Luke 24:13-49

Luke 24:13-49
Easter Evening C21


13 NowA on that same day two of them were goingB to a villageC calledD Emmaus,E about seven milesF from Jerusalem,G 14 and talking with each other about all these things that had happened.H 

Notes on verses 13-14

A “now” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
B “going” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
C “village” = kome. This is a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall.
D “called” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
E “Emmaus” = emmaous. 1x in NT. Probably from Hebrew see yem (hot springs); from the same as yam (root may mean to roar; the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean; crashing surf; sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water; can mean to the west or to the south). This is Emmaus, perhaps meaning hot springs or hotness.
F “seven miles” = stadion + hexekonta. Literally “sixty stadia.” Stadion is 7x in NT. From the same as histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is stadium, a unit of measurement, the length of a race-course or foot race. This is where the word “stadium” comes from.
G “Jerusalem” = ierousalem. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
H “happened” = sumbaino. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to walk together, happen, occur, meet. It could also be things that work together as a unit.

15 While they were talking and discussing,I JesusJ himself came near and went with them, 16 but their eyes were keptK from recognizingL him. 

Notes on verses 15-16

I “discussing” = suzeteo. 10x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God).This is to seek together so a joint investigation, to argue, discuss, or debate.
J “Jesus” = iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
K “kept” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
L “recognizing” = epiginosko. Perhaps related to “called” in v13. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + ginosko (see note D above). This is to recognize, discern, know exactly, or acknowledge.

17 And he said to them, “What are you discussingM with each other while you walkN along?” They stood still,O looking sad.P 

Notes on verse 17

M “discussing” = tis + ho + logos + houtos + hos + antiballo. Literally “what are these words that you exchange?” Logos is from lego (to speak, tell, mention). It means word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ. Antiballo is 1x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). It is to exchange, compare, or bandy words.
N “walk” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
O “stood still” = histemi. Related to “miles” in v13. See note F above.
P “looking sad” = skuthropos. 2x in NT. From skuthros (sullen) + ops (eye). This is gloomy or mournful – with a sad, grim, or angry face.

18 Then one of them, whose name was Cleopas,Q answered him, “Are you the only strangerR in Jerusalem who does not knowS the things that have taken place there in these days?” 

Notes on verse 18

Q “Cleopas” = kleopas. 1x in NT. From Cleopatros (celebrating father); {from kleos (fame, glory, credit); {from kleo (to celebrate) or from kaleo (to call, call out, summon by name)} + pater (father in a literal or figurative sense, senior, ancestor)} OR + pas (all, everything). This is Cleopas, meaning “glory of the father” or “glory of everything.” This is the same root as Cleopatra. See
R “stranger” = paroikeo. 2x in NT. From para (by, beside) + oikeo (making a home or living at home; to dwell or indwell, remain, reside, or cohabit); {from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is to sojourn or visit. It is to live as a stranger or foreigner.
S “know” = ginosko. Perhaps related to “called” in v13 & related to “recognizing” in v16. See note D above.

19 He asked them, “What things?”

They replied, “The things about Jesus of Nazareth,T who was aU prophetV mightyW in deed and word before GodX and all the people,Y 

Notes on verse 19

T “Nazareth” = nazarenos.6x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
U {untranslated} = aner. This is man, male, individual, or sir.
V “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet. One who speaks with inspiration from God
W “mighty” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
X “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
Y “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

20 and how our chief priests and leadersZ handed him overAA to be condemned to deathBB  and crucifiedCC him. 

Notes on verse 20

Z “leaders” = archon. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
AA “handed…over” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
BB “to be condemned to death” = eis + krima + thanatos. Literally “to the judgment of death.” Krima is from krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judgment, sentence, verdict. Sometimes, this can have a negative sense – condemnation. It is the decision and the full force of its effect negative and positive.
CC “crucified” = stauroo. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (to stand, cause to stand). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

21 But we had hopedDD that he was the one toEE redeemFF Israel.GG Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things took place. 

Notes on verse 21

DD “hoped” = elpizo. From elpis (expectation, hope, trust, confidence, faith; expectation whether abstract or concrete); from elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively); from elpomai (to anticipate, expect). This is to expect, trust, hope for, or to wait in an active way.
EE “to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
FF “redeem” = lutroo. From lutron (ransom, the money used to free slaves; also a sacrifice of expiation; figurative for atonement); from luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is to redeem, liberate, release because ransom was paid in full. Figuratively, it is returning something or someone to their rightful owner.
GG “Israel” = israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

22 Moreover, some womenHH of our group astoundedII us. They were at the tombJJ earlyKK this morning, 

Notes on verse 22

HH “women” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
II “astounded” = existemi. Related to “miles” in v13 & “stood still” in v17 & “crucified” in v20. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note F above). This is to remove, displace, amaze, be made. It can mean to be beside oneself in the sense of being crazy or in the sense of being overwhelmed or stunned.
JJ “tomb” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
KK “early” = orthrinos. 1x in NT. From orthros (dawn, sunrise, daybreak); from oro (to rise). This is early, related to the dawn, bright like the early morning. Also, a name for Venus.

23 and when they did not findLL his bodyMM there, they came back and told us that they had indeed seenNN a vision of angelsOO who said that he was alive. 24 Some of those who were with us went to the tomb and found it just as the women had said; but they did not see him.” 

Notes on verses 23-24

LL “find” = heurisko.This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
MM “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
NN “seen” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
OO “angels” = aggelos. Probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide) + agele (flock, herd, drove) [also from ago (see above)]. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.

25 Then he said to them, “Oh, how foolishPP you are, and how slowQQ of heartRR to believeSS all that the prophets have declared! 

Notes on verse 25

PP “foolish” = anoetos. 6x in NT. From a (not, without) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect)}. This is not thinking or thoughtless. It is not using proper logic to think something through.
QQ “slow” = bradus. 3x in NT. This is slow, but still having motion. It is slowly deliberating information, but not getting to a conclusion quickly. Figuratively, this can mean dull.
RR “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
SS “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

26 Was it not necessaryTT that the MessiahUU should sufferVV these things and then enter into his glory?”WW 

27 Then beginning with MosesXX and all the prophets, he interpretedYY to them the things about himself in all the scriptures.ZZ

Notes on verses 26-27

TT “was it…necessary” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
UU “Messiah” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
VV “suffer” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
WW “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
XX “Moses” = mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
YY “interpreted” = diermeneuo. 6x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + hermeneuo (to interpret, explain, translate); {probably from Hermes (Greek god who was messenger to the other gods, also god of language); perhaps from ereo (to say, tell, speak)}. This is to explain thoroughly, interpret, or translate.
ZZ “scriptures” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.

28 As they came near the village to which they were going, he walked ahead as if he were going on. 29 But they urgedAAA him strongly, saying, “StayBBB with us, because it is almost evening and the day is now nearly over.”CCC So he went in to stay with them. 

30 When he was at the tableDDD with them, he took bread, blessedEEE and brokeFFF it, and gave it to them. 31 Then their eyes were opened,GGG and they recognized him; and he vanished from their sight. 

Notes on verses 28-31

AAA “urged” = parabiazomai. 2x in NT. From para (by, beside) + biazo (to force, use power to seize); {from bia (strength, force, violence); or from bios (life, livelihood, goods, wealth)}. This is to urge, press, use powerful, persuasive words to accomplish a goal.
BBB “stay” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
CCC “is…nearly over” = klino. 7x in NT. This is to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear. It can be bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee.
DDD “at the table” = en + ho + kataklino. Literally “in the reclining.” Related to “is…nearly over” in v29.  Kataklino is 5x in NT – all of them refer to reclining to eat. From kata (down, against, throughout, over among) + klino (see note CCC above). This is to sit down or recline, especially to eat whether at a table or on the ground.
EEE “blessed” = eulogeo. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
FFF “broke” = klao. 14x in NT. This is to break, to break in pieces as one breaks bread.
GGG “opened” = dianoigo. 8x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + anoigo (to open or open up in a literal or figurative sense; to speak freely); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open)}. This is to open fully. It can mean to open the womb as a firstborn does or figuratively to explain or expound.

32 They said to each other, “Were not our hearts burningHHH within us while he was talking to us on the road,III while he was opening the scriptures to us?” 33 That same hour they got upJJJ and returned to Jerusalem; and they found the eleven and their companionsKKK gathered together.LLL 

Notes on verses 32-33

HHH “burning” = kaio. 11x in NT. This is to kindle, light, blaze. It is light in a literal or figurative sense.
III “road” = hodos. This is way, road, path, journey.
JJJ “got up” = anistemi. Related to “miles” in v13 & “stood still” in v17 & “crucified” in v20 & “astounded” in v22. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + histemi (see note F above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
KKK “their companions” = ho + sun + autos. Literally “those with them.”
LLL “gathered together” = sunathroizo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + athroizo (to be disheartened, dismayed, broken in spirit); {from a (not, without) + thumos (passion, actions that stem from passion or impulse; can be rage, indignation); {from thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general)}. This is to assemble or gather together.

34 They were saying, “The LordMMM has risenNNN indeed, and he has appeared to Simon!”OOO 35 Then they toldPPP what had happened on the road, and how he had been made known to them in the breakingQQQ of the bread.

Notes on verses 34-35

MMM “Lord” = kurios.From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
NNN “risen” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
OOO “Simon” = simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
PPP “told” = exegeomai. 6x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go)}. This is to lead the way, bring forth. Figuratively, it is to unfold or explain something thoroughly to show what is most important. This is where the word “exegesis” comes from.
QQQ “breaking” = klasis. Related to “broke” in v30. 2x in NT. From klao (see note FFF above). This is the act of breaking.

36 While they were talking about this, Jesus himself stood among them and said to them, “PeaceRRR be with you.” 37 They were startledSSS and terrified,TTT and thoughtUUU that they were seeingVVV a ghost.WWW 

Notes on verses 36-37

RRR “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
SSS “startled” = ptoeo. 2x in NT. Perhaps related to pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense) OR petomai (to fly). This is to flutter, frighten, startle, strike with panic. It is scared out of one’s wits.
TTT “terrified” = emphobos. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is full of fear.
UUU “thought” = dokeo. Related to “glory” in v26. From dokos (see note WW above). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
VVV “seeing” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
WWW “ghost” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

38 He said to them, “Why are you frightened,XXX and why do doubtsYYY arise in your hearts? 39 Look at my hands and my feet; see that it is I myself. TouchZZZ me and see; for a ghost does not have fleshAAAA and bones as you see that I have.” 

Notes on verses 38-39

XXX “frightened” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.
YYY “doubts” = dialogismos. 14x in NT. From dialogizomai (to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion; multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizmai (this is to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is reasoning, plotting, argument, discussion that reinforces faulty reasoning, debate.
ZZZ “touch” = pselaphao. 4x in NT. Probably from psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub)} + hapha (to handle). This is to touch, feel, or grope about. It is a light touch to explore, discover, or confirm something with physical contact. It can also figuratively mean search for.
AAAA “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).

40 And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. 41 While in their joyBBBB they were disbelievingCCCC and still wondering,DDDD he said to them, “Have you anything here to eat?” 42 They gave him a piece of broiled fish, 43 and he took it and ate in their presence.

44 Then he said to them, “These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you—that everything written about me in the lawEEEE of Moses, the prophets, and the psalmsFFFF must be fulfilled.”GGGG 

Notes on verses 40-44

BBBB “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
CCCC “disbelieving” = apisteo. Related to “believe” in v25. 8x in NT. From apistos (unbelieving, unconvinced); {from a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, believing, loyal); {from peitho (see note SS above)}}. This is to be faithless or refuse to believe.
DDDD “wondering” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
EEEE “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
FFFF “psalms” = psalmos. Perhaps related to “touch” in v39. 7x in NT. From psallo (see note ZZZ above). This is a psalm, song of praise, sacred ode, or a reference to the book of Psalms.
GGGG “fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its induvial capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.

45 Then he opened their mindsHHHH to understandIIII the scriptures, 46 and he said to them, “Thus it is written, that the Messiah is to suffer and to rise from the dead on the third day, 47 and that repentanceJJJJ and forgivenessKKKK of sinsLLLL is to be proclaimedMMMM in his name to all nations,NNNN beginning from Jerusalem. 

Notes on verses 45-47

HHHH “minds” = nous. Perhaps related to “called” in v13 & related to “recognizing” in v16 & “know” in v18. From noos (see note PP above) OR from the base of ginosko (see note D above). This is mean, capacity to reason, intellect, or meaning. It can refer to the mind of God or of humanity.
IIII “understand” = suniemi. From sun (with, together with) + hiemi (to sent, put). This is to put together facts or ideas into a logical whole. It is understanding or being wise through a process of logic and discernment. It implies acting piously.
JJJJ “repentance” = metanoia. Related to “foolish” in v25 & “minds” in v45. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (see note PP above). This is literally to change one’s mind – to choose to think differently and so to act differently because of a moral compunction. It is an intentional change to the inner self. This word shares a root with the English “paranoia.”
KKKK “forgiveness” = aphesis. Related to “understand” in v45. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to sent away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (see note IIII)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
LLLL “sins” = hamartia.From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
MMMM “proclaimed” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
NNNN “nations” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

48 You are witnessesOOOO of these things. 49 And see, I am sendingPPPP upon you what my Father promised;QQQQ so stay here in the cityRRRR until you have been clothed with powerSSSS from on high.”TTTT

Notes on verses 48-49

OOOO “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.
PPPP “sending” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
QQQ “what…promised” = epaggelia. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
RRRR “city” = polis.This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
SSSS “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
TTTT “on high” = hupsos. 6x in NT. From hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence. Also, elevation, altitude or to be exalted.

Image Credit: “La niña de primera comunión” del pintor uruguayo Rafael Barradas (1890-1929)

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