Job 42:1-6, 10-17

Job 42:1-6, 10-17
Ordinary B48


Then JobA answeredB the Lord:C

Notes on verse 1

A “Job” = Iyyob. Perhaps from ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is Job a name that may mean “hated,” “enemy,” “persecuted,” “returning,” “no father,” or “where is my father?” See
B “answered” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
C “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.

“I knowD that you can doE all things,
    and that no purposeF of yours can be thwarted.G

Notes on verse 2

D “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
E “can do” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
F “purpose” = mezimmah. 19x in OT. From zamam (to devise, plot, imagine, intend, scheme, think evil; usually in an evil sense). This is generally an evil plan like a machination. It could also refer to goodness, wisdom.
G “thwarted” = batsar. This is to enclose, wall up, or make something inaccessible, impenetrable, isolated. It can also mean to fortify, something mighty. It can also mean to gather grapes.

‘Who is this that hidesH counselI withoutJ knowledge?’K

Notes on verse 3a

H “hides” = alam. This is to conceal, cover from sight in a literal or figurative sense. Could be to escape, liar, neglect, or secret thing.
I “counsel” = etsah. From yaats (to counsel, advise, determine). This is advice, purpose, plan, prudence, or counselor.
J “without” = beli. From balah (to grow old, wear out, waste away, consume, spend). This is properly a failure. So, it could mean without, not yet, unawares, lacking, something that wears out, or because not.
K “knowledge” = daat. Related to “know” in v2. From yada (see not D above). This is knowledge, unawares, cunning, wittingly.

ThereforeL I have utteredM what I did not understand,N
    things too wonderfulO for me, which I did not know.

Notes on verse 3b

L “therefore” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
M “uttered” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
N “understand” = bin. This is to discern, consider, attend to. It refers to distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand.
O “things too wonderful” = pala. From pele (wonder, miracle, wonderful, marvelous thing). This is to be extraordinary, to arise, to be great or accomplish.

‘Hear,P, Q and I will speak;R
    I will questionS you, and you declareT to me.’

Notes on verse 4

P “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
Q {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
R “speak” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
S “question” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
T “declare” = yada. Same as “know” in v2. See note D above. Here, “make known.”

I had heard of you by the hearingU of the ear,V
    but now my eyeW seesX you;

Notes on verse 5

U “hearing” = shema. Related to “hear” in v4. 18x in OT. From shama (see note P above). This is something that is heart like a report, speech, fame, rumor, or fame.
V “ear” = ozen. This is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.
W “eye” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
X “sees” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.

therefore I despiseY myself,
    and repentZ in dustAA and ashes.”BB

Notes on verse 6

Y “despise” = ma’as. This is to reject, refuse, despise, disdain, reject, or spurn. It can also be to disappear or melt away.
Z “repent” = nacham. Properly, this is a strong breath or a sigh. This can be to be sorry, to pity, console. Comfort, or repent. But, one can also comfort oneself with less righteous thoughts, so this can also mean to avenge oneself.
AA “dust” = aphar. May be related to aphar (to throw dust, be dust). This is dust as powdered, perhaps gray colored. It could be ashes, powder, ground, dry earth, clay mud, or rubbish.
BB “ashes” = epher. Root may mean to strew. This is ashes or dust.

10 And the Lord restoredCC the fortunesDD of Job when he had prayedEE for his friends;FF and the Lord gaveGG Job twiceHH as much as he had before. 

Notes on verse 10

CC “restored” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
DD “fortunes” = shebuth. From shabah (to take captive, keep, a captor). This is prisoners or exile. It can also be used figuratively to describe a previous condition of prosperity.
EE “prayed” = palal. This is to judge for oneself or in an official capacity. It can also mean to pray or make supplication, to entreat.
FF “friends” = rea. From raah (to associate with). This is the same as neighbor in Leviticus 19:18 “love your neighbor as yourself.” This is friend, companion, fellow, neighbor. It is someone with whom you associate, whether more or less close.
GG “gave” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
HH “twice” = mishneh. From shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is double, second, next, duplicate. It can also be second in rank or age.

11 Then there cameII to him all his brothersJJ and sistersKK and all who had known him before,LL

Notes on verse 11a

II “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
JJ “brothers” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
KK “sisters” = achot. Related to “brothers” in v11. From the same as ach (see note JJ above). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean another or together.
LL “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

and they ateMM breadNN with him in his house;OO

Notes on verse 11b

MM “ate” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
NN “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
OO “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

they showed him sympathyPP and comfortedQQ him for all the evilRR that the Lord had broughtSS upon him;

Notes on verse 11c

PP “showed…sympathy” = nud. This is to nod, waver, wander, flee, show grief, disappear. It can be nodding the head as a sign of sympathy or consolation. It could also be tossing one’s head to show contempt or to taunt.
QQ “comforted” = nacham. Same as “repent” in v6. See note Z above.
RR “evil” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
SS “brought” = bo. Same as “came” in v11. See note II above.

and eachTT of them gaveUU him aVV piece of moneyWW and a goldXX ring.YY 

Notes on verse 11d

TT “each” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
UU “gave” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
VV “a” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
WW “piece of money” = qesitah. 3x in OT. This is a piece – something weighed that holds value. Often, it was an amount of silver stamped to become currency.
XX “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.
YY “ring” = nezem. 17x in OT. This is a ring worn for decorative reasons. It also includes earrings, nose rings, or other jewels.

12 The Lord blessedZZ the latterAAA days of Job more than his beginning;BBB and he hadCCC fourteenDDD thousandEEE sheep,FFF

Notes on verse 12a

ZZ “blessed” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
AAA “latter” = acharit. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is the last, length, remnant, end, reward, future.
BBB “beginning” = reshit. From rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is beginning, first place, highest rank, chief thing.
CCC “had” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note C above.
DDD “fourteen” = arba + asar. Arba is from raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is four. Asar is from the same as eser (ten). This is ten or -teen.
EEE “thousand” = eleph. Perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.
FFF “sheep” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.

sixGGG thousand camels,HHH a thousand yokeIII of oxen,JJJ and a thousand donkeys.KKK 

Notes on verse 12b

GGG “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
HHH “camels” = gamal. From gamal (how one deals with someone whether positively or negatively – so to reward, requite; to wean or the work that goes into something ripening). This is a camel as an animal of labor or one that bears burdens. The English word “camel” is from a Semitic source, perhaps Hebrew or others.
III “yoke” = tsemed. 15x in OT. From tsamad (to bind, attach, frame, serve, or contrive). This is a pair, together, yoke, team. It can also be used for an acre because it would take a team of cattle a whole day to plow it.
JJJ “oxen” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
KKK “donkeys” = athon. Perhaps from the same as eythan (continual, mighty, strong, ever-flowing, permanence). This is a female donkey as an animal that is patient and gentle.

13 He also had sevenLLL sonsMMM and threeNNN daughters.OOO 

Notes on verse 13

LLL “seven” = shibanah. 1x in OT. From sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness); from shaba (to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant; properly, to be complete; this is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times). This is seven.
MMM “sons” = ben. Related to “house” in v11. From banah (see note OO above). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
NNN “three” = shalosh. This is three, fork, three times.
OOO “daughters” = banot. Related to “house” in v11 & “sons” in v13. From ben (see note MMM above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense. It could also be branch.

14 He namedPPP the firstQQQ Jemimah,RRR

Notes on verse 14a

PPP “named” = qara + shem. Literally, “called the name.” Qara is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth. Shem may be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
QQQ “first” = echad. Same as “a” in v11. See note VV above.
RRR “Jemimah” = Yemimah. 1x in OT. Perhaps from the same as yom (day, age, daily, each, today; from a root that may mean to be hot) OR from Arabic yemema (dove); {similar to Hebrew yonah (dove or pigeon; used to refer to the exiles coming home, to describe sails of ships; also figuratively for mourning or as a description of beauty); perhaps from yayin (wine; root means to effervesce)} OR from yam (the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south). This is Jemimah or Yemimah. It may mean “warm” in the sense of “affectionate.” Alternately, it could mean “dove” or “she who acts like the sea” or “lady daylight.” See

theSSS secondTTT Keziah,UUU and theVVV thirdWWW Keren-happuch.XXX 

Notes on verse 14b

SSS {untranslated} = shem. Same as “named” in v14. See note PPP above.
TTT “second” = sheni. Related to “twice” in v10. From shanah (see note HH above). This is double, again, another, second.
UUU “Keziah” = Qetsiah. 1x in OT. From qetsiah (cassia); from qatsa (to scrap, strip off). This is Keziah or Qetsiah, a name meaning “cassia” or “scraped off” or “ended.” See
VVV “name” = shem. Same as “named” in v14. See note PPP above.
WWW “third” = shelishi. Related to “three” in v13. From the same as shalosh (see note NNN above). This is third or one-third of something.
XXX “Keren-happuch” = Qeren Hap-puwk. 1x in OT. From qeren (horn or hill; a flask or cornet, ivory, altar corner, mountain peak, or figuratively power); {from qaran (to shine, gore, have horns)} + puk (paint, stibium, dye). This is Keren-happuch, a name that means “horn of antimony” or “horn of cosmetic” or “horn with mascara” or “radiate with beautiful eyes.” See

15 In all the landYYY there wereZZZ no womenAAAA so beautifulBBBB as Job’s daughters; and their fatherCCCC gave them an inheritanceDDDD along with their brothers. 

Notes on verse 15

YYY “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
ZZZ “were” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
AAAA “women” = ishshah. Related to “each” in v11. From ish (see note TT above). This is woman, wife, or female.
BBBB “beautiful” = yapheh. From yaphah (to be beautiful, decorate; root means being bright, which implies being beautiful). This is beautiful in a literal or figurative sense – appropriate, handsome, godly, pleasant.
CCCC “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
DDDD “inheritance” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.

16 AfterEEEE this Job livedFFFF one hundredGGGG and fortyHHHH years,IIII

Notes on verse 16a

EEEE “after” = achar. Related to “latter” in v12. From achar (see note AAA above). This is after or the last part, following.
FFFF “lived” = chayah. This is to live or keep alive in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be revive, nourish, or save.
GGGG “one hundred” = meah. This is hundred or some numbers of times one hundred (i.e. hundredfold or the base of two hundred, three hundred, etc.).
HHHH “forty” = arbaim. Related to “fourteen” in v12. From the same as arba (see note DDD above). This is forty.
IIII “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.

and saw his children,JJJJ and his children’s children, fourKKKK generations.LLLL 

Notes on verse 16b

JJJJ “children” = ben. Same as “sons” in v13. See note MMM above.
KKKK “four” = arba. Same as “fourteen” in v12. See note DDD above.
LLLL “generations” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

17 And Job died,MMMM oldNNNN and fullOOOO of days.PPPP

Notes on verse 17

MMMM “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
NNNN “old” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
OOOO “full” = sabea. 8x in OT. From saba (to be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense; to have plenty of). This is satisfied, full, ripe. It can be sated in a good or unpleasant way. Frequently used to say someone (Abraham, Isaac, Job) is “full of years” when they die.
PPPP “days” = yom. Perhaps related to “Jemimah” in v14. See note RRR above.

Image credit: “Paintings of Job” by James Tissot.

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