Genesis 46

Genesis 46


When IsraelI set out on his journeyII with all that he had and cameIII to Beer-sheba,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
II “set out on his journey” = nasa. This is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.
III “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
IV “Beer-sheba” = Beerah shaba. From beer (a well or pit); {from baar (to make plain; to dig; can also mean to engrave or figuratively to explain)} + perhaps from shaba (to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant; properly, to be complete; this is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times) {perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness)}. This is Beersheba – meaning either “well of seven” or “well of an oath.”

he offeredV sacrificesVI to the GodVII of his fatherVIII Isaac.IX 

Notes on verse 1b

V “offered” = zabach. This is slaughtering an animal, generally for the purpose of sacrifice. It can mean kill or offer.
VI “sacrifices” = zebach. Related to “offered” in v1. From zabach (see note V above). This is a slaughter – literally of an animal. So, it implies the act or the animals used in sacrifice. Further, it can mean offering.
VII “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v1. See note I above.
VIII “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
IX “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”

2 God spoke to Israel in visionsX of the night,XI and said, “Jacob,XII Jacob.”

And he said, “Here I am.”XIII 

Notes on verse 2

X “visions” = marah. 11x in OT. From mareh (sight, appearance, or vision; a view, seeing itself, that which is seen, something real, or a vision one sees); from raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense). This is a vision or a looking glass.
XI “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
XII “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
XIII “here I am” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!

Then he said, “I am God,XIV the GodXV of your father; do not be afraidXVI to go downXVII to Egypt,XVIII

Notes on verse 3a

XIV “God” = El. Related to “Israel” and “God” in v1. See note I above.
XV “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v1. See note VII above.
XVI “be afraid” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
XVII “go down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
XVIII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

for I will makeXIX of you a greatXX nationXXI there. 

Notes on verse 3b

XIX “make” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
XX “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
XXI “nation” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.

4 I myself will go down with you to Egypt, and I will also bring you up again; XXII and Joseph’sXXIII own handXXIV shall closeXXV your eyes.”XXVI

Notes on verse 4

XXII “bring…up again” = alahalah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense. The word is repeated twice – the second time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
XXIII “Joseph’s” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”
XXIV “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XXV “close” = shith. This is to place, set, bring, appoint, consider, bring, array or look.
XXVI “eyes” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

Then Jacob set outXXVII from Beer-sheba; and the sonsXXVIII of Israel carriedXXIX their father Jacob, their little ones,XXX and their wives,XXXI

Notes on verse 5a

XXVII “set out” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
XXVIII “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIX “carried” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
XXX “little ones” = taph. From taphaph (walking along with small, tripping steps like children do). This is little ones, children, families.
XXXI “wives” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.

in the wagonsXXXII that PharaohXXXIII had sentXXXIV to carry him. 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXII “wagons” = agalah. From the same as egel (male calf as one that frisks about; often one that is almost grown up); may be from the same as agol (round, circular – root meaning revolve). This is something that turns like a cart or chariot – a vehicle with wheels.
XXXIII “Pharaoh” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See
XXXIV “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.

6 They also tookXXXV their livestockXXXVI and the goodsXXXVII that they had acquiredXXXVIII

Notes on verse 6a

XXXV “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XXXVI “livestock” = miqneh. From qanah (to get, acquire, purchase, move to jealousy, buyer, keep cattle). This is something that is bought, which implies property or possession. However, it is generally used of livestock – cattle, flock, herds.
XXXVII “goods” = rekush. From rakash (to get, acquire property, collect). This is property, riches, possessions.
XXXVIII “acquired” = rakash. Related to “goods” in v6. 5x in OT. See note XXXVII above.

in the landXXXIX of Canaan,XL and they came into Egypt, Jacob and all his offspringXLI with him, his sons, and his sons’ sons with him, his daughters,XLII and his sons’ daughters; all his offspring he broughtXLIII with him into Egypt.

Notes on verses 6b-7

XXXIX “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XL “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See
XLI “offspring” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
XLII “daughters” = bat. Related to “sons” in v5. From ben (see note XXVIII above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
XLIII “brought” = bo. Same as “came” in v1. See note III above.

Now these are the namesXLIV of the Israelites,XLV Jacob and his offspring,XLVI who came to Egypt. Reuben,XLVII Jacob’s firstborn,XLVIII

Notes on verse 8

XLIV “names” = shem. Related to “make” in v3. May be from sim (see note XIX above). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
XLV “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “sons” in v5. See note XXVIII above. Yisrael is the same as “Israel” in v1. See note I above.
XLVI “offspring” = ben. Literally “sons.” Same as “sons” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
XLVII “Reuben” = Reuben. Related to “visions” in v2 & “sons” in v5 & “daughters” in v7. From raah (see note X above) + ben (see note XXVIII above). This is Reuben, meaning “behold a son.”
XLVIII “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.

9 and the childrenXLIX of Reuben: Hanoch,L Pallu,LI Hezron,LII and Carmi.LIII 

Notes on verse 9

XLIX “children” = ben. Same as “sons” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
L “Hanoch” = Chanoch. 16x in OT. From the same as chek (chamber or room that is private; can mean the innermost chamber of a house); probably from chanak (to narrow; to dedicate, initiate, train, or discipline). This is Enoch or Hanoch, which probably means “initiated.”
LI “Pallu” = Pallu. 5x in OT. From the same as pele (wonder, miracle, wonderful, marvelous thing); {from pala (to be extraordinary, to arise, to be great or accomplish)} OR from palal (to distinguish in a literal or figurative sense; to sever, set apart, or show self to be marvelous). This is Pallu, meaning “distinguished,” “separated,” or “wonderful.” See
LII “Hezron” = Chetsron. 18x in OT. From the same as chatser (enclosure or court – a yard that is fenced in. It could also be a village or hamlet that is walled in). This is Hezron or Chetsron, a personal name and a place name. It means ”courtyard,” “enclosure,” “surrounded by a wall,” ‘cluster,” or “village.” See
LIII “Carmi” = Karmi. 8x in OT. From the same as kerem (vineyard, garden, vines, or a vintage). This is Carmi, a name meaning “gardener,” “vinedresser,” or “my vineyard.” See

10 The children of Simeon:LIV Jemuel,LV Jamin,LVI Ohad,LVII

Notes on verse 10a

LIV “Simeon” = Shimon. From shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
LV “Jemuel” = Yemuel. Related to “Israel” and “God” in v1 & “God” in v3. 2x in OT. Perhaps from yom (day, age, daily, each, today) + el (see note I above). This is Yemuel or Jemuel, perhaps meaning “day of God.”
LVI “Jamin” = Yamin. 6x in OT. From the same as yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); may be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This is Jamin or Yamin, a personal name meaning “right hand.”
LVII “Ohad” = Ohad. 2x in OT. May come from a root that refers to being united OR from yada to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise, to give thanks, or make a confession); {from yad (hand, ability, power; hand in a literal sense; what one can do or the means by which one does it)}. This is Ohad, a name that may mean “unity,” “I shall praise,” “powerful,” or “joining together.” See

Jachin,LVIII Zohar,LIX and Shaul,LX the son of a CanaaniteLXI woman. 

Notes on verse 10b

LVIII “Jachin” = Yakin. 8x in OT. From kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is Jachin or Yakin. It is a personal as well as the name of a pillar that was in the Temple. It means “he will establish” or “he will give certainty.” See
LIX “Zohar” = Tsochar. 4x in OT. From the same as tsachar (reddish-gray, white, dry up). This is Zohar or Tsochar. It may mean “whiteness,” “gray,” or “tawny.” See
LX “Shaul” = Shaul. From shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”
LXI “Canaanite” = Knaaniy. Related to “Canaan” in v6. From Kna’an (see note XL above). This is Canaanite, which in some instances would imply a peddler or sometimes used in place of Ishmaelite. See

11 The children of Levi:LXII Gershon,LXIII Kohath,LXIV and Merari.LXV 

Notes on verse 11

LXII “Levi” = Levi. Perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levi, perhaps meaning “attached.” It can refer to Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants.
LXIII “Gershon” = Gereshon. 17x in OT. From garash (to cast out or expel; to exile someone or to divorce them). Gerson is a personal name, meaning “refugee,” “exiled one.” See
LXIV “Kohath” = Qehath. Perhaps from a root meaning to ally OR from yaqa (to obey, be pious) OR qavah (to wait, look, gather together, bind together, collect; figuratively, to expect). This is Kohath, perhaps meaning “allied,” “obedience,” “gathering,” or “congregation.” See
LXV “Merari” = Merari. From marar (to be bitter, embittered, weep, troubled). This is Merari, a name meaning “bitterness,” “bitter,” or “my strength.” See

12 The children of Judah:LXVI Er,LXVII Onan,LXVIII Shelah,LXIX

Notes on verse 12a

LXVI “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
LXVII “Er” = Er. 10x in OT. From ur (to raise up, wake up, lift oneself up; to awake in a literal or figurative sense) OR from arar (to strip and amass). This is Er, a name meaning “watchful,” “city,” “watcher,” “aroused,” or “wild ass.” See
LXVIII “Onan” = Onan. 8x in OT. From the same as on (strength, power, ability, wealth, substance, or vigor); {perhaps from aven (root may mean panting as one does when expending a lot of energy, especially when it comes to nothing; nothingness, trouble, sorrow, distress, wickedness, evil, harm, sorrow, misfortune, and mischief.; used specifically to refer to idols)} OR from ono (vigorous, strong). This is Onan, whose name means “vigorous,” “trouble,” “iniquity,” or “strong.” See
LXIX “Shelah” = Shelah. Related to “Shaul” in v10. 8x in OT. From shelah (a request, loan); {from shaal (see note LX above)} OR from shala (to extract, plunder). This is Shelah, a name meaning “extracted,” “prosperity,” “bounty,” “request,” “prayer,” or, “petition.” See

Perez,LXX and ZerahLXXI (but Er and Onan diedLXXII in the land of Canaan); and the children of Perez wereLXXIII Hezron and Hamul.LXXIV 

Notes on verse 12b

LXX “Perez” = Perets. 15x in OT. From parats (to make a breach, burst out, compel, disperse; to break out literally or figuratively). This is Perez, meaning “breach.”
LXXI “Zerah” = Zerach. From zarach (to rise, shine, or dawn; can also describe symptoms of leprosy). This is Zerah or Zerach. It is a name that means “rising” or “dawn.”
LXXII “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
LXXIII “were” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
LXXIV “Hamul” = Chamul. 3x in OT. From chamal (to spare, commiserate, show compassion). This is Hamul or Chamul, meaning “spared” or “pitied.”

13 The children of Issachar:LXXV Tola,LXXVI Puvah,LXXVII Jashub,LXXVIII and Shimron.LXXIX 

Notes on verse 13

LXXV “Issachar” = Yissaskar. Related to “carried” in v5. Perhaps from nasa (see note XXIX above) + sakar (wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit); {from sakar (to hire, reward, earn)} OR ish (man); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail} + sakar (see above). This is Issachar, one of Jacob’s children and his tribe. It may mean “there is recompense,” “man of hire,” “he is wages,” or “he will bring a reward.” See
LXXVI “Tola” = Tola. 6x in OT. From the same as tola (a worm or maggot, perhaps a crimson-grub of species coccus ilicis; used to make red dye; so it could be crimson, purple, or something dyed in those colors; also, an oppressor); perhaps from yala (to devour, blurt out rudely); perhaps from the same as lua (to swallow, gulp, be rash). This is Tola, a name perhaps meaning “crimson” or “worm.”
LXXVII “Puvah” = Puvvah. 4x in OT. From poh (here, this, side); {perhaps from p- + hu (third person pronoun – he, she, it)} OR from paah (to cut in pieces, scatter, blow away) OR from peh (mouth in a literal or figurative sense; literally, beak or jaws; figuratively, speech, commands, or promises). This is Puah, Puvah, or Puvvah, a personal name that may mean “blast,” “mouth,” “utterance,” or “edge.” See  
LXXVIII “Jashub” = Yob. 1x in OT. Perhaps from Yobab (Jobab and his offspring; may mean “howler.”); {from yabab (to cry out, lament, to shout shrilly)} OR from yashub (Jashub, a name meaning “he will return); {from shub (to turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively; it doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from)}. This is Jashub, a name that may mean “he returns” or “he will return.”
LXXIX “Shimron” = Shimron. 5x in OT. From shemer (something preserved so it is the dregs or settling parts of wine); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Shimron, a personal name and a city meaning “guardianship,” “guardian,” or “watching.” See

14 The children of Zebulun:LXXX Sered,LXXXI Elon,LXXXII and Jahleel LXXXIII

Notes on verse 14

LXXX “Zebulun” = Zebulun. From zabal (to dwell, inclose, reside). This is Zebulun, that tribe, or their territory. It means “habitation.”
LXXXI “Sered” = Sered.2x in OT. Root may refer to trembling. This is Sered, a name that means “trembling.”
LXXXII “Elon” = Elon. 6x in OT. From ayil (oaks); from the same as ulam (porch, hall); from the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power) OR from alam (to bind or tie fast; to be silent or speechless, whether voluntary or involuntary). This is Elon, a terebinth or oak. It is a personal name of several people in the Bible.
LXXXIII “Jahleel” = Yachleel. Related to “Israel” and “God” in v1 & “God” in v3 & “Jemuel” in v10. From yachal (to wait, which implies patience, hope, and trust; can also be pained waiting) + el (see note I above). This is Jahleel, a name that means “wait for God,” “hope of God,” or “expectant of God.” See

15 (these are the sons of Leah,LXXXIV whom she boreLXXXV to Jacob in Paddan-aram,LXXXVI together with his daughter Dinah;LXXXVII

Notes on verse 15a

LXXXIV “Leah” = Leah. From laah (to be weary or exhausted, parched, faint, or tired; to be impatient or have a hard time; figuratively, being grieved or disgusted). This is Leah, meaning “weary” or “wild cow.” See
LXXXV “bore” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
LXXXVI “Paddan-aram” = Paddan aram. 11x in OT. From pada (“to upgrade the operating standard) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense) OR from pada (see above) + aram (Aram, Syria, Mesopotamia – meaning elevated or citadel); {perhaps from armon (any fortified building – castle, citadel, palace)}. This is Paddan-aram, perhaps meaning “ultimate upgrade,” “plain of Aram,” “elevated ransom,” or “new Aramaic standard.” See
LXXXVII “Dinah” = Dinah. 8x in OT. From din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, quarrel, plead). This is Dinah, one of Jacob’s daughters. Her name means “justice” or “judgment.”

 in allLXXXVIII his sons and his daughters numbered thirtyLXXXIX-three).XC 

Notes on verse 15b

LXXXVIII {untranslated} = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
LXXXIX “thirty” = sheloshim. From the same as shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is thirty or thirtieth.
XC “three” = shalosh. Related to “thirty” in v15. See note LXXXIX above.

16 The children of Gad:XCI Ziphion,XCII Haggi,XCIII Shuni,XCIV

Notes on verse 16a

XCI “Gad” = Gad. Perhaps from gad (fortune, troop; Gad, the name of a god of Babylon); from gad (fortunate, a troop); from gud (to invade, overcome, attack). This is Gad, one of Jacob’s children, his tribe and the land they settled. It means “fortune” or “fortunate.”
XCII “Ziphion” = Tsiphyon. 1x in OT. From tsaphah (to look out, look around, spy watchman, sentinel; leaning out to look far away; to await or observe). This is Ziphion, a name that may mean “gazing,” “cover,” “hidden,” “earnest expectation,” “intense longing,” or “watchtower.” See
XCIII “Haggi” = Chaggi. 3x in OT. From chag (a feast, a sacrifice as part of a festival, or the gathering of the festival); from chagag (feast, celebrating a festival, making a pilgrimage; properly, going in a circle or marching in sacred procession; implies giddiness and dancing; reeling to and fro). This is Haggi or Chaggi, a name that means “festal” “exultation,” or “festive.” See
XCIV “Shuni” = Shuni. 2x in OT. From sha’an (to be quiet, relaxed) OR shaman (to sharpen). This is Shuni, a name that may mean, “quiet,” “silence,” “tranquility,” “fortunate,” or “tooth.” See  

Ezbon,XCV Eri,XCVI Arodi,XCVII and Areli.XCVIII 

Notes on verse 16b

XCV “Ezbon” = Etsbon. 2x in OT. This is Ezbon, a person name that may mean, “hastening to understand.”
XCVI “Eri” = Eri. Related to “Er” in v12. 2x in OT. From ur (see note LXVII above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}. This is Eri, a name meaning “watchful,” “roused,” “focused,” or “concentrated on the Lord.” See
XCVII “Arodi” = Arodi. 2x in OT. Perhaps from Arvadiy (someone from Arvad; meaning “wandering” or “place of fugitives”); from Arvad (Arvad, “wandering”); from arad (to flee, to be free) or from rud (to wander). This is Arodi, a personal name and his offspring. It may mean “fugitive” or “wild ass.”
XCVIII “Areli” = Areli. Related to “Israel” and “God” in v1 & “God” in v3 & “Jemuel” in v10 & “Jahleel” in v14. 3x in OT. Perhaps from erel (a hero, brave one); {probably from ariyel (lion of God, a name, one who is heroic); from ari (lion); from arah (to gather, pluck)} + el (see note I above). This is Areli and his offspring. It may mean, “gathered by God” or “lion of my God.”

17 The children of Asher:XCIX Imnah,C Ishvah,CI Ishvi,CII

Notes on verse 17a

XCIX “Asher” = Asher. From ashar (to go straight, lead, guide; to be level and so to be right, blessed, honest, happy). This is Asher, one of Jacob’s children and his tribe. It means “happy one.”
C “Imnah” = Yimnah. Related to “Jamin” in v10. 5x in OT. From the same as yamin (see note LVI above). This is Imnah or Yimnah, a name meaning “good fortune,” “prosperity,” or “right hand side.” The right hand was symbolic for prosperity. See
CI “Ishvah” = Yishvah. 2x in OT. From shava (to agree, resemble, compare, equalize, adjust, be suitable, reckon, profit). This is Ishvah or Yishvah, a name meaning, “he will level” or “he is equal.” See
CII “Ishvi” = Yishvi. Related to “Ishavah” in v17 & “wives” in v5 & “Issachar” in v13 & “Eri” in v16. 4x in OT. From shava (see note CI above) OR from ish (see note XXXI above) + Yah (see note XCVI above). This is Ishvi or Yishvi, a name meaning, “level,” “equal,” or “man of the Lord.”

Beriah,CIII and their sisterCIV Serah.CV The children of Beriah: HeberCVI and MalchielCVII 

Notes on verse 17b

CIII “Beriah” = Beriah. 11x in OT. Perhaps from ra’ (bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity; anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin); from ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is Beriah, a name meaning, “in trouble” or “in evil.” See
CIV “sister” = achot. From the same as ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean another or together.
CV “Serah” = Serach. Related to “Israel” in v1. 3x in OT. From the same as misrah (rule, government, empire); {from sarah (see note I above)} OR from serach (remnant, redundance, overage); {from sarach (to overrun, spread, extend, banish, go free)}. This is Serah, whose name may mean, “princess,” “ruling body,” unrestrained,” or “abundance.”
CVI “Heber” = Cheber. 11x in OT. From chabar (to unite, ally, attach, touch; to join in a literal or figurative sense; also, specially, using magic knots or spells to fascinate or connect). This is Heber of Cheber, a name meaning, “community,” “fellowship,” “associate,” or “companion.” See
CVII “Malchiel” = Malchiel. Related to “Israel” and “God” in v1 & “God” in v3 & “Jemuel” in v10 & “Jahleel” in v14 & “Areli” in v16. 3x in OT. From melek (king, royal) + el (see note I above). This is Malkiel or Malchiel, a name meaning “my king is El,” “my king is God,” or “king appointed by God.” See

18 (these are the children of Zilpah,CVIII whom LabanCIX gaveCX to his daughter Leah; and these she bore to Jacob—sixteenCXI persons).CXII 

Notes on verse 18

CVIII “Zilpah” = Zilpah. 7x in OT. Perhaps from zalaph (drip, sprinkle, pour – as fragrance or myrrh does). This is Zilpah, meaning “drop” or “sprinkle.” See
CIX “Laban” = Laban. From the same as laban (white); from laban (to be white or make a brick). This is Laban, meaning white.
CX “gave” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
CXI “sixteen” = shesh + asar. Shesh is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand. Asar is ten or -teen.
CXII “persons” = nephesh. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note LXXXVIII above.

19 The children of Jacob’s wife Rachel:CXIII Joseph and Benjamin.CXIV 20 To Joseph in the land of Egypt were bornCXV ManassehCXVI and Ephraim,CXVII

Notes on verses 19-20a

CXIII “Rachel” = Rachel. From the same as rachel (a ewe, sheep). Its root may refer to travelling. This is Rachel, meaning “ewe.”
CXIV “Benjamin” = Binyamin. Related to “sons” in v5 & “daughters” in v7 & “Reuben” in v8 – rel to “Jamin” in v10 & “Imnah” in v17. From ben (see note XXVIII above) + yamin (see note LVI above). This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It could refer to Benjamin himself, his offspring, their tribe, or their territory.
CXV “born” = yalad. Same as “bore” in v15. See note LXXXV above.
CXVI “Manasseh” = Menashseh. From nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive). This is Manasseh, literally “causing to forget.” It is Manasseh, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
CXVII “Ephraim” = Ephrayim. From the same as epher (ashes or dust – properly something strewn) OR from parah (to grow, increase, be fruitful in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, his descendants, and their land.

whom AsenathCXVIII daughter of Potiphera,CXIX priestCXX of On,CXXI bore to him. 

Notes on verse 20b

CXVIII “Asenath” = Asenat. 3x in OT. Perhaps from asah (to be hurt) OR from asna (thorn bush) OR from Egyptian (referring to Neith, a creator goddess and mother of the gods, also a goddess of war and weaving) This is Asenath. It may mean “belonging to Neith,” “belonging to Neir,” “harms,” “evils,” or thorn bush.” See &
CXIX “Potiphera” = Poti Phera. 3x in OT. From Egyptian words meaning “put” + Ra. This is Potiphera, meaning “he whom the Ra gave,” i.e. a gift from god. See
CXX “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
CXXI “On” = On. 3x in OT. From Egyptian iunnu (pillar) OR ei-n-re (“abode of the sun”). This is On, a northern city in Egypt where Ra was particularly celebrated. It means “pillar,” “stone,” or “vigor.” See

21 The children of Benjamin: Bela,CXXII Becher,CXXIII Ashbel,CXXIV Gera,CXXV Naaman,CXXVI

Notes on verse 21a

CXXII “Bela” = Bela. 14x in OT. From the same as bela (swallowing, gulp, destruction); from bala (to swallow, engulf, cover, destroy). This is Bela, a personal name as well as a place name. It may mean “swallowed” or “destruction.”
CXXIII “Becher” = Beker. Related to “firstborn” in v8. 5x in OT. From bakar (see note XLVIII above). This is Becher or Beker, a name meaning “firstborn,” “rise early,” or “young camel.” See
CXXIV “Ashbel” = Ashbel. 3x in OT. Probably from the same as shobel (the train of a skirt that flows after a woman) OR from esh (fire, burning, flaming, hot; fire in a literal or figurative sense) + baal (lord, owner, ally, master, or archer); {from ba’al (to marry, have dominion, be master)}. This is Ashbel, a name meaning “flowing,” “fire of Bel,” or “fire-lord.” See
CXXV “Gera” = Gera. 9x in OT. Perhaps from gerah (a kernel, a tiny weight, a unit of currency of that weight); from garar (to drag or drag off in a rough fashion, chew, sweep, destroy; to chew the cud). This is Gera, a name that means “grain.”
CXXVI “Naaman” = Naaman. 16x in OT. From naem (to be pleasant, beautiful, sweet, or agreeable in a literal or figurative sense). This is Naaman, meaning “pleasantness” or “pleasant.”


Notes on verse 21b

CXXVII “Ehi” = Echi. Related to “were” in v12 & “Eri” in v16 & “Ishvi” in v17 & “sister” in v17. 1x in OT. Probably from Achiy (Achi, a name meaning “brother of the Lord” or “brotherly”); {from ach (see note CIV above)} + Yah (see note XCVI above). This is Echi or Ehi, a name meaning, “brother of the Lord,” “brotherly,” or “my brother.”
CXXVIII “Rosh” = Rosh. 1x in OT. Probably the same as rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is Rosh, a name meaning “head,” “chief,” or “top.” See
CXXIX “Muppim” = Muppim. 1x in OT. Perhaps from nuph (to rock back and forth, wave, sprinkle, quiver, beckon, offer, present). This is Muppim, a name meaning “wavings.”
CXXX “Huppim” = Chuppim. 3x in OT. From chuppah (canopy, chamber, or defense); from chaphaph (to surround, cover, or shield; to surround in order to protect). This is Huppim or Chuppim. It is a name meaning “protection” or “coverings.” It is the plural of “chuppah” – the Jewish wedding canopy. See
CXXXI “Ard” = Ared. 2x in OT. This is Ard, a name whose root has to do with wandering. It may mean, “fugitive” or “humpbacked.” See

22 (these are the children of Rachel, who were born to Jacob—fourteenCXXXII persons in all). 23 The children of Dan:CXXXIII Hashum.CXXXIV 

Notes on verses 22-23

CXXXII “fourteen” = arba + asar. Arba is from raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is four. Asar is the same as “sixteen” in v18. See note CXI above.
CXXXIII “Dan” = Dan. Related to “Dinah” in v15. From din (see note LXXXVII above). This is Dan or a Danite. It means “judge” and can refer to Dan, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
CXXXIV “Hashum” = Chushim. 4x in OT. From chush (to hurry, be eager). This is Hushim or Hashum, it is a personal name for males and females. It ma mean, “opulent,” “the birth,” “easily moved ones,” or “hurrying.” See

24 The children of Naphtali:CXXXV Jahzeel,CXXXVI Guni,CXXXVII Jezer,CXXXVIII and ShillemCXXXIX 

Notes on verse 24

CXXXV “Naphtali” = Naphtali. From pathal (to twist, twine, wrestle, struggle, behave in an unsavory way). This is Naphtali, meaning “my wrestling.” It can refer to Naphtali, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
CXXXVI “Jahzeel” = Yachtseel. Related to “Israel” and “God” in v1 & “God” in v3 & “Jemuel” in v10 & “Jahleel” in v14 & “Areli” in v16 & “Malchiel” in v17. 2x in OT. From chatsah (to halve, divide, reach, participate) + el (see note I above).  This is Jahzeel, a name meaning, “God apportions,” “God divides,” or “God will allot.” See
CXXXVII “Guni” = Guni. 4x in OT. Probably from ganan (to surround, cover, defend, protect). This is Guni, a name meaning, “protected,” “colored,” “my garden,” or “gardenesque.” See
CXXXVIII “Jezer” = Yetser. 3x in OT. From yatsar (to fashion or form, perhaps by squeezing something into a shape or form; to create as a potter does; figuratively, to determine). This is Jezer or Yetzer. It is a name meaning “form,” “shape,” or “purpose.” See
CXXXIX “Shillem” = Shillem. 2x in OT. From the same as shillem (recompense, retribution); from shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is Shillem, a name meaning, “requital,” “retribution,” or “peace.” See

25 (these are the children of Bilhah,CXL whom Laban gave to his daughter Rachel, and these she bore to Jacob—sevenCXLI persons in all). 26 All the persons belonging to Jacob who came into Egypt, who were his own offspring,CXLII not includingCXLIII the wives of his sons, were sixtyCXLIV-six persons in all. 

Notes on verses 25-26

CXL “Bilhah” = Bilhah. From balahh (to be afraid, to palpitate) OR from balah (to wear out). This is Bilhah, perhaps meaning “timid,” “trouble,” “foolish,” or “calamity.” It is also a place. See
CXLI “seven” = sheba. Related to “Beer-sheba” in v1. See note IV above.
CXLII “were his own offspring” = yatsa + yarek. Literally “came from his loins.” Yatsa is to go or come out, bring forth, appear; to go out in a literal or figurative sense. Yarek root may mean to be soft. This is thigh, side, body, shank. It can be used figuratively for genitalia.
CXLIII “not including” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
CXLIV “sixty” = shishshim. Related to “sixteen” in v18. From the same as shesh (see note CXI above). This is sixty.

27 The children of Joseph, who were born to him in EgyptCXLV were two;CXLVI all the persons of the houseCXLVII of Jacob who came into Egypt were seventy.CXLVIII

Notes on verse 27

CXLV {untranslated} = nephesh. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXLVI “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
CXLVII “house” = bayit. Related to “sons” in v5 & “daughters” in v7 & “Reuben” in v8 & “Benjamin” in v19 Probably related to banah (see note XXVIII above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
CXLVIII “seventy” = shibim. Related to “Beer-sheba” in v1 & “seen” in v25. From sheba (see note IV above). This is seventy.

28 Israel sent Judah aheadCXLIX to Joseph to leadCL the way beforeCLI him into Goshen.CLII When they came to the land of Goshen, 

Notes on verse 28

CXLIX “ahead” = paneh. Literally “before his face.” From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CL “lead” = yarah. This is to throw, shoot, be stunned. It is to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach. This is the same root that “Jerusalem” and “Torah” draw from.
CLI “before” = paneh. Literally “before his face.” Same as “ahead” in v28. See note CXLIX above.
CLII “Goshen” = Goshen. 15x in OT. Similar to Arabic j-sh-m (to labor) OR may be related to Egyptian qas (“inundated land”) OR Egyptian pa-qas (“pouring forth”) OR from Gasmu (“rulers of Bedouin Qedarites who occupied the eastern Delta from the 7th century BC”). This is Goshen. See

29 Joseph made readyCLIII his chariotCLIV and went upCLV to meetCLVI his father Israel in Goshen.

Notes on verse 29a

CLIII “made ready” = asar. This is to tie, yoke, bind, or fasten. It can mean to harness an animal, to join in fighting a battle, or to imprison someone.
CLIV “chariot” = merkabah. From merkab (chariot, saddle, covering; any seat in a vehicle); from rakab (to ride an animal or in some vehicle; also, bringing on a horse). This is a chariot.
CLV “went up” = alah. Same as “bring…up again” in v4. See note XXII above.
CLVI “meet” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.

He presentedCLVII himself to him, fellCLVIII on his neck,CLIX and weptCLX on his neck a good while. 30 Israel said to Joseph, “I can die now,CLXI having seenCLXII for myself that you are still alive.” 

Notes on verses 29b-30

CLVII “presented” = raah. Related to “visions” in v2 & “Reuben” in v8. See note X above.
CLVIII “fell” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
CLIX “neck” = tsavvar. Related to “Egypt” in v3. From tsur (see note XVIII above). This is the neck or the back of the neck.
CLX “wept” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.
CLXI “now” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.
CLXII {untranslated} = paneh. Literally “your face.” Same as “ahead” in v28. See note CXLIX above.

31 Joseph said to his brothersCLXIII and to his father’s household, “I will go up and tellCLXIV Pharaoh, and will say to him, ‘My brothers and my father’s household, who were in the land of Canaan, have come to me. 32 The menCLXV are shepherds,CLXVI

Notes on verses 31-32a

CLXIII “brothers” = ach. Related to “sister” in v17 & “Ehi” in v21. See note CIV above.
CLXIV “tell” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
CLXV “men” = enosh. Related to “wives” in v5. See note XXXI above.
CLXVI “are shepherds” = ra’ah + tson. Literally “shepherding flocks.” Ra’ah is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher. Tson is a flock of sheep and goats.

for they have been keepersCLXVII of livestock; and they have brought their flocks,CLXVIII and their herds,CLXIX and all that they have.’ 

Notes on verse 32b

CLXVII “keepers” = enosh. Same as “men” in v32. See note CLXV above.
CLXVIII “flocks” = tson. Same as “are shepherds” in v32. See note CLXVI above.
CLXIX “herds” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.

33 When Pharaoh callsCLXX you, and says, ‘What is your occupation?’CLXXI 34 you shall say, ‘Your servantsCLXXII have been keepers of livestock from our youthCLXXIII even until now, both we and our ancestors’CLXXIV

Notes on verses 33-34a

CLXX “calls” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
CLXXI “occupation” = maaseh. From asah (to do, make, accomplish, become). This is a word – any action whether positive or negative. It can also be a transaction, construction, activity, property, or something that is produced.
CLXXII “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
CLXXIII “youth” = naur. From the same as naar (child or a servant; a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence); perhaps from naar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is youth or childhood.
CLXXIV “ancestors’” = ab. Same as “father” in v1. See note VIII above.

in order that you may settleCLXXV in the land of Goshen, because all shepherds are abhorrentCLXXVI to the Egyptians.”CLXXVII

Notes on verse 34b

CLXXV “settle” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
CLXXVI “abhorrent” = toebah. Perhaps from ta’ab (to abhor or morally detest). This is something that instills one with moral contempt or disgust. It can mean abhorrence and is often in reference to idolatry or idols.
CLXXVII “Egyptians” = Mitsri. Related to “Egypt” in v3 & “neck” in v29. From Mitsrayim (see note XVIII above). This is Egyptian.

Image credit: “Joseph is Reunited with his Family” by John Paul Stanley of YoMinistry.

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