Judith 16:1-6, 13

Judith 16:1-6, 13
Easter Vigil – A Women’s Lectionary

Text: https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=judith+16&version=NRSV
Interlinear: https://en.katabiblon.com/us/index.php?text=lxx&book=Jdt&ch=16&reader=Max & https://biblebento.com/index.html?lxx1i&180.16.1

And JudithA said,B
Begin a song to my GodC with tambourines,D

Notes on verse 1a

A “Judith” = Ioudith. From Hebrew Yehudith (Judith – a Judean); from Yehudi (Jew or Jewish – one descended from Judah); from Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judith. It means “Jewish” or praised.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Judith & https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Judith.html 
B “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
C “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
D “tambourines” = tumpanon. From tupto (to strike repeatedly, wound, punish; figuratively to offend). This is a drum or tambourine or roller. It is where the word “timpani” comes from. See https://lsj.gr/wiki/%CF%84%CF%8D%CE%BC%CF%80%CE%B1%CE%BD%CE%BF%CE%BD & https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CF%84%CF%8D%CE%BC%CF%80%CE%B1%CE%BD%CE%BF%CE%BD#Ancient_Greek

    singE to my LordF with cymbals.G

Notes on verse 1b

E “sing” = ado. 5x in NT. From aeido (to sing). This is to sing.
F “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
G “cymbals” = kumbalon. 1x in NT. From kumbe (a cup) OR from kuma (wave, billow, curve, bend); from kuo (to swell as one pregnant). This is a cymbal – perhaps a cymbal that is hollow. It is where the word “cymbal” comes from.

RaiseH to him a new psalm;I
    exaltJ him, and call uponK his name.L

Notes on verse 1c

H “raise” = enarmozo. This is fit, adapt, please. See https://morphological_el.en-academic.com/729288/%E1%BC%90%CE%BD%CE%B1%CF%81%CE%BC%E1%BD%B9%CE%B6%CF%89 & https://lsj.gr/wiki/%E1%BC%90%CE%BD%CE%B1%CF%81%CE%BC%CF%8C%CE%B6%CF%89
I “psalm” = psalmos. 7x in NT. From psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub)}. This is a psalm, a song sung of praise – generally accompanied by a harp or other stringed instrument. It can also refer to the book of Psalms.
J “exalt” = ainos + hupsoo. Ainos is 2x in NT. Perhaps from epainos (fitting praise, fame, approval; recognizing something or someone that is deserving of praise.); {from epi (on, upon, to, what is fitting) + aineo (to praise, praise God)}. This is praise, a story praising God. Hupsoo is from hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is to elevate in a literal or figurative sense. So it could be to raise up or set something in a high place or to exalt or make something great.
K “call upon” = epikaleo. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
L “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

For the Lord is a God who crushesM wars;N
    he sets up his camp amongO his people;P

Notes on verse 2a

M “crushes” = suntribo. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is break in pieces, bruise, shatter, or crush completely.
N “wars” = polemos. 18x in NT. From pelomai (to bustle) or from polus (much, many, abundant). This is war, quarrel, strife; battle, whether one time or on-going. It is war in a literal or figurative sense.
O “sets up…among” = parembole…mesos. Parembole is 11x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + emballo (to throw in, subject to); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a juxtaposition, camp, barracks. Mesos is perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
P “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

    he deliveredQ me from the handsR of my pursuers.S

Notes on verse 2b

Q “delivered” = exaireo. 8x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to remove, pluck, tear, or choose. Properly, it refers to a complete removal or a complete rescue.
R “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
S “pursuers” = katadioko. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout) + dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to follow, pursue closely.

3 The AssyrianT cameU down from the mountainsV of the north;W
    he came with myriadsX of his warriors;Y

Notes on verse 3a

T “Assyrian” = Assour. From the same as Akkadian Ashshur (“City of God Ashshur”) OR perhaps from Hebrew ashar (to go straight, advance, proceed, direct, guide, be level, be honest, be blessed or happy). This is Assyrian. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyria#Nomenclature.
U “came” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
V “mountains” = oros. Related to “delivered” in v2. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (see note Q above). This is mountain or hill.
W “north” = borras. 2x in NT. This is north or north wind.
X “myriads” = murias. 9x in NT. From murios (can mean a large number, countless; in the plural, ten thousand; its root may mean numerous). This is many thousands or a big number that cannot be counted. It is where the word “myriad” comes from.
Y “warriors” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.

their numbersZ blocked upAA the wadis,BB
    and their cavalryCC coveredDD the hills.

Notes on verse 3b

Z “numbers” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
AA “blocked up” = emphrasso. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + phrasso (to stop, fence in, obstruct). This is to stop or shut. See https://www.motorera.com/greek/lexicon/en.html & https://hellas.bab2min.pe.kr/hk/emfrassw?l=en
BB “wadis” = cheimarros. 1x in NT. From the same as cheimazo (to be storm tossed, driven by a storm); {from cheima (winter cold) or cheimon (storm, winter, rainy season); from cheo (to pour) + rheo (to flow, overflow)}. This is a ravine that has water flowing in it in the winter/during storms.
CC “cavalry” = hippos. 17x in NT– 1x in James and the rest in Revelation. This is a horse. It is part of where “hippopotamus” comes from (literally, “horse of the river.”
DD “covered” = kalupto. 8x in NT. Related to kalube (hut, cabin). This is to cover, hide, veil, or conceal. Figuratively, it can mean to keep hidden or secret.

He boastedEE that he would burn upFF my territory,GG

Notes on verse 4a

EE “boasted” = lego. Same as “said” in v1. See note B above.
FF “burn up” = empimpremi. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + pimpremi (to burn or swell). This is to kindle or blow up. See https://lexicon.katabiblon.com/index.php?lemma=%E1%BC%90%CE%BC%CF%80%E1%BD%B7%CE%BC%CF%80%CF%81%CE%B7%CE%BC%CE%B9
GG “territory” = horion. 12x in NT. From horos (limit, boundary). This is a boundary on land or a coast. It could be district, region, territory, or frontier.

    and killHH my young menII with the sword,JJ

Notes on verse 4b

HH “kill” = anaireo. Related to “delivered” in v2 & “mountains” in v3. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (see note Q above)}. This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
II “young men” = neaniskos. 11x in NT. From neanias (youth, young man; someone in their prime to the age of 40); from neos (young, new, youth, person). This is a youth or young man in their prime up to 40.
JJ “sword” = rhomphaia. 7x in NT– 1x Simeon’s words to Mary “a sword will pierce your own soul,” 6x in the book of Revelation. Probably of foreign origin. This refers to a Thracian long sword that could thrust and slash. It may have come from an Egyptian god. Figuratively, it refers to war or intense grief. Since the sword was so powerful, it can symbolize dominance.

and dashKK my infantsLL to the ground,MM

Notes on verse 4c

KK “dash” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
LL “infants” = thelazo. 5x in NT. From thele (a nipple). This is to nurse or suckle – a nursing baby.
MM “ground” = edaphos. 1x in NT. Perhaps from hedraios (sitting, well-seated, immovable; figuratively, steadfast, firm, morally fixed); {from hedra (seat). This is basil, soil, or ground.

    and seizeNN my childrenOO as booty,PP
    and take my virginsQQ as spoil.RR

Notes on verse 4d

NN “seize” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
OO “children” = nepios. 15x in NT– used in 1 Corinthians 13 (“when I was a child…”). This may be from ne (not) + epos (word; by extension, to speak) {from epo (to answer, bring word, command). This is an infant, child, minor, or immature person. It can also be used figuratively for someone who is childish or unlearned.
PP “booty” = pronome. From pronemo (to present, go forward); {from pro (before, earlier, above) + nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is foraging, plunder, provision. See https://lsj.gr/wiki/%CF%80%CF%81%CE%BF%CE%BD%CE%BF%CE%BC%CE%AE & https://hellas.bab2min.pe.kr/hk/pronemw?l=en
QQ “virgins” = parthenos. 15x in NT. This is virgin, chaste, unmarried. It can also refer to a woman past puberty who is not yet married, since she was presumed to be a virgin.
RR “spoil” = skuleusai. This is strip or veil. See https://morphological_el.en-academic.com/426870/%CF%83%CE%BA%CF%85%CE%BB%CE%B5%E1%BF%A6%CF%83%CE%B1%CE%B9

But the Lord AlmightySS has foiledTT them
    by the hand of a woman.UU

Notes on verse 5

SS “Almighty” = Pantokrator. 10x in NT– 9x in Revelation. From pas (all, every, each) + krateo (being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule; to seize, grasp hold of, control; to arrest); {from kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised)}. This is almighty or omnipotent. It is the one who rules everything. It is always used of God.
TT “foiled” = atheteo. Related to “dash” in v4. 16x in NT. From athetos (not having position or place); {from a (not) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is setting something aside, ignoring or nullifying it, refusing or rejecting. It can also mean to annul or cancel out the effect of something. Literally, this is to un-place. It can also be rejecting something, despising it, or considering something invalid.
UU “woman” = thelus. Related to “infants” in v4. 5x in NT. From the same as thelazo (see note LL above). This is female or woman – a mature female.

6 For their mighty oneVV did not fallWW by the hands of the young men,
    nor did the sonsXX of the TitansYY strikeZZ him down,

Notes on verse 6a

VV “mighty one” = dunatos. Related to “warriors” in v3. From dunamai (see note Y above). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
WW “fall” = hupopipto. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is to fall under, sin, to happen, collapse, accrue. See https://lexicon.katabiblon.com/index.php?lemma=%E1%BD%91%CF%80%CE%BF%CF%80%E1%BD%B7%CF%80%CF%84%CF%89
XX “sons” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
YY “Titans” = Titan. Possibly from tito (sun or day) from Anatolian OR from titiano (to stretch or reach out); {from teino (to stretch) or from tisis (retribution); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime)}. This is Titan from Greek mythology. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%A4%CE%B9%CF%84%CE%AC%CE%BD
ZZ “strike” = patasso. 10x in NT. Perhaps from paio (to strike, hit, sting). This can be strike or hit in a gentle sense like tapping someone on the side (Acts 12:7) or the beating of the heart. It can also be violent as in the disciples striking with the sword when Jesus is arrested (Mt 26:31 & Mk 22:49-50). It can also refer to slaying or death (Acts 7:24; Acts 12:23).

    nor did tallAAA giantsBBB set uponCCC him;

Notes on verse 6b

AAA “tall” = hupselos. 12x in NT– in Matthew’s and Luke’s Temptation story as well as Matthew and Mark’s Transfiguration accounts. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is high, lofty, or exalted. It can be lofty in elevation or in character.
BBB “giants” = gigas. Perhaps from Pre-Greek. This is giant or one of the Gigantes or Gigas. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%93%CE%AF%CE%B3%CE%B1%CF%82#Ancient_Greek
CCC “set upon” = epitithemi. Related to “dash” in v4 & “foiled” in v5. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (see note TT above). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.

but Judith daughterDDD of MerariEEE
    with the beautyFFF of her countenanceGGG undidHHH him.

Notes on verse 6c

DDD “daughter” = thugater. This is daughter, a related female or one who lives with you.
EEE “Merari” = Merari. From marar (to be bitter, embittered, weep, troubled). This is Merari, meaning “My bitterness” or “my strength.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Merari.html
FFF “beauty” = kallos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is beauty or nobility. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%BA%CE%AC%CE%BB%CE%BB”%CE%BF%CF%82
GGG “countenance” = prosopon. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
HHH “undid” = paraluo. 5x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is to release on the side, weaken, disable, relax, paralyze.

13 I will singIII to my God a newJJJ song:KKK

Notes on verse 13a

III “sing” = humneo. 4x in NT. From humno (hymn, song to praise God, religious ode; also used in other faiths as songs that celebrated their gods, heroes, etc.); from hudeo (to celebrate). This is singing a hymn or religious ode, to praise or celebrate God.
JJJ “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
KKK “song” = humnos. Related to “sing” in v13. 2x in NT. Perhaps from hudeo (see note III above). This is a hymn – a song to worship God, a psalm. It can be for praise or gratitude. The same word was used to worship gods and goddesses in Roman religion as well as songs in honor or heroes. It is where “hymn” comes from.

O Lord, you are greatLLL and glorious,MMM
    wonderfulNNN in strength,OOO invincible.PPP

Notes on verse 13b

LLL “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
MMM “glorious” = endoxos. 4x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); {from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion)}. This is held in honor, splendid, in glory, having dignity, noble.
NNN “wonderful” = thaumastos. 6x in NT. From thaumazo (to marvel, wonder, or admire; to be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck; being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld); from thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is wonderful, marvelous, awe-inspiring. It is something that moves one to deepest feelings.
OOO “strength” = ischus. 10x in NT. Perhaps from is (force) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is strength, might, power, force, or ability. It is power that engages immediate resistance.
PPP “invincible” = anuperbletos. This is unsurpassed, unequalled. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%B1%CE%BD%CF%85%CF%80%CE%AD%CF%81%CE%B2%CE%BB%CE%B7%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%82

Note: This passage comes from the apocrypha so I was not able to use my regular interlinear website. Some of this annotation amounts to guesswork and uses many other sources. However, most of it is still based on Strong’s concordance.

Image credit: “Judith and Holofernes” by Koloman Moser, 1916.

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