Matthew 17

Matthew 17


Six days later, JesusI took with him PeterIII and JamesIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
III “James” = Iakobos. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.

and his brotherIV JohnV and ledVI them up a highVII mountain, by themselves.VIII 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
V “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v1. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note I above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John.
VI “led” = anaphero. 10x in NT. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry or lead up as to a goal or particular destination. It can also be used for offering a sacrifice.
VII “high” = hupselos. 12x in NT– in Matthew’s and Luke’s Temptatison story as well as Matthew and Mark’s Transfiguration accounts. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is high, lofty, or exalted. It can be lofty in elevation or in character.
VIII “themselves” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).

And he was transfiguredIX before them, and his faceX shoneXI like the sun,XII

Notes on verse 2a

IX “transfigured” = metamorphoo. 4x in NT. From meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action) + morpho (to form, mold, shape; coming into the shape that signified inner essence) {from morphe (form, shape, external appearance; an appearance that embodies inner essence; figuratively, the nature of something); {perhaps from meros (a part or share, portion); {from meiromai (to get one’s allotment or portion)}. This is to transform or change. It is the root that “metamorphosis” comes from.
X “face” = prosopon. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face) {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
XI “shone” = lampoo. 7x in NT. This is to shine or beam in a literal or figurative sense. This is the root that the word “lamp” comes from.
XII “sun” = helios. This is sun, which would imply light in general or the east.

and his clothesXIII becameXIV dazzlingXV white.XVI 

Notes on verse 2b

XIII “clothes” = himatia. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
XIV “became” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another. This is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XV “dazzling” = hos + ho + phos. Literally “as the light.” Phos is from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.
XVI “white” = leukos. Related to luke (light). This is bright, white, or brilliant.

SuddenlyXVII there appearedXVIII to them MosesXIX and Elijah,XX talking with him. 

Notes on verse 3

XVII “suddenly” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XVIII “appeared” = horao. Related to “face” in v2. See note X above. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XIX “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XX “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “Jesus” and “John” in v1. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (God, god) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note I above)}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”

Then Peter said to Jesus, “Lord,XXI it is goodXXII for us to be here; if you wish,XXIII I will make three dwellingsXXIV here, one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.” 

Notes on verse 4

XXI “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XXII “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
XXIII “wish” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XXIV “dwellings” = skene. Perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense) or perhaps related to skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is a tent, booth, tabernacle, or dwelling. It could be a cloth hut. This is a tent in a literal or figurative sense.

While he was still speaking, suddenly a brightXXV cloudXXVI overshadowedXXVII them, andXXVIII from the cloud a voiceXXIX said,

Notes on verse 5a

XXV “bright” = photeinos. Related to “dazzling” in v2. 5x in NT. From phos (see note XV above) OR from phao (see note XV above). This is full of light, shining, brilliant, transparent, or well-illumined.
XXVI “cloud” = nephele. From nephos (cloud; figurative for a great crowd or multitude). This is cloud or cloudiness.
XXVII “overshadowed” = episkiazo. Perhaps related to “dwellings” in v4. 5x in NT – 3x in Transfiguration accounts, 1x when the angel tells Mary she will become pregnant, and 1x in Acts when people are healed when Peter’s shadow falls on them. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + skia (see note XXIV above). This is to overshadow or envelop. It could also mean to capture something in a bright haze or figuratively to influence something with a supernatural force or presence.
XXVIII {untranslated} = idou. Same as “suddenly” in v3. See note XVII above.
XXIX “voice” = phone. Related to “dazzling” in v2 & “bright” in v5. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (see note XV above) or phaino (see note XV above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.

“This is my Son, the Beloved;XXX with him I am well pleased;XXXI listenXXXII to him!” 

Notes on verse 5b

XXX “Beloved” = agapetos. From agape (love, goodwill, benevolence; God’s divine love); from agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is Beloved or very dear one. It is a title for the Messiah, but also for Christians. Properly, this is one who personally experiences God’s love.
XXXI “am well pleased” = eudokeo. From eu (good, well, well done) + dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to think well of, to be pleased or resolved. Properly, this is what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of.
XXXII “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

When the disciplesXXXIII heard this, they fell to the groundXXXIV and were overcome by fear.XXXV 

Notes on verse 6

XXXIII “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XXXIV “fell to the ground” = pipto + epi + prosopon + autos. Literally, “fell on their face.” Prosopon is from pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face) {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
XXXV “overcome by fear” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.

But Jesus came and touchedXXXVI them, saying, “Get upXXXVII and do not be afraid.” 8 And when they looked up,XXXVIII they sawXXXIX no one except Jesus himself alone.

Notes on verses 7-8

XXXVI “touched” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.
XXXVII “get up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XXXVIII “looked up” = epairo. Literally “and having lifted up their eyes.” 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself.
XXXIX “saw” = horao. Same as “appeared” in v3. See note XVIII above.

As they were coming down the mountain, Jesus orderedXL them, “Tell no one about the visionXLI until after the Son of ManXLII has been raisedXLIII from the dead.”XLIV 

Notes on verse 9

XL “ordered” = entellomai. 15x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish) {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}. This is to charge, command, give orders or instructions.
XLI “vision” = horama. Related to “face” in v2 & “appeared” in v3. 12x in NT. From horao (see note XVIII above). This is vision, spectacle, or sight. It can also be spiritual seeing – especially a supernatural vision.
XLII “Man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XLIII “raised” = egeiro. Same as “get up” in v7. See note XXXVII above.
XLIV “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

10 And the disciples askedXLV him, “Why, then, do the scribesXLVI say that Elijah mustXLVII come first?” 

Notes on verse 10

XLV “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
XLVI “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
XLVII “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.

11 He replied, “Elijah is indeedXLVIII coming and will restoreXLIX all things; 12 but I tell you that Elijah has already come, and they did not recognizeL him, but they did to him whatever they pleased.LI

Notes on verses 11-12a

XLVIII “indeed” = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XLIX “restore” = apokathistemi. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kathistemi (to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to restore something to its original place or status. It can be give back, set up again or, figuratively, to restore full freedom or liberty. This word can also be used of healing – restoring full health.
L “recognize” = epiginosko. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
LI “pleased” = thelo. Same as “wish” in v4. See note XXIII above.

So also the Son of Man is aboutLII to sufferLIII at their hands.”LIV 13 Then the disciples understoodLV that he was speaking to them about John the Baptist.LVI

Notes on verses 12b-13

LII “is about” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
LIII “suffer” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
LIV “at…hands” = hupo. This is by, under, about, subordinate to.
LV “understood” = suniemi. From sun (with, together with) + hiemi (to send, put). This is to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight. It is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole. It is making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life. It can also imply acting piously or being wise.
LVI “Baptist” = baptistes. 12x in NT. From baptizo (to submerge, wash, or immerse; used specially for baptism); from bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is baptizer or Baptist. The term is only used for John the Baptist.

14 When they came to the crowd, a man came to him, kneltLVII before him, 15 and said, “Lord, have mercy onLVIII my son, for he is an epilepticLIX and he suffers terribly;LX he often falls into the fireLXI and often into the water. 

Notes on verses 14-15

LVII “knelt” = gonupeteo. Related to “fell” in v6. 4x in NT. From gonu (knee) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to kneel, entreat, bend the knee.
LVIII “have mercy on” = eleeo. From eleos (mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion; generally understood in action by word or deed). This is to have pity on, show mercy to, be compassionate; often used for God’s grace. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is from this root verb.
LIX “is an epileptic” = seleniazomai. 2x in NT. From selene (moon); from selas (bright flame). This is to be stricken by the moon, a lunatic. It was used for epileptics as their condition was supposed to be caused by the moon.
LX “terribly” = kakos. 16x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is wrongly, badly, cruelly, with bad motives, misery connected to affliction. It can be physically badly or morally badly, i.e. evilly.
LXI “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.

16 And I broughtLXII him to your disciples, but they couldLXIII not cureLXIV him.” 

Notes on verse 16

LXII “brought” = prosphero. Related to “led” in v1. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (see note VI above). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
LXIII “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
LXIV “cure” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.

17 Jesus answered, “You faithlessLXV and perverseLXVI generation,LXVII how much longer must I be with you? How much longer must I put up withLXVIII you? BringLXIX him here to me.” 

Notes on verse 17

LXV “faithless” = apistos. From a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust)}. This is unbelieving, incredulous, faithless. It is someone who chooses to reject faith.
LXVI “perverse” = diastrepho. 7x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to distort, pervert, to twist something into a different shape than it is meant to be. So, figuratively, it can refer to moral corruption.
LXVII “generation” = genea. Related to “became” in v2.  From genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note XIV above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
LXVIII “put up with” = anecho. 15x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is to endure, bear with, tolerate, persist, put up with.
LXIX “bring” = phero. Related to “led” in v1 & “brought” in v16. See note VI above.

18 And Jesus rebukedLXX the demon,LXXI and it came out of him, and the boyLXXII was cured instantly.LXXIII 

19 Then the disciples came to Jesus privatelyLXXIV and said, “Why could we not cast it out?”LXXV 

Notes on verses 18-19

LXX “rebuked” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.
LXXI “demon” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.
LXXII “boy” = pais. Perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is child, youth, servant, or slave.
LXXIII “instantly” = apo + ho + hora. Literally “from that hour.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
LXXIV “privately” = idios. Same as “themselves” in v1. See note VIII above.
LXXV “cast…out” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.

20 He said to them, “Because of your little faith.LXXVI For trulyLXXVII I tell you, if you have faithLXXVIII the size of a mustardLXXIX seed,LXXX you will say to this mountain, ‘Move from here to there,’ and it will move; and nothing will be impossibleLXXXI for you.

Notes on verse 20

LXXVI “little faith” = oligopistos. Related to “faithless” in v17. 6x in NT– 5 in Matthew & 1 in Luke. From oligos (few, small, short, brief, puny) + pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (see note LXV above). This is of little faith – incredulous, lacking confidence.
LXXVII “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
LXXVIII “faith” = pistis. Related to “faithless” in v17 & “little faith” in v20. See note LXXVI above.
LXXIX “mustard” = sinapi. 5x in NT. Perhaps from sinomai (to hurt or sting). This is a mustard plant.
LXXX “seed” = kokkos. 7x in NT. This is kernel or seed.
LXXXI “be impossible” = adunateo. Related to “could” in v16. 2x in NT. From adunatos (powerless, unable, impotent, or impossible; weak in a literal or figurative sense); {from a (not, without) + dunatos (mighty or powerful; ability of persons, possibility of things; what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits); {from dunamai (see note LXIII above)}}. This is to be unable or impossible.

21 But this kindLXXXII does not come outLXXXIII except by prayerLXXXIV and fasting”LXXXV

Notes on verse 21

LXXXII “kind” = genos. Related to “became” in v2 & “generation” in v17. From ginomai (see note XIV above). This is family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIII “come out” = ekporeuomai. From ek (from, from out of) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to go forth, depart from, be spoken, flow out, project. This word emphasizes the result a process or passage – how it impacts the person or thing.
LXXXIV “prayer” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
LXXXV “fasting” = nesteia. 6x in NT. From nesteuo (to fast, not eat food, to make a religious fast); from nestis (hungry, fasting, fasting for religious reasons); {from ne (not) + the same as esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust); {akin to edo (to eat)}}. This is fasting, hunger. Can be used specifically for the fast done on the Day of Atonement.

22 As they were gatheringLXXXVI in Galilee,LXXXVII Jesus said to them, “The Son of Man is going to be betrayedLXXXVIII into humanLXXXIX hands,XC 23 and they will killXCI him, and on the third day he will be raised.” And they were greatly distressed.XCII

Notes on verses 22-23

LXXXVI “gathering” = sustrepho. Related to “perverse” in v17. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + strepho (see note LXVI above). This is to roll or twist together, to gather or bundle.
LXXXVII “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
LXXXVIII “be betrayed” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
LXXXIX “human” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v9. See note XLII above.
XC “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XCI “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
XCII “were…distressed” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.

24 When they reached Capernaum,XCIII the collectorsXCIV of the temple taxXCV came to Peter and said, “Does your teacherXCVI not payXCVII the temple tax?” 

Notes on verse 24

XCIII “Capernaum” = Kapernaoum. 16x in NT. From Hebrew kaphar (village with walls); {from the same as kephir (a young lion, village); from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel)} + Nachum (Nahum, “comfortable”); {from nacham (a strong breath or sigh; to be sorry, to pity, console, comfort, or repent; also to comfort oneself with thoughts of vengeance)}. This is Capernaum, meaning “Nahum’s village.”
XCIV “collectors” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XCV “temple tax” = didrachmon. 2x in NT. From dis (twice, utterly, again); {from duo (two, both)} + drachme (drachma, a silver Greek coin); {from drassomai (to grasp, cach, hold, entrap); perhaps akin to drakon (dragon; properly one that sees; figuratively, Satan); from derkomai (to see, look)}. This is two drachma, a tribute.
XCVI “teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
XCVII “pay” = teleo. Related to “ordered” in v9. From telos (see note XL above). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.

25 He said, “Yes, he does.”

And when he came home,XCVIII Jesus spoke of it first,XCIX asking, “What do you think,C Simon?CI

Notes on verse 25a

XCVIII “home” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
XCIX “spoke…first” = prophthano. 1x in NT. From pro (before, earlier, above) + phtano (to arrive before, anticipate – coming before as a priority). This is to anticipate, be first, start earlier.
C “think” = dokeo. Related to “am well pleased” in v5. See note XXXI above.
CI “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”

From whom do kingsCII of the earth take tollCIII or tribute?CIV From their childrenCV or from others?”CVI 

Notes on verse 25b

CII “kings” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
CIII “toll” = telos. Related to “ordered” in v9 & “pay” in v24. See note XL above.
CIV “tribute” = kensos. 4x in NT. From Latin census (a census of people and goods; the record of a census; gifts, wealth); from censeo (to think, decree, determine, count, judge, assess); from Proto-Italic kenseo; from Proto-Indo-European *ḱn̥s-é-ti, *ḱn̥s-eyé-ti, from *ḱens- (to announce). This is an annual tax based on a census. It can also refer to the money collected in that census. This is a tax paid to Rome as tribute. It is where the word “census” comes from. See
CV “children” = huios. Literally “sons.”
CVI “others” = allotrios. 14x in NT. From allos (other, different, another; this is one more of the same kind or a similar type). This is something or someone that belongs to others. By extension, this is another, stranger, foreign, or foreigner.

26 When Peter said, “From others,”

Jesus said to him, “Then the children are free.CVII 27 However, so that we do not give offenseCVIII to them, goCIX to the seaCX and castCXI a hook;CXII

Notes on verses 26-27a

CVII “free” = eleutheros. Probably from erchomai (to come or go). This is a free person, at liberty, not a slave. Properly, it is unshackled – figuratively, it is one who has the freedom to choose their destiny. Also, it is one who does not have obligation or liability.
CVIII “give offense” = skandalizo. From skandalon (the bait or portion of the trap that closes down on the victim – the trap’s trigger; a stumbling block, offense, or cause for error; something that sets into motion a negative cause and effect; something that causes one to stumble); perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.
CIX “go” = poreuomai. Related to “come out” in v21. See note LXXXIII above.
CX “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
CXI “cast” = ballo. Related to “cast…out” in v19. See note LXXV above.
CXII “hook” = agkistron. 1x in NT. Fro the same as agkale (the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load); from agkos (a bend). This is hook or fishhook.

takeCXIII the first fishCXIV that comes up; and when you open its mouth,CXV you will findCXVI a coin;CXVII take that and give it to them for you and me.”

Notes on verse 27b

CXIII “take” = airo. Related to “look up” in v8. See note XXXVIII above.
CXIV “fish” = ichthus. This means fish. It was also an early, secret Christian symbol – the “sign of the fish.” It was short for “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior” in Greek. See
CXV “mouth” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
CXVI “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CXVII “coin” = stater. Related to “restore” in v11 & “prayer” in v21. 1x in NT. Fro the same as histemi (see note XLIX above) OR from the base of kauchesis (boasting, glorying, or rejoicing; boasting in a positive or negative sense); {from kauchaomai (literally holding one’s head high – to boast proudly or to glory, joy, exult, rejoice; boasting in a positive or negative sense); {perhaps from aucheo (to boast) + euchomai(see note LXXXIV)} OR from kauchaomai (see above); from auchen (neck)}. This is a stater – a silver coin with the same value as the shekel.

Image credit: “Transfiguration” at the Basilica di San Pietro in Vatican City Rome.

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