Hebrews 10:4-10

Hebrews 10:4-10
Annunciation of the Lord ABC


For it is impossibleA for the bloodB of bulls and goatsC to take awayD sins.E 

Notes on verse 4

A “impossible” = adunatos. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + dunatos (mighty or powerful; ability of persons, possibility of things; what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits); {from dunamai (to be able, have power or ability)}. This is powerless, unable, impotent, or impossible. It is weak in a literal or figurative sense.
B “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
C “goats” = tragos. 4x in NT. From trogo (to gnaw, munch, eat); {from trauma (wound); {from titrosko (to wound)} + tribos (path, road, rut; a path worn in by repeated use); {from trizo (to grate, gnash teeth, creak, squeak)}}. This is a male goat.
D “take away” = aphaireo. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is remove, take away, cut in a literal or figurative sense.
E “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

5 Consequently, when Christ came into the world,F he said,

“SacrificesG and offeringsH you have not desired,I

Notes on verse 5a

F “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
G “sacrifices” = thusia. From thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general). This is a sacrifice or offering. It can refer to the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed. Also, this is sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.
H “offerings” = phosphora. 9x in NT. From prosphero (to bring or offer sacrifices or gifts); {from pros (at, to, toward, with) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is offering or sacrifice, whether bloodless or not.
I “desired” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

    but a bodyJ you have preparedK for me;
in burnt offeringsL and sin offerings
    you have taken no pleasure.M

Notes on verses 5b-6

J “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
K “prepared” = katartizo. Perhaps related to “take away” in v4. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + artizo (get ready, prepare); {from artios (perfect, complete, ready, adequate, fitted); from arti (now, in the moment); from airo (see note D above)}. This is to prepare, complete, perfect for final use. This is restoring something to a good condition, whether for the first time or one more. It is to repair in a literal or figurative sense.
L “burnt offerings” = holokautoma. 3x in NT. From holos (whole, complete, or entire; a state where every member is present and functioning in concert) + kaio (to burn, light, kindle). This is a burnt offering – something that is burned entirely as part of a sacrifice.
M “taken…pleasure” = eudokeo. From eu (good, well, well done) + dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to think well of, to be pleased or resolved. Properly, this is what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of.

Then I said, ‘See,N God, I have comeO to doP your will,Q O God’R

Notes on verse 7a

N “see” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
O “come” = heko. This is to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal. It can also mean being present in a literal or figurative sense.
P “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
Q “will” = thelema. Related to “desired” in v5. From thelo (see note I above). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
R “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

    (in the scrollS of the bookT it is writtenU of me).”

Notes on verse 7b

S “scroll” = kephalis. 1x in NT. From kephale (head or chief; literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord, corner stone); from kapto (to seize)}. This is a scroll or volume. Head refers to the knob of the wooden rod used to roll up the scroll.
T “book” = biblion. From biblos (the inside bark of papyrus so it could refer to anything that was written on – a scroll, book, record, roll; could also have an association with the sacred); perhaps from bublos (papyrus); from Phoenician Byblos (a Phoenician city that exported papyrus for writing); {from gb (well, origin) + I (God)}; from Proto-Canaanite g-b-l (Gubla – maybe meaning to border). This is paper, book, scroll, certificate.
U “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.

When he said above, “You have neither desired nor taken pleasure in sacrifices and offerings and burnt offerings and sin offerings” (these are offeredV according to the law),W then he added, “See, I have come to do your will.” He abolishesX the first in order to establishY the second. 

Notes on verses 8-9

V “offered” = prosphero. Related to “offerings” in v5. See note H above.
W “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
X “abolishes” = anaireo. Related to “take away” in v4. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (see note D above). This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
Y “establish” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.

10 And it is by God’s will that we have been sanctifiedZ through the offering of the body of JesusAA ChristBB once for all.CC

Notes on verse 10

Z “sanctified” = hagiazo. From hagios (sacred, holy, set apart, different other; physically pure, morally blameless, or ceremonially set apart); from hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). This is to make holy, consecrate, sanctify, set apart as holy, purify, venerate.
AA “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
BB “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CC “once for all” = ephapax. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + hapax (once, once for all); {from a (with – signifying fellowship) + pag-} or {from hapas (all; every part working together as a unit); from hama (at once, together with) + pas (all, every, every kind of) or from a (with) + pas (all, every)}. This is once for all, at once, one time.

Image credit: “Thanks-Giving Chapel” in Thanks-Giving Square in Dallas, Texas. Stained Glass designed by Gabriel Loire, artist Philip Johnson, 1976.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply