap of barrenness,” “stony,” or “Bel is ruin.” See
LXXXI “Shepho” = Shepho. 2x in OT. From shaphah (to sweep bare, stick out) OR from shephi (a border marker that sticks out); {from shaphah (making a border with such markers)}. This is Shepho or Shephi. It is a name that means “bareness,” “border guy,” “bony guy,” “skinny,” or “baldness.” See
LXXXII “Onam” = Onam. 4x in OT. From the same as on (strength, power, ability, wealth, substance, or vigor); perhaps from aven (root may mean panting as one does when expending a lot of energy, especially when it comes to nothing; nothingness, trouble, sorrow, distress, wickedness, evil, harm, sorrow, misfortune, and mischief.; used specifically to refer to idols). This is Onam, a name meaning “vigorous,” “trouble,” “weariness,” or “strong.” See

24 These are the sons of Zibeon: AiahLXXXIII and Anah; he is the Anah who foundLXXXIV the springsLXXXV in the wilderness,LXXXVI as he pasturedLXXXVII the donkeysLXXXVIII of his father Zibeon. 

Notes on verse 24

LXXXIII “Aiah” = Ayyah. 6x in OT. From ayyah (a large predatory bird like a hawk, falcon, or vulture); perhaps from iy (alas, woe); from oy (alas, woe, oh!); from avah (to desire, crave, wish for, lust after). This is Aiah, a name meaning “falcon.”
LXXXIV “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
LXXXV “springs” = yem. 1x in OT. Perhaps from the same as yam (root may mean to roar; the sea, often the Mediterranean; the roar of crashing surf; sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water; to the west or to the south). This is hot spring or it may mean mule.
LXXXVI “wilderness” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
LXXXVII “pastured” = ra’ah. This is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher.
LXXXVIII “donkeys” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.

25 These are the childrenLXXXIX of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah daughter of Anah. 26 These are the sons of Dishon: Hemdan,XC Eshban,XCI Ithran,XCII and Cheran.XCIII 

Notes on verses 25-26

LXXXIX “children” = ben. Same as “sons” in v5. See note XXVI above.
XC “Hemdan” = Chemdan. 1x in OT. From chemed (desire, delight); from chamad (to desire or delight in someone or something; something that is precious or coveted; to lust). This is Hemdan, a name meaning “pleasant” or “desire.”
XCI “Eshban” = Eshban. Perhaps related to “Canaanites” in v2. 2x in OT. Perhaps from the same as Shebna (Shebna, Shebnah; perhaps meaning “growth”) OR from esh (fire, burning, flaming, hot; fire in a literal or figurative sense) + ben (see note VI above. This is Eshban, a name perhaps meaning “vigorous,” “wise an,” “very red,” “son of fire,” or “fire son.” See
XCII “Ithran” = Yithran. 3x in OT. From yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel). This is Ithran, a name meaning “excellent,” “exalted,” or “abundance.” See
XCIII “Cheran” = Keran. 2x in OT. This is Cheran or Keran, meaning uncertain.

27 These are the sons of Ezer: Bilhan,XCIV Zaavan,XCV and Akan.XCVI 28 These are the sons of Dishan: UzXCVII and Aran.XCVIII 29 These are the clansXCIX of the Horites: the clans Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 30 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan; these are the clans of the Horites, clan by clan in the land of Seir.

Notes on verses 27-30

XCIV “Bilhan” = Bilhan. 4x in OT. Perhaps from balahh (to be afraid, to palpitate) OR from balah (to wear out). This is Bilhan, a name meaning “timid,” “worn out,” “foolish,” or “depleted.” It shares a root with the name “Bilhah.” See
XCV “Zaavan” = Zaavan. 2x in OT. Perhaps from zua (to tremble, shake from fear or anger). This is Zaavan, a name meaning “disquiet” or “great agitation.” See
XCVI “Akan” = Aqan. 1x in OT. From aqal (to bend, wrong). This is Akan, a name meaning “tortuous” or “twist.”
XCVII “Uz” = Uts. 8x in OT. From uts (to plan, take counsel, consult). This is Uz – a personal name as well as the places where their descendants settled in Edom. It may be a Horite name. It may mean “consultation,” “contemplation,” “counselor,” or “inner strength.” See
XCVIII “Aran” = Aran. 2x in OT. Perhaps from ranan (a cry of joy or a joyful song; properly, emitting a shrill sound, especially one of joy) OR from aran (to be agile, joyful). This is Aran, a name meaning “stridulous,” “wild goat,” or “ark.”
XCIX “clans” = alluph. Literally “clan of.” Same as “clans” in v15. See note LXIV above. It follows the same pattern as described in note LXVI above.

31 These are the kingsC who reignedCI in the land of Edom, beforeCII any king reigned over the Israelites.CIII 

Notes on verse 31

C “kings” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
CI “reigned” = malak. Related to “kings” in v31. See note C above.
CII “before” = paneh. Same as “some distance from” in v6. See note XXXV above.
CIII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “Canaanites” in v5. See note VI above. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

32 BelaCIV son of BeorCV reigned in Edom, the name of his cityCVI being Dinhabah.CVII 

Notes on verse 32

CIV “Bela” = Bela. 14x in OT. From the same as bela (swallowing, gulp, destruction); from bala (to swallow, engulf, cover, destroy). This is Bela, a personal name as well as a place name. It may mean “swallowed” or “destruction.”
CV “Beor” = Beor. 10x in OT. From baar (burn, consume, heat, remove; to consume by a fire or through eating; can also mean being brutish or wasting). This is Beor – a lamp or burning.
CVI “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
CVII “Dinhabah” = Dinhabah. 2x in OT. Perhaps from dinhabah (robbers’ den). See

33 Bela died,CVIII and Jobab son of Zerah of BozrahCIX succeeded him as king.CX 

Notes on verse 33

CVIII “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
CIX “Bozrah” = Botsrah. 8x in OT. From the same as botsrah (a sheepfold, Bozrah, other kind of enclosure); from batsar (to enclose, wall up, or make something inaccessible, impenetrable, isolated to fortify, something mighty, to gather grapes). This is Bozrah or Botsrah, a place name meaning “fortress,” “fortification,” “sheepfold,” or “vintage.” See
CX “succeeded…as king” = malak + tachat. Malak is the same as “reigned” in v31. See note CI above. Tachat is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.

34 JobabCXI died, and HushamCXII of the land of the TemanitesCXIII succeeded him as king. 

Notes on verse 34

CXI “Jobab” = Yobab. 9x in OT. From yabab (to cry out, lament, to shout shrilly). This is Jobab and his offspring as well as others. It may mean “howler.”
CXII “Husham” = Chusham. 4x in OT. From chush (to enjoy, feel) OR from chush (to hurry, be eager). This is Husham or Chusham, a name meaning “hastily.”
CXIII “Temanites” = Temani. Related to “Teman” in v11. 8x in OT. From Teman (see note LII above). This is Temanite or Temani. It means “the south” See

35 Husham died, and HadadCXIV son of Bedad,CXV who defeatedCXVI MidianCXVII in the countryCXVIII of Moab,CXIX succeeded him as king, the name of his city being Avith.CXX 

Notes on verse 35

CXIV “Hadad” = Hadad. 13x in OT. From the same as hedad (a shout, cheer, thunder). This is Hadad, a personal name and that of an idol. It may mean “fierceness,” “chief,” “most eminent,” “most high,” “thunder,” or “shout.”
CXV “Bedad” = Bedad. 2x in OT. From the same as bad (empty, boast, oracle priest, lie); {from bada (to devise, fake, invent)} OR from badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is Bedad, a name meaning “special” or “separation.” See
CXVI “defeated” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
CXVII “Midian” = Midyan. From the same as madon (strife, contention, brawling); from din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, strive). This is Midian or a Midianite. It means strife or place of judgment.
CXVIII “country” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
CXIX “Moab” = Moab. Perhaps related to “ancestor” in v9. May be from ab (see note L above). This is Moab or Moabite. Name could mean “from her father” in reference to the incestuous relationship between Lot and his daughters. The name could also mean, more pleasantly, “seed of a father” or “desirable land.” See
CXX “Avith” = Avith. 2x in OT. Perhaps from avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is Avith, a place whose name means “ruins” or “iniquities.” See

36 Hadad died, and SamlahCXXI of MasrekahCXXII succeeded him as king. 37 Samlah died, and ShaulCXXIII of RehobothCXXIV on the EuphratesCXXV succeeded him as king. 

Notes on verses 36-37

CXXI “Samlah” = Samlah. 4x in OT. From the same as simlah (mantle, clothes, wrapper); perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is Samlah, a name meaning “robe” or “garment.”
CXXII “Masrekah” = Masreqah. 2x in OT. From Soreq (Sorek, “choice vines” – a place name); the same as saroq (bright red, sorrel, speckled); from sharaq (to be shrill, hiss, whistle). This is Masrekah, a place whose name means “vineyard.”
CXXIII “Shaul” = Shaul. From shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”
CXXIV “Rehoboth” = Rechoboth. 4x in OT. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is Rehoboth, meaning “broad places” or “streets.” It is the name of a well and two different cities.
CXXV “Euphrates” = nahar. From nahar (to flow, sparkle, be cheerful). This is a stream, river, or flood. Particularly used for the Nile or Euphrates. Figuratively, this can mean prosperity.

38 Shaul died, and Baal-hananCXXVI son of AchborCXXVII succeeded him as king. 39 Baal-hanan son of Achbor died, and HadarCXXVIII succeeded him as king, the name of his city being Pau;CXXIX

Notes on verses 38-39a

CXXVI “Baal-hanan” = Baal Chanan. 5x in OT. From baal (Baal, used for several Canaanite gods; literally, “lord”); {from the same as baal (owner, master, husband); from baal (to marry, have dominion over, to master)}} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is Baal-hanan, a name meaning “Baal is gracious,” “possessor of grace,” “lord of grace, or “lord of compassion.” See
CXXVII “Achbor” = Akbor. 7x in OT. From the same as akbar (a mouse); probably from the same as akkabish (a spider; root may mean to entangle). This is Achbor, a name meaning “mouse.”
CXXVIII “Hadar” = Hadar. From hadar (honor, ornament, majesty, beauty, magnificence); from hadar (to honor or adorn; majestic, respected, glorious; to favor or honor; to be proud). This is Hadar, a name meaning “ornament” or “honor.”
CXXIX “Pau” = Pau. 2x in OT. From paah (to groan or scream, rallying cry). This is Pau or Pai, a place name meaning “screaming,” “groaning,” “crying out,” “fad of alertness,” or “mental propagation of alarm.” See

his wife’s name was Mehetabel,CXXX the daughter of Matred,CXXXI daughter of Me-zahab.CXXXII

Notes on verse 39b

CXXX “Mehetabel” = Mehetabel. Related to “Ishmael” in v3 & “Eliphaz” and “Reuel” in v4 & “Israelites” in v31. 3x in OT. From yatab (to be good or pleasing, joyful; doing good in an ethical sense or being beautiful, happy, successful, or right) + el (see note XVII above). This is Mehetabel, a name meaning “God benefits,” “God will cause to be best,” “who pleases God?” or “bettered of God.” See
CXXXI “Matred” = Matred. 2x in OT. From tarad (to chase, be continual, follow closely). This is Matred, a name that means “propulsive,” “continuing,” “expulsion,” “thrusting forward,” “nagging, “continuous dripping.” See
CXXXII “Me-zahab” = Me Zahab. 2x in OT. From mayim (water, waters, or waterway in a general sense; figuratively, juice, urine, or semen) + zahab (root may mean to shimmer; gold or something that has the color of gold like oil; a clear sky –good weather).  This is Mezahab or Me-zahab, a name meaning “waters of gold.”

40 These are the names of the clans of Esau, according to their familiesCXXXIII and their localitiesCXXXIV by their names: the clansCXXXV Timna, Alvah,CXXXVI Jetheth,CXXXVII 

Notes on verse 40

CXXXIII “families” = mishpachah. From the same as shiphcah (maid, maidservant); root means to spread out. This is one’s circle of relatives – clan, family, kindred.
CXXXIV “localities” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CXXXV “clans” = alluph. Literally “clan of.” Same as “clans” in v15. See note LXIV above. It follows the same pattern as described in note LXVI above.
CXXXVI “Alvah” = Alvah. Related to “Alvan” in v23. 2x in OT. From alah (see note LXXVIII above) OR from the same as alvah (in iniquity, moral wrong); from the same as avlah (injustice, wrong, violence, evildoer); from the same as evel (injustice, wrong, moral evil, acts of violence, or unrighteousness); form aval (to deal unjustly, act in a wrongful way, a wrongdoer). This is Alvah or Aliah, a name perhaps meaning “rising,” “high,” or “iniquity.” See
CXXXVII “Jetheth” = Yetheth. 2x in OT. Perhaps from hut (“to shout at”). This is Jetheth, a name perhaps meaning “strengthener,” “subjection,” “shouter,” or “he will engage in verbal assaulting.” See

41 Oholibamah, Elah,CXXXVIII Pinon,CXXXIX 42 Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar,CXL 

Notes on verses 41-42

CXXXVIII “Elah” = Elah. Related to “Elon” in v2. 16x in OT. From elah (oak, terebinth; some other kind of tree that is strong); from ayil (see note IX above). This is Elah, a name meaning “terebinth” or “oak.”
CXXXIX “Pinon” = Pinon. 2x in OT. Perhaps from the same as Punon (Punon; a place name meaning “perplexity”); perhaps from pun (to be distracted or perplexed); from aphunah (helpless, overcome); from the same as ophan (root might be to revolve or turn; a wheel). This is Pinon, a name perhaps meaning “perplexity.”
CXL “Mibzar” = Mibtsar. Related to “Bozrah” in v33. 2x in OT. Perhaps from the same as mibtsar (fortification, fortress, stronghold, fenced, castle; figuratively, one who defends); from batsar (see note CIX above). This is Mibzar or Mibtsar, a name meaning “stronghold” or “fortification.”

43 Magdiel,CXLI and Iram;CXLII these are the clans of Edom (that is, Esau, the father of Edom), according to their settlementsCXLIII in the land that they held.CXLIV

Notes on verse 43

CXLI “Magdiel” = Magdiel. Related to “Ishmael” in v3 & “Eliphaz” and “Reuel” in v4 & “Israelites” in v31 & “Mehetabel” in v37. 2x in OT. From meged (something of value or excellent; usually a product or produce) + el (see note XVII above). This is Magdiel, a name meaning “excellence of God” or “preciousness of God.”
CXLII “Iram” = Iram. Related to “city” in v32. 2x in OT. From iyr (see note CVI above). This is Iram, a name meaning “city-wise.”
CXLIII “settlements” = moshab. Related to “live” in v7. From yashab (see note XLI above). This is dwelling, seat, assembly, settlement, population.
CXLIV “that they held” = achuzzah. From achaz (to grasp, catch, seize, take and hold in possession). This is a possession, particularly used of land.

Image credit: “Jacob is Forgiven by Esau” by Lambsongs – Jill Kemp & Richrd Gunther.

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