Luke 2:1-20

Luke 2:1-20
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IIn those daysII a decreeIII went outIV

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
II “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
III “decree” = dogma. 5x in NT. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion). This is opinion, ordinance, or decree. It could be civil or religious. It is where the word “dogma” comes from.
IV “went out” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.

from EmperorV AugustusVI that allVII the worldVIII should be registered.IX 

Notes on verse 1b

V “Emperor” = Kaisar. From Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors. See
VI “Augustus” = Augoustos. 1x in NT. From Latin augustus (majestic, august, venerable); from augeo (to increase, grow, honor). This is Augustus, the name of an emperor that meant sanctity, but not all the way to divinity. See
VII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
VIII “world” = oikoumene. 15x in NT. From oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is the world – the part where people live. It was used specifically for the Roman world. It is the root of the word “ecumenic.”
IX “registered” = apographo. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + grapho (to write, describe, engrave). This is to copy, enroll, tax, or register. It is to give your name for a census or to write or copy a list.

This was the firstX registrationXI and was takenXII while QuiriniusXIII

Notes on verse 2a

X “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
XI “registration” = apographe. Related to “registered” in v1. 2x in NT. From apographo (see note IX above). This is register, enrollment, which implies an assessment for taxation.
XII “taken” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XIII “Qurinius” = Kurenios. 1x in NT. From Latin Quirinus (after the Sabine town Cures); {perhaps from curis (spear) and curia (court, senate or meeting house)} + -ius (suffix that turns nouns into adjectives). This is Quirinius. See;

was governorXIV of Syria.XV All wentXVI to their own townsXVII to be registered. 

Notes on verses 2b-3

XIV “governor” = hegemoneuo. 2x in NT. From hegemon (leader, governor, guide, prince, commander; one who governs a province); from hegomai (to lead, suppose, think, consider; to go before as chief; that which comes first in priority; to command with authority in an official capacity); from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive). This is command, govern, be governor. To acts as a ruler. Related to the word hegemony.
XV “Syria” = Suria. 8x in NT. From Akkadian Ashshur (named for the god Ashur, the head of their pantheon). This is Syria. In those days, the province was united with Cilicia. See;
XVI “went” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XVII “towns” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

4 JosephXVIII also wentXIX from the town of NazarethXX in GalileeXXI to Judea,XXII

Notes on verse 4a

XVIII “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
XIX “went” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
XX “Nazareth” = Nazareth. 12x in NT. Perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazareth, meaning perhaps branch or protected. It is a city in Galilee. See
XXI “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
XXII “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

to the cityXXIII of DavidXXIV calledXXV Bethlehem,XXVI because he was descended from the houseXXVII and familyXXVIII of David. 

Notes on verse 4b

XXIII “city” = polis. Same as “towns” in v3. See note XVII above.
XXIV “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
XXV “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
XXVI “Bethlehem” = Bethleem. 8x in NT. From beth lechem (Bethlehem); {from bayit (house, court, family, palace, temple); {probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively)} + lechem (bread, food, loaf; food for people or for animals); {from lacham (to eat, feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction)}. This is Bethlehem, meaning “house of bread.”
XXVII “house” = oikos. Related to “world” in v1. See note VIII above.
XXVIII “family” = patria. 3x in NT. From pater (father, ancestor, elder, senior; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is lineage, family, ancestry, tribe, nation.

5 He went to be registered with Mary,XXIX to whom he was engagedXXX and who was expecting a child.XXXI 6 XXXIIWhile they were there, the timeXXXIII cameXXXIV for her to deliverXXXV her child. 

Notes on verses 5-6

XXIX “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
XXX “engaged” = mnesteuo. 3x in NT– all in reference to Mary and Joseph. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). OR from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); from masso (to knead, squeeze). This is to betroth, be engaged.
XXXI “expecting a child” = egkuos. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, in the condition of) + the same as kuma (wave, billow, curve, bend); from kuo (to swell as one pregnant). Literally, a swelling inside, hence, pregnant.
XXXII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XXXIII “day” = hemera. Same as “days” in v1. See note II above.
XXXIV “came” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
XXXV “deliver” = tikto. 18x in NT. This is used of creating new life whether as a mother or a plant or the earth as a whole. It can be rendered bright forth, bear, give birth, labor, produce, or yield. It can also refers to the pains of childbirth.

And she gave birthXXXVI to her firstbornXXXVII sonXXXVIII and wrapped him in bands of cloth,XXXIX

Notes on verse 7a

XXXVI “gave birth” = tikto. Same as “deliver” in v6. See note XXXV above.
XXXVII “firstborn” = prototokos. Related to “first” in v2 & “deliver” in v6. 8x in NT. From protos (see note X above) + tikto (see note XXXV above). This is firstborn or oldest. Figuratively, it can also mean pre-eminent.
XXXVIII “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XXXIX “wrapped…in bands of cloth” = sparganoo. 2x in NT. From sparganon (swathing band, a strip); from the same as sparasso (to tear, rend, mangle, convulse); related to spairo (to grasp); from spao (to pull out as one draws a sword). This is to swaddle an infant, to wrap in cloths or strips.

and laidXL him in a manger,XLI because there was no placeXLII for them in the inn.XLIII

Notes on verse 7b

XL “laid” = anaklino. 6x in NT. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + klino (to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear; to bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee). This is to lay down, recline, lie back, or sit down.
XLI “manger” = phatne. 4x in NT– 3x of Jesus in a manger, 1x Jesus argues “Does not each of you on the sabbath untie his ox or his donkey from the manger and lead it away to give it water?” in Luke 13:15. May be from pateomai (to eat). This is a manger, which is a feeding trough, or a stall where one feeds cattle.
XLII “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
XLIII “inn” = kataluma. 3x in NT– 2x of the guest room that Jesus seeks in which to eat his Passover for the Last Supper (Mark 14:14) (Luke 22:11) & 1x of Jesus’ birth story. From kata (down, according to, by way of) + luo (to loose, release, dissolve, untie; figurative for break or destroy). This is a lodging place, inn, or guest room. Properly, it is a place where one unyokes or unharnesses animals for the purpose of lodging. Alternately, it’s a place to break up a long journey.

In that regionXLIV there were shepherdsXLV living in the fields,XLVI

Notes on verse 8a

XLIV “region” = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.
XLV “shepherds” = poimen. 18x in NT. This is shepherd or pastor – one who protects. It is also used figuratively to mean ruler. 
XLVI “living in the fields” = agrauleo. Related to “governor” in v2. 1x in NT. From agros (field, the country; particularly a field that has a crop; lands, country, estate, farm; a field where one drives cattle); {from ago (see note XIV above)] + aule (courtyard, court, sheepfold; palace as a place that would have a courtyard); {from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow without thinking about it; natural breath)}. This is camping in the fields – spending the night out in the open.

keepingXLVII watchXLVIII over their flockXLIX by night. 

Notes on verse 8b

XLVII “keeping” = phulasso. This is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly. This is being on guard in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVIII “watch” = phulake. Related to “keeping” in v8. From phulasso (see note XLVII above). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).
XLIX “flock” = poimne. Related to “shepherds” in v8. 5x in NT. Probably from poimen (see note XLV above). This is flock or fold in a literal or figurative sense – usually sheep or goats.

Then an angelL of the LordLI stoodLII before them,

Notes on verse 9a

L “angel” = aggelos. Related to “governor” in v2 & “living in the fields” in v8. Probably from ago (see note XIV above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
LI “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LII “stood” = ephistemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to stand upon, happen, be present. Usually, it is used in a literal sense.

and the gloryLIII of the Lord shone aroundLIV them, and they were terrified.LV 

Notes on verse 9b

LIII “glory” = doxa. Related to “decree” in v1. From dokeo (see note III above). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
LIV “shone around” = perilampo. 2x in NT – of the angels at the nativity in Luke 2:9 & of the light that was part of Saul/Paul’s Damascus conversion in Acts 26:13. From peri (about, concerning, around, comprehensive) + lampo (to shine, beam, literally or figuratively). This is to illuminate around.
LV “terrified” = phobeo + phobos + megas. Literally, “feared great fear.” Phobeo is from phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from. Phobos is related to phobeo above. Megas is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.

10 But the angel said to them, “Do not be afraid;LVI for seeLVII—I am bringing you good newsLVIII of greatLIX joyLX for all the people:LXI 

Notes on verse 10

LVI “be afraid” = phobeo. Same as “terrified” in v9. See note LV above.
LVII “see” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LVIII “bringing…good news” = euaggelizo. Related to “governor” in v2 & “living in the fields” in v8 & “angel” in v9. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (see note L above). This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
LIX “great” = megas. Same as “terrified” in v9. See note LV above.
LX “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
LXI “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

11 to you is bornLXII this dayLXIII in the city of David a Savior,LXIV who is the Messiah,LXV the Lord. 

Notes on verse 11

LXII “is born” = tikto. Same as “deliver” in v6. See note XXXV above.
LXIII “day” = semeron. Related to “days” in v1. From hemera (see note II above). This is today, last night, or at present.
LXIV “Savior” = soter. From sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively.); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is savior, deliverer, preserver.
LXV “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

12 This will be a signLXVI for you: you will findLXVII a childLXVIII wrapped in bands of cloth and lyingLXIX in a manger.” 

Notes on verse 12

LXVI “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
LXVII “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXVIII “child” = brephos. 8x in NT. This is used of a fetus (as when the child leapt in Elizabeth’s womb on seeing Mary in Luke 1:41) or a newborn (as the child found in the manger in Luke 2:12). It is a young child or an infant in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIX “lying” = keimai. This is to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined. It is to lie down literally or figuratively.

13 And suddenlyLXX there wasLXXI with the angel a multitudeLXXII

Notes on verse 13a

LXX “suddenly” = exaiphnes. 5x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + aiphnidios (literally not apparent so sudden or unexpected); {from aiphnes (suddenly); {from a (not, without) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear); {perhaps from phos (light, radiance; light literal or figurative)}}}. This is suddenly or unexpectedly.
LXXI “was” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
LXXII “multitude” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.

of the heavenlyLXXIII host,LXXIV praisingLXXV GodLXXVI and saying,

Notes on verse 13b

LXXIII “heavenly” = ouranios. 9x in NT. From ouranos (air, sky, the atmosphere, heaven; the sky that is visible; the spiritual heaven where God dwells; implies happiness, power, and eternity); {perhaps from oros (mountain, hill)}. This is heavenly or celestial. It can mean in, belonging to, or coming from heaven or the sky.
LXXIV “host” = stratia. 2x in NT– both times of the heavenly host. From stratos (encamped army); perhaps from stonnuo (to spread, to make a bed, strew).  This is literally an army, but used figuratively for hosts of angels, hosts of heaven (that is to say, stars). It is a group that is ordered or organized in some fashion.
LXXV “praising” = aineo. 8x in NT. From ainos (praise, saying, story, proverb). This is to praise.
LXXVI “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

14 “Glory to God in the highest heaven,LXXVII
    and on earthLXXVIII peaceLXXIX among thoseLXXX whom he favors!”LXXXI

Notes on verse 14

LXXVII “highest heaven” = hupistos. 13x in NT. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond) This is highest, heights, heaven. It can also refer to God as Most High or the Supreme One.
LXXVIII “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
LXXIX “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
LXXX “those” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LXXXI “favors” = eudokia. Related to “decree” in v1 & “glory” in v9 & “bringing…good news” in v10. 9x in NT. From eudokeo (to think well of, to be pleased or resolved; properly, what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of); {from eu (see note LVIII above) + dokeo (see note III above)}. This is goodwill, favor, happiness, delight, satisfaction, or desire. It is something that a person finds good or of benefit.

15 LXXXIIWhen the angels had leftLXXXIII them and gone into heaven,LXXXIV the shepherds said to one another, “Let us goLXXXV now to Bethlehem and seeLXXXVI this thingLXXXVII that has taken place,LXXXVIII which the Lord has made knownLXXXIX to us.” 

Notes on verse 15

LXXXII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
LXXXIII “left” = aperchomai. Related to “went out” in v1. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIV “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “heavenly” in v13. See note LXXIII above.
LXXXV “go” = dierchomai. Related to “went out” in v1 & “left” in v15. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
LXXXVI “see” = horao. Related to “those” in v14. See note LXXX above.
LXXXVII “thing” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
LXXXVIII “taken place” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
LXXXIX “made known” = gnorizo. From ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to declare, know, discover, make known.

16 So they wentXC with hasteXCI and foundXCII Mary and Joseph, and the child lying in the manger. 17 When they sawXCIII this, they made known whatXCIV had been told them about this child;XCV 

Notes on verses 16-17

XC “went” = erchomai. Related to “went out” in v1 & “left” and “go” in v15. See note IV above.
XCI “haste” = speudo. 6x in NT– shepherds went with hast to find Mary and Joseph and the child in Luke 2:16. Jesus tells Zacchaeus to hurry down from the tree in Luke 19:5-6. Perhaps from pous (foot in a figurative or literal sense). This is to hurry, urge on, await. It implies eagerness or diligence.
XCII “found” = aneurisko. Related to “find” in v12. 2x in NT. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + heurisko (see note LXVII above). This is to discover, to find from searching.
XCIII “saw” = horao. Same as “see” in v15. See note LXXXVI above.
XCIV “what” = rhema. Same as “thing” in v15. See note LXXXVII above.
XCV “child” = paidion. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.

18 and all who heardXCVI it were amazedXCVII at what the shepherds told them. 19 But Mary treasuredXCVIII all these wordsXCIX

Notes on verses 18-19a

XCVI “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XCVII “amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
XCVIII “treasured” = suntereo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + tereo (to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve; figuratively, spiritual watchfulness; guarding something from being lost or harmed; fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining; figuratively can mean to remain unmarried); {teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep)}. This is to keep close, preserve, remember and obey, treasure.
XCIX “words” = rhema. Same as “thing” in v15. See note LXXXVII above.

and ponderedC them in her heart.CI 20 The shepherds returned,CII glorifyingCIII and praising God for all they had heard and seen,CIV as it had been told them.

Notes on verses 19b-20

C “pondered” = sumballo. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with, joined closely) + ballo (to throw, cast, rush, place, put, drop; to throw in a more or less intense/violent way). This is properly to throw together. So, it can mean happening upon someone or something with or without hostile motives. In the sense of combining, it can mean to speak, consult, or dispute. Mentally, it can mean to consider something as throwing multiple ideas together to ponder and weigh them. It can imply coming to someone’s aid, joining them, or attacking.                                         
CI “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CII “returned” = hupostrepho. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)} This is to turn back or come again in a literal or figurative sense.
CIII “glorifying” = doxazo. Related to “decree” in v1 & “glory” in v9 & “favors” in v14. From doxa (see note LIII above). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
CIV “seen” = horao. Same as “see” in v15. See note LXXXVI above.

Image credit: “Wool Felt Nativity 2011” by Alkelda.

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