Luke 6:43-45

Luke 6:43-45
Narrative Lectionary 445


43 ANo goodB treeC bearsD badE fruit,F nor again does a bad tree bear good fruit; 

Notes on verse 43

A {untranslated} = eimi. This is to be or exist.
B “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
C “tree” = dendron. Perhaps from drus (oak). This is tree. It is the same root that “dendrite” comes from.
D “bears” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
E “bad” = sapros. 8x in NT. From sepo (to putrefy, cause to rot; figuratively, to perish or to make something corrupt). This is rotten, worthless, corrupt, bad, or unwholesome. It is rotten and hence of poor quality and hence not good for use and so worthless in a literal and figurative (moral) sense. This is someone who previously embodied a virtue, but has fallen into sin.
F “fruit” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.

44 for eachG tree is knownH by its ownI fruit.

Notes on verse 44a

G “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
H “is known” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
I “its own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).

For people do not gatherJ figs from thorns,K nor do they pickL grapesM from a bramble bush.N 

Notes on verse 44b

J “gather” = sullego. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is to gather up or gather together.
K “thorns” = akantha. 14x in NT. From akmen (even now, still yet); from the same as akmazo (ripe, to be vigorous); from akme (point, edge); related to ake (a point). This is thorn or thorn bush.
L “pick” = trugao. 3x in NT. From truge (ripe) OR from trugo (to dry). This is to harvest or, specifically, to gather grapes.
M “grapes” = staphule. 3x in NT. Perhaps from the base of stephanos (something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland; properly, the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win; symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek); stepho (to twine, encircle). This is grape or a cluster of grapes as twined together.
N “bramble bush” = batos. 5x in NT– 4x of the burning bush & 1x of a bramble bush. This is a bush, perhaps a thorn bush.

45 The goodO personP out of the goodQ treasureR

Notes on verse 45a

O “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
P “person” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
Q “good” = agathos. Same as “good” in v45. See note O above.
R “treasure” = thesauros. 17x in NT. From tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish). This is treasure, storehouse, deposit. It can be used figuratively for treasured thoughts.

of the heartS producesT good,U

Notes on verse 45b

S “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
T “produces” = prophero. 2x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to bring forth, bear forward.
U “good” = agathos. Same as “good” in v45. See note O above.

and the evilV person out of evil treasure produces evil, for it is out of the abundanceW of the heart that the mouthX speaks.

Notes on verse 45c

V “evil” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
W “abundance” = perisseuma. 5x in NT. From perisseuo (more than what is ordinary or necessary; abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond; super-abounding in number or quality); from perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundance, overflow, more than was expected up to the limit – a super-plus.
X “mouth” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.

Image credit: “My Beautiful Picture” – Ficus carica in Batna Province in Algeria. Photo by 4cherif, 2009.

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