Luke 24:1-12

Luke 24:1-12
Narrative Lectionary 339


But on the first day of the week,A at earlyB dawn,C

Notes on verse 1a

A “week” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
B “early” = bathus. 4x in NT. Perhaps rom the same root as basis (step, foot); from baino (to walk, go). This is deep or profound in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean very early.
C “dawn” = orthros. 3x in NT. Perhaps from the same as oros (mountain, hill). This is sunrise, daybreak, early dawn.

they came to the tomb,D takingE the spicesF that they had prepared.G 

Notes on verse 1b

D “tomb” = mnema. 8x in NT. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is memorial, tomb, or monument.
E “taking” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense
F “spices” = aroma. 4x in NT– all used of bringing spices for Jesus’ body. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is a sweet spice, seasoning, or perfume. It is where the word “aroma” comes from.
G “prepared” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.

They foundH the stone rolled away from the tomb,I 3 but when they went in, they did not find the body.J, K 

Notes on verses 2-3

H “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
I “tomb” = mnemeion. Related to “tomb” in v1. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (see note D above). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
J “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
K Some manuscripts add “of the Lord Jesus.” “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.  “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

4 LWhile they were perplexedM about this, suddenlyN two menO

Notes on verse 4a

L {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
M “perplexed” = aporeo. 6x in NT. From a (not) + poros (way, resource, passageway); {related to poreuomai(to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is feeling like you have no way out, being perplexed or doubting.
N “suddenly” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
O “men” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.

in dazzlingP clothesQ stoodR beside them. 

Notes on verse 4b

P “dazzling” = astrapto. 2x in NT. Probably from aster (star literally or figuratively); probably from stronnumi or stronnuo (to spread, make a bed). This is to flash with or like lightning, to be dazzling.
Q “clothes” = esthes. 8x in NT. From hennumi (to clothe). This is robe, clothing, dress. It is used of both human and angelic apparel.
R “stood” = ephistemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to stand upon, happen, be present. Usually, it is used in a literal sense.

The women wereS terrifiedT and bowedU their facesV to the ground,W but the men said to them,

Notes on verse 5a

S “were” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note L above.
T “terrified” = emphobos. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); {from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight)}. This is to be afraid, fully terrified.
U “bowed” = klino. 7x in NT. This is to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear. It can be bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee.
V “faces” = prosopon. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face) {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
W “ground” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

“Why do you look forX the living among the dead?Y He is not here, but has risen.Z 6 RememberAA how he told you, while he was still in Galilee,BB 

Notes on verses 5b-6

X “look for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
Y “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
Z “risen” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
AA “remember” = mimnesko. Related to “tomb” in v1 & “tomb” in v2. From mnaomai (see note D above). This is to remind or remember. It is memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful of. It is not incidentally or accidentally remembering.
BB “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.

that the Son of ManCC mustDD be handed overEE toFF sinners,GG and be crucified,HH and on the third day riseII again.” 

Notes on verse 7

CC “Man” = anthropos. Related to “man” in v4 & “faces” in v5. Probably from aner (see note O above) + ops (see note V above). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
DD “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
EE “handed over” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
FF {untranslated} = cheir + anthropos. Literally “into the hands of sinful people.” Cheir is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument. Anthropos is the same as “Man” in v7. See note CC above.
GG “sinners” = hamartolos. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.
HH “crucified” = stauroo. Related to “stood” in v4. See note above. From the same as histemi (see note R above). This is an upright stake, cross. Literally refers to the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die.
II “rise” = anistemi. Related to “stood” in v4 & “crucified” in v7. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note R above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.

Then they remembered his words,JJ and returning from the tomb,KK they toldLL all this to the eleven and to all the rest.MM 

Notes on verses 8-9

JJ “words” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
KK “tomb” = mnemeion. Same as “tomb” in v2. See note I above.
LL “told” = apaggello. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
MM “rest” = loipos. From leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.

10 Now it was MaryNN Magdalene,OO Joanna,PP Mary the mother of James,QQ and the otherRR women with them who told this to the apostles.SS

Notes on verse 10

NN “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
OO “Magdalene” = Magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.
PP “Joanna” = Ioanna. 2x in NT – only in Luke’s gospel. From Ioannes (John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious”); From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is Joanna, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
QQ “James” = Iakobos. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
RR “other” = loipos. Same as “rest” in v9. See note MM above.
SS “apostles” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for)}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.

11 But these words seemedTT toUU them an idleVV tale,WW and they did not believeXX them. 

Notes on verse 11

TT “seemed” = phaino. This is to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear. This is show in a literal or figurative sense.
UU “to” = enopios. Related to “faces” in v5 & “Man” in v7. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ops (see note V above). This is literally “in the sight of.”
VV “idle” = leros. 1x in NT. This is silly, nonsense, idle story.
WW “tale” = rhema. Same as “words” in v9. See note JJ above.
XX “did not believe” = apisteo. 8x in NT.  From apistos (unbelieving, incredulous, faithless; someone who rejects faith); {from a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust)}}. This is to intentionally disbelieve, prove false. It can be one who has never believed or a believer who goes astray.

12 But PeterYY got upZZ and ranAAA to the tomb;BBB

Notes on verse 12a

YY “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
ZZ “got up” = anistemi. Same as “rise” in v7. See note II above.
AAA “ran” = trecho. To run, make progress, rush. This is running like an athlete in a race. Figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way.
BBB “tomb” = mnemeion. Same as “tomb” in v2. See note I above.

stooping and lookingCCC in, he sawDDD the linen clothsEEE by themselves;

Notes on verse 12b

CCC “stooping and looking” = parakupto. 5x in NT. From para (by, beside) + kupto (to stoop, bend forward, bow one’s head); perhaps from kuma (wave, billow, curve, bend); from kuo (to swell as one pregnant). This is to bend beside or stoop. To bend over to peer into.
DDD “saw” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
EEE “linen cloths” = othonion. 5x in NT. From othone (a cloth made of linen, a sail). This is a band of linen, a wrapping.

then he went home,FFF amazedGGG at what had happened.HHH

Notes on verse 12c

FFF “home” = hautou. 9x in NT. Related to heautou (of himself or herself, alone); from autos (he, she, self, they, same). This is his or her own, themselves, home.
GGG “amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
HHH “happened” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note L above.

Image credit: “Resurrection of Jesus” by James Tissot.

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