Judges 5:1, 4-7, 12-24, 31

Judges 5:1, 4-7, 12-24, 31
Easter Vigil – A Women’s Lectionary


Then DeborahI and BarakII sonIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “Deborah” = Deborah. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss) OR from the same as deborah (bee); {from dabar (see above)}. This is Deborah, meaning “bee” or “formalizer.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Deborah.html#.X2Y6QGhKhPY
II “Barak” = Baraq. 13x in OT. From the same as baraq (lightning; figuratively, a gleaming or glittering; concretely, a flashing sword); from baraq (to flash, a flash of lightning). This is Barak or Baraq, meaning “flash of lightning.”
III “son” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.

of AbinoamIV sangV on that day,VI saying:

Notes on verse 1b

IV “Abinoam” = Abinoam. 4x in OT. From ab (father literal or figurative) + noam (pleasantness, beauty, favor, agreeableness, delight, splendor, or grace); {from naem (to be pleasant, beautiful, sweet, or agreeable in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abinoam meaning “my father is delight” or “father of pleasantness” so “gracious.”
V “sang” = shir. From shir (song, singer). This is to sing. It could also refer to one who is singing or leading others in song.
VI “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

“Lord,VII when you went outVIII from Seir,IX
    when you marchedX from the regionXI of Edom,XII

Notes on verse 4a

VII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
VIII “went out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
IX “Seir” = Seir. From the same as sear (hair, hairy, rough); {from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, storm tossed; this is to toss in a literal or figurative sense)} OR from sa’iyr (goat, shaggy, devil, satyr). This is Seir, Edomite mountain region. It is the name of the people that live there and a particular Judean mountain. It may mean “the hairy guys,” “bucks,” “horrors,” “bristly,” or “riders on the storm.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Seir.html
X “marched” = tsaad. 8x in OT. This is to step, go, run, walk, to pace. It is to march with a regular step, climb up, hurl down.
XI “region” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
XII “Edom” = Edom. From the same as adom (to be red or flushed). This is Edom or Idumaea. It means red.

the earthXIII trembled,XIV
    and the heavensXV poured,XVI
    the cloudsXVII indeed poured water.XVIII

Notes on verse 4b

XIII “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XIV “trembled” = raash. This is to quake, shake, tremble, shake from fear; leap like a locust.
XV “heavens” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
XVI “poured” = nataph. 18x in OT. This is to drip, ooze, or drop. It can also refer to the process of gradual distillation that causes liquid to fall drop by drop. Figuratively, it can mean prophesying or inspired speech.
XVII “clouds” = ab. Perhaps from uwb (to be a think or dark cloud, a cloud covering). This is a dark or thick cloud that can envelope in darkness. It can also refer to a copse or to clay.
XVIII “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

The mountainsXIX quakedXX beforeXXI the Lord, the One of Sinai,XXII
    beforeXXIII the Lord, the GodXXIV of Israel.XXV

Notes on verse 5

XIX “mountains” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
XX “quaked” = nazal. 16x in OT. This is to drip or flow, pour down, flood, distill, or melt.
XXI “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XXII “Sinai” = Sinay. Probably from the same as Sin (Sin, a city meaning “clay” or “bush);{perhaps from asam (to gather, store) OR from seneh (thorn bush) OR related to Aramaic siyn (a god called Sin) OR perhaps Hebrew siyn (related to mud or clay)}. This is Sinai – a place whose name may mean “bush of the Lord” or “muddy.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Sinai.html
XXIII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v5. See note XXI above.
XXIV “God” = Elohim.
XXV “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “God” in v5. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note XXIV above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

“In the days of ShamgarXXVI son of Anath,XXVII
    in the days of Jael,XXVIII caravansXXIX ceasedXXX

Notes on verse 6a

XXVI “Shamgar” = Shamgar. 2x in OT. This is Shamgar. It may mean “oxgoad” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamgar
XXVII “Anath” = Anath. 2x in OT. Perhaps from anah (to answer, sing, announce) OR from ayin (eye, appearance; eye in a literal or figurative sense; a fountain). This is Anath, which may mean “answer” or “eye” or “fountain.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Anath.html
XXVIII “Jael” = Yael. 6x in OT. From the same as yael (a mountain goat or an ibex – a creature that climbs); perhaps from ya’al (to gain, profit, do good, ascend, be useful or valuable; benefitted). This is Jael or Yael. It may mean “mountain goat” or “he who gets somewhere because he’s good at something useful.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Jael.html
XXIX “caravans” = orach. From arach (to go, travel, wander). This is a road that is widely used, highway, caravan, traveler, troop.
XXX “ceased” = chadal. This is properly to be flabby – it implies, to stop, fall, end, rest, leave alone, forsake, or desist. Figuratively this can be lacking or idle.

    and travelersXXXI keptXXXII to the byways.XXXIII

Notes on verse 6b

XXXI “travelers” = nathiyb. Root may mean to tramp. This is a path beaten from regular use. So, it is pathway or traveler.
XXXII “kept” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XXXIII “byways” = orach. Same as “caravans” in v6. See note XXIX above.

7 The peasantryXXXIV prosperedXXXV in Israel,
    they grew fatXXXVI on plunder,
because you arose,XXXVII Deborah,
    arose as a motherXXXVIII in Israel.

Notes on verse 7

XXXIV “peasantry” = perazon. 2x in OT. From the same as perazah (rural, village without walls, open country); from the same as paraz (root may mean to separate; perhaps warriors, chieftan, or throng). This is rural folk or leadership.
XXXV “prospered” = chadal. Same as “ceased” in v6. See note XXX above.
XXXVI “grew fat” = chadal. Same as “ceased” in v6. See note XXX above.
XXXVII “arose” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
XXXVIII “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.

12 “Awake,XXXIX awake, Deborah!
    Awake, awake, utterXL a song!XLI
Arise, Barak, lead awayXLII your captives,XLIII
    O son of Abinoam.

Notes on verse 12

XXXIX “awake” = ur. This is to arise, lift, exult, or stir. It is to wake in a literal or figurative sense.
XL “utter” = dabar. Related to “Deborah” in v1. See note I above.
XLI “song” = shir. Related to “sang” in v1. See note V above.
XLII “lead away” = shbiy. From shebo (valuable stone, maybe agate) OR from shabah (to take captive, keep, a captor). This is prisoner, exiled, captivity, booty.
XLIII “captives” = shabah. Related to “lead away” in v12. See note XLII above.

13 Then down marchedXLIV the remnantXLV of the noble;XLVI
    the peopleXLVII of the Lord marched down for him against the mighty.XLVIII

Notes on verse 13

XLIV “down marched” = radah.  This is to step down, rule, dominate, have victory over, crumble.
XLV “remnant” = sarid. From sarad (to escape or remain; properly, this refers to a puncture, so figuratively it is remaining or escaping by slipping out). This is survivor, remnant, or alive.
XLVI “noble” = addir. From adar (wide, glorious, honorable, great, magnificent). This is majestic, excellent, mighty, powerful, or noble.
XLVII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XLVIII “mighty” = gibbor. From gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is strong, mighty, or powerful. This can imply a warrior, hero, or tyrant.

14 From EphraimXLIX they set out into the valley,L
    followingLI you, Benjamin,LII with your kin;LIII

Notes on verse 14a

XLIX “Ephraim” = Ephrayim. From the same as epher (ashes or dust – properly something strewn) OR from parah (to grow, increase, be fruitful in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, his descendants, and their land.
L “valley” = shoresh. Perhaps from sharash (to root into soil or uproot). This is a root, depth, line, heel, bottom. It is  root in a literal or figurative sense.
LI “following” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
LII “Benjamin” = Binyamin. Related to “son” in v1. From ben (see note III above) + from yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It could refer to Benjamin himself, his offspring, their tribe, or their territory.
LIII “kin” = am. Same as “people” in v13. See note XLVII above.

from MachirLIV marched downLV the commanders,LVI

Notes on verse 14b

LIV “Machir” = Makir. From makar (to sell – could be commerce/trade, a daughter to be married, someone into slavery; figuratively, to surrender). This is Machir or Makir, it is a name meaning “salesman.”
LV “marched down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
LVI “commanders” = chaqaq. 19x in OT. This is to inscribe, carve, or decree. It can be a lawmaker/commander or a staff/scepter. Literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal.

    and from ZebulunLVII those who bearLVIII the marshal’sLIX staff;LX

Notes on verse 14c

LVII “Zebulun” = Zebulun. From zabal (to dwell, inclose, reside). This is Zebulun, that tribe, or their territory. It means “habitation.”
LVIII “bear” = mashak. This is to draw, drag, or pull. It can mean sow, march, remove, draw along, continue, extend, or prolong.
LIX “marshal’s” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.
LX “staff” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.

15 the chiefsLXI of IssacharLXII came with Deborah,
    and Issachar faithful toLXIII Barak;

Notes on verse 15a

LXI “chiefs” = sar. This is chief, leader, ruler, lord, official, governor, prince, military leader. It refers to someone at the top of a rank or class.
LXII “Issachar” = Yissaskar. Perhaps from nasa (to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively; to carry, take, or arise; to bring forth, advance, accept) + sakar (wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit); {from sakar (to hire, reward, earn)} OR ish (man); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail} + sakar (see above). This is Issachar, one of Jacob’s children and his tribe. It may mean “there is recompense,” “man of hire,” “he is wages,” or “he will bring a reward.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Issachar.html
LXIII “faithful to” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.

    into the valleyLXIV they rushed outLXV at his heels.LXVI

Notes on verse 15b

LXIV “valley” = emeq. From amoq (to be deep in a literal or figurative sense; profound). This is Vale or valley – frequently part of place names.
LXV “rushed out” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
LXVI “heels” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.

Among the clansLXVII of ReubenLXVIII
    there were greatLXIX searchingsLXX of heart.LXXI

Notes on verse 15c

LXVII “clans” = peluggah. 3x in OT. From palag (to split or divide in a literal or figurative sense; to confound). This is a division, grouping, clan, or section.
LXVIII “Reuben” = Reuben. Related to “son” in v1 & “Benjamin” in v14. From raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense) + ben (see note III above). This is Reuben, meaning “behold a son.”
LXIX “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
LXX “searchings” = cheqeq. Related to “commanders” in v14. 2x in OT. From the same as choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (see note LVI above). This is a decree or thought.
LXXI “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.

16 Why did you tarryLXXII amongLXXIII the sheepfolds,LXXIV

Notes on verse 16a

LXXII “tarry” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
LXXIII “among” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
LXXIV “sheepfolds” = mishpethayim. 2x in OT. Perhaps from the same as shaphath (to lay, ordain, locate, establish, light on fire, bring). This is fireplace, burden, sheepfold, cattle stall.

    to hearLXXV the pipingLXXVI for the flocks?LXXVII
Among the clans of Reuben
    there were great searchingsLXXVIII of heart.

Notes on verse 16b

LXXV “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
LXXVI “piping” = sheruqah. 2x in OT. From sharaq (to be shrill, hiss, whistle). This is a whistling, piping, or bleating. It can be in scorn.
LXXVII “flocks” = eder. From adar (fail, missing) OR from adar (to dig, help, keep rank; properly, to muster troops as for battle; to miss or lack since you can see who is missing following muster; to arrange like a vineyard and so to hoe). This is arrangement – of animals, a flock or herd.
LXXVIII “searchings” = cheqer. 12x in OT. From chaqar (properly, to penetrate; to thoroughly investigate, examine, ponder, or seek out). This is depth, inquiry – something to be examined or enumerated.

17 GileadLXXIX stayedLXXX beyondLXXXI the Jordan;LXXXII

Notes on verse 17a

LXXIX “Gilead” = Gilad. From gala (to lay bare, quarrel, expose) OR from gal’ed (heap of testimony); {from gal (wave, billow, rock pile; something rolled; a spring of water); {from galal (to roll, roll away, wallow, commit, remove; rolling in a literal or figurative sense)} + ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve)}}. This is Gilead, meaning “perpetual fountain” or “heap of testimony.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Gilead.html#.Xw_EFShKhPY.
LXXX “stayed” = shakan. This is to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently. It can mean abide or continue. “Mishkan,” taken from this verb, is the Hebrew word for the Tabernacle (as a place where God abided).
LXXXI “beyond” = eber. From abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is the place across or beyond, by, from, other, the opposite side, against, over. It often refers to the other side of the Jordan river or toward the east.
LXXXII “Jordan” = Yarden. Related to “marched down” in v14. From yarad (see note LV above). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”

    and Dan,LXXXIII why did he abideLXXXIV with the ships?LXXXV

Notes on verse 17b

LXXXIII “Dan” = Dan. From din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, quarrel, plead). This is Dan or a Danite. It means “judge” and can refer to Dan, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
LXXXIV “abide” = gur. Properly, this is the act of turning off the road for any reason. So, it means sojourning, becoming a guest. It can mean being fearful since one is outside of home territory. It can also mean dwelling, living, or inhabiting if one has turned off the root to encamp for a longer duration. This word is where the Hebrew “ger” comes from, which is the word translated “stranger” or “resident alien.”
LXXXV “ships” = oniyyah. From the same as oni (ships, a fleet); probably from anah (to meet, happen, approach). This is ships or sailors.

AsherLXXXVI sat stillLXXXVII at the coastLXXXVIII of the sea,LXXXIX
    settling downXC by his landings.XCI

Notes on verse 17c

LXXXVI “Asher” = Asher. From ashar (to go straight, lead, guide; to be level and so to be right, blessed, honest, happy). This is Asher, one of Jacob’s children and his tribe. It means “happy one.”
LXXXVII “sat still” = yashab. Same as “tarry” in v16. See note LXXII above.
LXXXVIII “coast” = choph. 7x in OT. From chaphaph (to surround, cover, or shield; to surround in order to protect). This is a shore, cove, or haven.
LXXXIX “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.
XC “settling down” = shakan. Same as “stayed” in v17. See note LXXX above.
XCI “landings” = miphrats. 1x in OT. From parats (to make a breach, burst out, compel, disperse; to break out literally or figuratively). This is a break in the coast – a landing place.

18 Zebulun is a people that scornedXCII, XCIII death;XCIV
    NaphtaliXCV too, on the heightsXCVI of the field.XCVII

Notes on verse 18

XCII “scorned” = charaph. This is to expose and so figuratively to reproach, defame, carp at, defy. It can also mean spend the winter or betroth.
XCIII {untranslated} = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XCIV “death” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XCV “Naphtali” = Naphtali. From pathal (to twist, twine, wrestle, struggle, behave in an unsavory way). This is Naphtali, meaning “my wrestling.” It can refer to Naphtali, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
XCVI “heights” = marom. From rum (to be high, rise, exalted, become proud, display, offer, present, set apart, extol; to rise in a literal or figurative sense). This can be height, high place, or lofty. It can be either exalted or haughty/proud. It can refer to dignity or to heaven.
XCVII “field” = sadeh. Same as “region” in v4. See note XI above.

19 “The kingsXCVIII came,XCIX they fought;C
    then fought the kings of Canaan,CI

Notes on verse 19a

XCVIII “kings” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
XCIX “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
C “fought” = lacham. This is to eat or feed on. Figuratively, it is to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction.
CI “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaan

at Taanach,CII by the waters of Megiddo;CIII
    they gotCIV no spoilsCV of silver.CVI

Notes on verse 19b

CII “Taanach” = Tanak. 7x in OT. This is Taanach, Tanach, or Tanak. Its meaning is unclear. It may mean “wandering through” or “sandy.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Taanach.html
CIII “Megiddo” = Mgiddon. 12x in OT. Perhaps from abdan (destruction, perishing); {from abad (to wander off, lose self; to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt)} OR from gadad (to cut, gather, assemble, crowd; also, to gash as pushing in). This is Megiddo or Megiddon. It may mean “tower” or “rendezvous” or “invading” or “Place of exposure” or “place of troops” or “place of multitudes.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Megiddo.html
CIV “got” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CV “spoils” = betsa. From batsa (to break or cut off, to acquire violently, break ranks, greedy, fulfill; usually, it means to plunder). This is dishonest gain or gain from violence. It can also be plunder or profit.
CVI “silver” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.

20 The starsCVII fought from heaven,
    from their coursesCVIII they fought against Sisera.CIX

Notes on verse 20

CVII “stars” = kokab. Perhaps from the same as kavah (to prick, blister, burn, scorch). This is a star as shining, stargaze. Figuratively, can mean prince.
CVIII “courses” = mesillah. From salal (to lift up, build, pile, extol, exalt; can also be used for opposing as a dam holds back water). This is highway, path, step. It could be a course in a figurative sense or specifically a viaduct or staircase.
CIX “Sisera” = Sisera. Related to “Reuben” in v15. Perhaps from Hittite verb (to meditate) OR related to sus (root may mean to skip as in jump for joy; a crane or a swift bird; a horse as leaping) + raah (see note LXVIII above). This is Sisera, perhaps meaning “meditation, “keen and swift,” or “see the horse.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Sisera.html#.X2FO22hKhPY

21 The torrentCX KishonCXI swept them away,CXII
    the onrushingCXIII torrent, the torrent Kishon.

Notes on verse 21a

CX “torrent” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.
CXI “Kishon” = Qishon. 6x in OT– regarding this incident and Elijah’s contest with the priests of Baal in 1 Kings 18. From qush (to ensnare, bend, set a trap); perhaps from yaqosh (ensnare, lay bait, lure, trapper; to snare literally or figuratively). This is Kishon or Qishon, meaning “winding.”
CXII “swept…away” = garaph. 1x in OT. This is to sweep away – can imply violently.
CXIII “onrushing” = qedumim. 1x in OT. From the same as qedem (front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity) OR from qadam (to come in front or be in front; to meet, anticipate, confront, receive, or rise; sometimes to meet for help). This may mean ancient or onrushing.

    March on,CXIV my soul,CXV with might!CXVI

Notes on verse 21b

CXIV “march on” = darak. This is to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process. So, also an archer.
CXV “soul” = nephesh. Same as {untranslated} in v18. See note XCIII above.
CXVI “might” = oz. From azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively. A Late Hebrew word). This is strength in the sense of force, majesty, praise, material and physical strength, the abstract notion of security. It can also speak of social or political power.

22 “Then loud beatCXVII the horses’CXVIII hoofsCXIX
    with the galloping,CXX galloping of his steeds.CXXI

Notes on verse 22

CXVII “loud beat” = halam. 9x in OT. This is to strike, hammer, smash, beat, overcome, conquer.
CXVIII “horses’” = sus. Related to “Sisera” in v20. See note CIX above.
CXIX “hoofs” = aqeb. 13x in OT. This is heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, or usurper.
CXX “galloping” = daharah. 2x in OT. From dahar (to rush, pause, move). This is rushing, prancing, a gallop.
CXXI “steeds” = abbir. 17x in OT. From abir (strong, mighty); from abar (to fly, soar). This is mighty or valiant. It could refer to a mighty one broadly, an angel, or a bull.

23 “Curse Meroz,CXXII says the angelCXXIII of the Lord,
    curse bitterlyCXXIV its inhabitants,
because they did not come to the helpCXXV of the Lord,
    to the help of the Lord against the mighty.

Notes on verse 23

CXXII “Meroz” = Meroz. 1x in OT. Perhaps from the same as erez (cedar or a cedar tree as strong); {perhaps from araz (made from cedar; to be firm, strong); related to aruz (firm, strong)} OR from Greek murizo (to anoint with expensive oil). This is Meroz. It may mean “refuge” or “place of the cedars” or “place of the myriad” or “place of the coastlines.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Meroz.html
CXXIII “angel” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
CXXIV “curse bitterly” = arar + arar. The word is repeated twice – the second time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CXXV “help” = ezrah. From ezer (help, aid, helper); from azar (to help, protect, support, ally; properly, to surround so as to provide aid). This is help, helper, support.

24 “Most blessed of womenCXXVI beCXXVII Jael,
    the wifeCXXVIII of HeberCXXIX the Kenite,CXXX
    of tent-dwellingCXXXI women most blessed.

Notes on verse 24

CXXVI “women” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
CXXVII “most blessed…be” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
CXXVIII “wife” = ishshah. Same as “women” in v24. See note CXXVI above.
CXXIX “Heber” = Cheber. 11x in OT. From chabar (to unite, ally, attach, touch; to join in a literal or figurative sense; also, specially, using magic knots or spells to fascinate or connect). This is Heber of Cheber, a name meaning, “community,” “fellowship,” “associate,” or “companion.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Heber.html
CXXX “Kenite” = Qeni. 13x in OT. From Qayin (Cain, the name or Kenite – the people or their territory; meaning “spear,” “smith,” “acquisition,” or “political leader.”); from the same as qayin (spear); from qun (to chant a lament, to play a musical note). This is Kenite. It may mean “nestling,” “people of the spear,” or “senatorial.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Cain.html & https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Kenite.html
CXXXI “tent-dwelling” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.

31 “SoCXXXII perishCXXXIII allCXXXIV your enemies,CXXXV O Lord!
    But may your friendsCXXXVI be like the sunCXXXVII as it risesCXXXVIII in its might.”CXXXIX

Notes on verse 31a

CXXXII “so” = ken. Same as “faithful to” in v15. See note LXIII above.
CXXXIII “perish” = abad. Related to “Meggido” in v19. See note CIII above.
CXXXIV “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
CXXXV “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.
CXXXVI “friends” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
CXXXVII “sun” = shemesh. This is sun or toward the east. Its root may mean being brilliant. Figuratively, this could be a ray or an arch.
CXXXVIII “rises” = yatsa. Same as “went out” in v4. See note VIII above.
CXXXIX “might” = geburah. Related to “mighty” in v13. From gabar (see note XLVIII above).

And the landCXL had restCXLI fortyCXLII years.CXLIII

Notes on verse 31b

CXL “land” = erets. Same as “earth” in v4. See note XIII above.
CXLI “had rest” = shaqat. This is to be quiet, rest, calm, settle, be still, peace.
CXLII “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
CXLIII “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.

Image credit: “The Defeat of Sisera” by Luca Giordano, c.1692.

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