John 2:13-25

John 2:13-25
Narrative Lectionary 422


13 The PassoverA of the JewsB was near, and JesusC went upD to Jerusalem.E 

Notes on verse 13

A “Passover” = pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”
B “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Juadas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
C “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
D “went up” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
E “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

14 In the templeF he foundG people sellingH cattle,I

Notes on verse 14a

F “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
G “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
H “selling” = poleo. This is to barter or sell. It can also refer to the thing that is sold.
I “cattle” = bous. 8x in NT. Perhaps from bosko (to feed or pasture a flock; figuratively, to nourish spiritually) This is a cow, ox, or bull.

sheep,J and doves,K and the money changersL seatedM at their tables. 

Notes on verse 14b

J “sheep” = probaton. Related to “went up” in v13. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (see note D above)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
K “doves” = peristera. 10x in NT. This is dove or pigeon.
L “money changers” = kermatistes. 1x in NT. From kerma (a slice, clipping, coin); from keiro (to cut off, shear like hair). This is someone who handles money.
M “seated” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.

15 MakingN a whipO of cords,P he droveQ all of them out of the temple, both the sheep and the cattle.

Notes on verse 15a

N “making” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
O “whip” = phragellion. 1x in NT. From phragelloo (to whip or scourge – a whipping as a punishment given in public); from Latin flagellum (a whip); from flagrum (to whip or scourge); from Proto-Indo-European bhlag- (to strike). This is a whip or lash used to punish in public. See
P “cords” = schoinion. 2x in NT– the whip Jesus makes to cleanse the Temple in John 2:15 & the ropes of the boat in Acts 27:32. From schoinos (a rush plant). This is a cord or rope that is twined from rushes.
Q “drove” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.

He also poured outR the coinsS of the money changersT and overturnedU their tables.V 

Notes on verse 15b

R “poured out” = ekcheo. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (to pour). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.
S “coins” = kerma. Related to “money changers” in v14. 1x in NT. See note L above.
T “money changers” = kollubistes. 3x in NT. From kollubos (a small coin); probably related to kollourion (a salve or poultice for the eye); see kollurion (bread roll or a poultice for the eye in that shape); {probably from kollix (bread roll) or kollao (to glue together; joining, spending time with, or being intimately connected to; can be used for marriage, joining the church, clinging, or adhering to something; can also be used medically for uniting wounds); {from kolla (glue)}}. This is one who deals in coins – a money changer who exchanged Gentile currency for Jewish.
U “overturned” = anatrepo. 3x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); {from trepo (to turn)}. This is to overturn, overthrow, destroy, or upset. It is overturn in a literal or figurative sense – including upset as in bother.
V “tables” = trapeza. 15x in NT. Probably from tessares (four; figuratively, can mean total inclusion or universality) + peze (by foot or land) or pezos (by foot or land); {from pous (foot)}. This is a table – whether for eating or conducting business. Literally, four feet. This is where the word “trapeze” comes from.

16 He told those who were selling the doves, “TakeW these things out of here! Stop making my Father’sX houseY a marketplace!”Z 

Notes on verse 16

W “take” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
X “Father’s” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
Y “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
Z “marketplace” = oikos + emporion. Oikos is the same as “house” in v16. See note Y above. Emporion is 1x in NT. From emporos (merchant or trader; one who travels by ship or more broadly one journeying); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + the base of poreuomai (to go, travel, journey; transportation something from one place to another; focuses on the personal meaning given to getting to the destination); {from poros (passageway, ford)}}. This is a market, a place of business or trading. It is also share as root with “emporium.”

17 His disciplesAA rememberedBB that it was written,CC “ZealDD for your house will consumeEE me.” 

Notes on verse 17

AA “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
BB “remembered” = mimnesko. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is to remind or remember. It is memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful of. It is not incidentally or accidentally remembering.
CC “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
DD “zeal” = zelos. 16x in NT– 6x in a positive sense (zeal for God) & 10x in a negative sense (jealousy/strife). Perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other. The verb is meant to echo the sound of boiling water and so it depicts burning emotion that bubbles over. So, burning anger or burning love.
EE “consume” = katesthio. 15x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust). This is to eat up, to consume totally so that there is nothing left. It can also be to annoy, injure, or squander.

18 The Jews then said to him, “What signFF can you showGG us for doingHH this?” 

19 Jesus answered them, “DestroyII this temple,JJ and in three days I will raise it up.”KK 

Notes on verses 18-19

FF “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
GG “show” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
HH “doing” = poieo. Same as “making” in v15. See note N above.
II “destroy” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
JJ “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
KK “raise…up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.

20 The Jews then said, “This templeLL has been under constructionMM for forty-sixNN years, and will you raise it up in three days?” 21 But he was speaking of the templeOO of his body.PP 

Notes on verses 20-21

LL “temple” = naos. Same as “temple” in v19. See note JJ above.
MM “been under construction” = oikodomeo. Related to “house” in v16. From oikos (see note Y above) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
NN “forty-six” = tesserakonta + kai + hex. Tesserakonta is related to “tables” in v15. From tessares (see note V above). This is forty. Figuratively, it alludes to a time of trial or a long interval. Hex is 13x in NT. This is six. It is part of where “hexagon” comes from.
OO “temple” = naos. Same as “temple” in v19. See note JJ above.
PP “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.

22 After he was raised from the dead,QQ his disciples remembered that he had said this; and they believedRR the scriptureSS and the wordTT that Jesus had spoken.

Notes on verse 22

QQ “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
RR “believed” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
SS “scripture” = graphe. Related to “written” in v17. From grapho (see note CC above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
TT “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

23 When he was in Jerusalem during the Passover festival,UU manyVV believed in his nameWW because they sawXX the signs that he was doing. 

Notes on verse 23

UU “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
VV “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
WW “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XX “saw” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.

24 But Jesus on his part would not entrustYY himself to them, because he knewZZ all people 25 and neededAAA no one to testifyBBB about anyone;CCC for he himself knew what was in everyone.DDD

Notes on verses 24-25

YY “entrust” = pisteuo. Same as “believed” in v22. See note RR above.
ZZ “knew” = ginosko. Related to “name” in v23. See note WW above.
AAA “needed” = chreia + echo. Literally “had need.” Chreia is from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution. Echo is to have, hold, or possess.
BBB “testify” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense
CCC “anyone” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
DDD “everyone” = anthropos. Same as “anyone” in v25. See note CCC above.

Image credit: “Cleansing the Temple” by LUMO Project.

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