Matthew 28:8-10, 16-20

Matthew 28:8-10, 16-20
Easter Saturday – A Women’s Lectionary


So they leftA the tombB quicklyC with fearD

Notes on verse 8a

A “left” = aperchomai. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (to come or go). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
B “tomb” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
C “quickly” = tachu. 12x in NT. From tachus (quickly, promptly; without unreasonable delay). This is quickly, but not immediately. It is without undue delay.
D “fear” = phobos. From phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect.

and greatE joy,F and ranG to tellH his disciples.I 

Notes on verse 8b

E “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
F “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
G “ran” = trecho. To run, make progress, rush. This is running like an athlete in a race. Figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way.
H “tell” = apaggello. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
I “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

9 JSuddenlyK JesusL metM them and said, “Greetings!”N

Notes on verse 9a

J Some manuscripts add, “but as they were going to tell his disciples” = hos + de + poreuomai + apaggello + ho + mathetes + autos. Poreuomai is from poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination. Apaggello is the same as “tell” in v8. See note H above. Mathetes is the same as “disciples” in v8. See note I above.
K “suddenly” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
L “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
M “met” = hupantao. 10x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from hupo (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to encounter someone or to go to meet them.
N “greetings” = chairo. Related to “joy” in v8. See note F above.

And they cameO to him, took hold ofP his feet,Q and worshipedR him. 

Notes on verse 9b

O “came” = proserchomai. Related to “left” in v8. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note A above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
P “took hold of” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
Q “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.
R “worshipped” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.

10 Then Jesus said to them, “Do not be afraid;S goT and tell my brothersU

Notes on verse 10a

S “be afraid” = phobeo. Related to “fear” in v8. From phobos (see note D above). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
T “go” = hupago. Related to “tell” in v8. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note H above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
U “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

to goV to Galilee;W there they will seeX me.”

Notes on verse 10b

V “go” = aperchomai. Same as “left” in v8. See note A above.
W “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
X “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.

16 Now the elevenY disciples wentZ to Galilee, to the mountainAA to which Jesus had directedBB them. 17 When they saw him, they worshiped him; but some doubted.CC 

Notes on verses 16-17

Y “eleven” = hendeka. 6x in NT– all referring to the apostles minus Judas. From heis (one) + deka (ten). This is eleven.
Z “went” = poreuomai. Related to {untranslated} in v9. See note J above.
AA “mountain” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.
BB “directed” = tasso. 9x in NT. This word was common in military settings to mean appoint or commission to a certain status. It referred to arranging in a specified order, setting in place, or sending to a specific task.
CC “doubted” = distazo. 2x in NT– here and when Jesus walks on water and tells Peter, “you of little faith, why did you doubt?” in Matthew 14:31. From dis (twice, utterly, again); {from duo (two, both)} + stasis (standing, place, rebel, insurrection, controversy); {from the base of histemi (to stand, cause to stand)}. Properly, this is going back and forth between two stances – wavering or doubting. It can also be used for hesitation.

18 And Jesus came and said to them, “AllDD authorityEE in heavenFF and on earthGG has been givenHH to me. 

Notes on verse 18

DD “all” = pas. This is all or every.
EE “authority” = exousia. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
FF “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “mountain” in v16. May be related to oros (see note AA above) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
GG “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
HH “given” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.

19 Go therefore and make disciplesII of all nations,JJ baptizingKK them in the nameLL

Notes on verse 19a

II “make disciples” = matheteuo. Related to “disciples” in v8. 4x in NT. From mathetes (see note I above). This to be, make, or train a disciple. It is the same root that “mathematics” comes from.
JJ “nations” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
KK “baptizing” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
LL “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

of the FatherMM and of the SonNN and of the HolyOO Spirit,PP 

Notes on verse 19b

MM “Father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
NN “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
OO “Holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
PP “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

20 and teachingQQ them to obeyRR everythingSS that I have commandedTT you.

Notes on verse 20a

QQ “teaching” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
RR “obey” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used figuratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
SS “everything” = pas. Same as “all” in v18. See note DD above.
TT “commanded” = entellomai. 15x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {related to telos (end, event, purpose, consummation)}. This is to charge or command – focuses on the final objective. So, this is looking at the final outcome of the command – how things will end up.

And remember,UU I amVV with you always,WW to the endXX of the age.”YY

Notes on verse 20b

UU “remember” = idou. Same as “suddenly” in v9. See note K above.
VV “am” = eimi. Related to “authority” in v18. See note EE above.
WW “always” = pas + ho + hemera. Literally, “all the days.” Pas is the same as “all” in v18. See note DD above. Hemera is perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XX “end” = sunteleia. Related to “commanded” in v20. 6x in NT. From sunteleo (to fulfill, accomplish, complete, bring to the desired result, to complete a goal literally or figuratively); {from sun (with, together with) + teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (see note TT above)}}. This is completion, end, consummation – joint action or joint payment.
YY “age” = aion. From the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.

Image credit: “As it Began to Dawn” by Frank Wesley.

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