Psalm 106

Psalm 106


PraiseI the Lord!
    O give thanksII to the Lord,III for he is good;IV
    for his steadfast loveV endures forever.VI

Notes on verse 1

I “praise” = halal. This is to be clear – it originally referred to a sound, then a color. It was to shine and then make a show or boast then to rave. In a causative sense it came to mean celebrate, give glory, sing praise, or be worth of praise. Because of the celebratory nature of the word, it could also mean to give in marriage. This is where Hallelujah comes from.
II “give thanks” = yadah. From yad (hand). This is to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise. So, it is to praise, give thanks, or make a confession.
III “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
IV “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
V “steadfast love” = chesed. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed. When done by God to humanity, this is mercy/loving kindness. When done by humanity to God, it is piety.
VI “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).

Who can utter the mighty doingsVII of the Lord,
    or declareVIII allIX his praise?X

Notes on verse 2

VII “mighty doings” = geburah. From gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is force in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be strength, power, courage, triumph, victory, or mastery.
VIII “declare” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
IX “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
X “praise” = tehillah. Related to “praise” in v 1. From halal (see note I above). This is praise or a song of praise. It is to offer God a hymn, to boast in God. This shares a root with “hallelujah.”

HappyXI are those who observeXII justice,XIII
    who doXIV righteousnessXV at all times.XVI

Notes on verse 3

XI “happy” = esher. From ashar (to go straight, lead, guide; to be level and so to be right, blessed, honest, happy). This is happy or blessedness.
XII “observe” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
XIII “justice” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
XIV “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XV “righteousness” = tsedaqah. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity). This is righteousness, justice, righteous acts, and moral virtue.
XVI “times” = et. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.

4 RememberXVII me, O Lord, when you show favorXVIII to your people;XIX
    helpXX me when you deliverXXI them;

Notes on verse 4

XVII “remember” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
XVIII “favor” = ratson. From ratsah (to be pleased with, delight, take pleasure in, or accept with favor; to approve or consent regarding something; can be used specifically of satisfying debts or being pardoned). This is delight shown in favor, good will, something that is accepted or acceptable.
XIX “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XX “help” = paqad. This is to attend to or visit – can be used for a friendly or violent encounter. So, it can be to oversee, care for, avenge, or charge.
XXI “deliver” = yeshuah. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free). This is salvation, deliverance, health, victory, prosperity.

that I may seeXXII the prosperityXXIII of your chosen ones,XXIV
    that I may rejoiceXXV in the gladnessXXVI of your nation,XXVII
    that I may gloryXXVIII in your heritage.XXIX

Notes on verse 5

XXII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XXIII “prosperity” = tob. Same as “good” in v1. See note IV above.
XXIV “chosen ones” = bachir. From bachar (to choose, appoint, try, excellent). This is chosen or choice. So, it implies excellence.
XXV “rejoice” = samach. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to brighten up in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVI “gladness” = simchah. Related to “rejoice” in v5. From samach (see note XXV above). This is joy, rejoicing, pleasure, or glee.
XXVII “nation” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.
XXVIII “glory” = halal. Same as “praise” in v1. See note I above.
XXIX “heritage” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.

6 Both we and our ancestorsXXX have sinned;XXXI
    we have committed iniquity,XXXII have done wickedly.XXXIII
Our ancestors, when they were in Egypt,XXXIV
    did not considerXXXV your wonderful works;XXXVI

Notes on verses 6-7a

XXX “ancestors” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXI “sinned” = chata. This is properly to miss, and so figuratively it is used for sinning, bearing the blame. It implies a forfeiture or loss of something.
XXXII “committed iniquity” = avah. 17x in OT. This is to bend, turn, be crooked in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can refer to committing iniquity.
XXXIII “done wickedly” = rasha. From rasha (wrong, particularly moral wrong; wickedness, evil, wicked deeds, or something that is ill-gotten). This is to be or do something wicked, condemn, give punishment, vex, disturb, or violate.
XXXIV “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
XXXV “consider” = sakal. This is to consider or be prudent and so it can mean to instruct or be an expert. It can also mean dealing prudently, which implies success and prospering. This verb presumes intelligence of the subject. In one form of the verb, it can mean laying cross-wise.
XXXVI “wonderful works” = pala. From pele (wonder, miracle, wonderful, marvelous thing). This is to be extraordinary, to arise, to be great or accomplish.

they did not remember the abundanceXXXVII of your steadfast love,
    but rebelledXXXVIII against the Most High at theXXXIX RedXL Sea.XLI

Notes on verse 7b

XXXVII “abundance” = rob. From rabab (to be or become much or many, multiply). This is any kind of abundance.
XXXVIII “rebelled” = marah. This is to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient. It can be to be or make bitter or unpleasant. Figuratively, it is to rebel or resist and causatively to provoke. This is the root of “Miriam.”
XXXIX {untranslated} = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.
XL “Red” = suph. Perhaps from Egyptian twfi (reeds). This is reeds or rushes. It can be used particularly to refer to papyrus, or a flag. See
XLI “Sea” = yam. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XXXIX above.

8 Yet he savedXLII them for his name’sXLIII sake,
    so that he might make knownXLIV his mighty power.XLV

Notes on verse 8

XLII “saved” = yasha. Related to “deliver” in v4. See note XXI above.
XLIII “name’s” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
XLIV “make known” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XLV “mighty power” = geburah. Same as “mighty doings” in v2. See note VII above.

He rebukedXLVI the Red Sea, and it became dry;XLVII
    he ledXLVIII them through the deepXLIX as through a desert.L

Notes on verse 9

XLVI “rebuked” = gaar. 14x in OT. This is to rebuke, corrupt, or chide.
XLVII “became dry” = charab. This is to dry up because of drought, destroy, or make waste.
XLVIII “led” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XLIX “deep” = tehom. Perhaps from hum (to roar, murmur, cause an uproar, agitate; to defeat in battle, destroy). This is the deep or the abyss. Either understood as a formless empty place of nothingness or as a place of confusion filled with water – the deep the feeds the waters of the earth.
L “desert” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.

10 So he saved them from the handLI of the foe,LII
    and deliveredLIII them from the hand of the enemy.LIV

Notes on verse 10

LI “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LII “foe” = sane. This is an enemy or foe. It is one that is hated with a personal hatred.
LIII “delivered” = gaal. This is to redeem someone or something according to kinship laws. So, it could be acting on a relative’s behalf to buy back their property, to marry one’s brother’s widow, etc. This could be more briefly translated as to redeem, acts as kinsman, or purchase. As a noun, it could be deliverer or avenger.
LIV “enemy” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.

11 The watersLV coveredLVI their adversaries;LVII
    not oneLVIII of them was left.LIX
12 Then they believedLX his words;LXI
    they sangLXII his praise.

Notes on verses 11-12

LV “waters” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
LVI “covered” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
LVII “adversaries” = tsar. From tsarar (to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary). Properly, this is a narrow or constricted place. Figuratively, it can be trouble, a pebble, an enemy, anguish, or distress.
LVIII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
LIX “was left” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.
LX “believed” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.
LXI “words” = dabar. Related to “desert” in v9. From dabar (see note L above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LXII “sang” = shir. From shir (song, singer). This is to sing. It could also refer to one who is singing or leading others in song.

13 But they soonLXIII forgotLXIV his works;LXV
    they did not waitLXVI for his counsel.LXVII

Notes on verse 13

LXIII “soon” = mahar. This is being liquid, which implies flowing. So, this word implies hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense.
LXIV “forgot” = shakach. This is to forget because of not remembering something or not paying attention to it. It can also mean to mislay.
LXV “works” = maaseh. Related to “do” in v3. From asah (see note XIV above). This is a word – any action whether positive or negative. It can also be a transaction, construction, activity, property, or something that is produced.
LXVI “wait” = chakah. 14x in OT. Perhaps related to chaqah (to carve, cut in). This is to long for, await, or lurk in ambush.
LXVII “counsel” = etsah. From yaats (to counsel, advise, determine). This is advice, purpose, plan, prudence, or counselor.

14 But they had a wantonLXVIII cravingLXIX in the wilderness,LXX
    and put GodLXXI to the testLXXII in the desert;LXXIII

Notes on verse 14

LXVIII “wanton” = taavah. Related to “had…a craving” in v14. From the same as avah (see note LXIX below). This is what is desirable, a delight, greedy, satisfaction, a charm.
LXIX “had…a craving” = avah. This is to desire, wish for, crave, lust after, to incline.
LXX “wilderness” = midbar. Same as “desert” in v9. See note L above.
LXXI “God” = El.
LXXII “put…to the test” = nasah. This is to test, prove, try, tempt, or attempt.
LXXIII “desert” = yeshimon. 13x in OT. From yasham (to be stripped, destroyed, desolate). This is a wilderness or desert. It can also refer to a place called Jeshimon. It means “wasteland” or “wilderness.” See

15 he gaveLXXIV them what they asked,LXXV
    but sentLXXVI a wasting diseaseLXXVII among them.LXXVIII

Notes on verse 15

LXXIV “gave” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LXXV “what they asked” = sheelah. 14x in OT. From shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is something that is requested like a petition, request, or loan. Used frequently in the book of Esther.
LXXVI “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
LXXVII “wasting disease” = razon. 3x in OT. From razah (to be or become lean in a literal or figurative sense; famish, emaciate). This is leanness, wasting, scant.
LXXVIII “them” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.

16 They were jealousLXXIX of MosesLXXX in the camp,LXXXI
    and of Aaron,LXXXII the holy oneLXXXIII of the Lord.

Notes on verse 16

LXXIX “were jealous” = qanah. From qinah (zeal, jealousy). This is to be zealous or to provoke to jealousy.
LXXX “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
LXXXI “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
LXXXII “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See
LXXXIII “holy one” = qadosh. From qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy); related to qadash (set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified; something or someone set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean). This is sacred or holy in a ritual or moral sense. As a noun, it refers to a holy one (like a saint or angel), a holy place (the sanctuary), or God (the Holy One).

17 The earthLXXXIV openedLXXXV and swallowed upLXXXVI Dathan,LXXXVII
    and covered the factionLXXXVIII of Abiram.LXXXIX

Notes on verse 17

LXXXIV “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
LXXXV “opened” = patach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
LXXXVI “swallowed up” = bala. This is to swallow, engulf, cover, or destroy.
LXXXVII “Dathan” = Dathan. 10x in OT. Perhaps from a foreign language – dat (decree, law, well) This is Dathan, which may mean “fount,” “belonging to a fountain,” “their fountain,” or “their law.” See
LXXXVIII “faction” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
LXXXIX “Abiram” = Abiram. Related to “ancestors” in v6. 11x in OT. From ab (see note XXX above) + rum (to be high, rise, exalted, become proud, display, offer, present, set apart, extol; to rise in a literal or figurative sense). This is Abiram, meaning “exalted father,” “my father,” “father of height,” “lofty.” See

18 FireXC also broke outXCI in their company;XCII
    the flameXCIII burned upXCIV the wicked.XCV

Notes on verse 18

XC “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
XCI “broke out” = ba’ar. This is to burn, consume, heat, remove. It can also be to consume by a fire or through eating, being brutish or wasting.
XCII “company” = edah. Same as “faction” in v17. See note LXXXVIII above.
XCIII “flame” = lehabah. 19x in OT. From lahab (flame, flashing, bright; figuratively, a blade or the point of a spear). This is a flame, blazing, head of a spear.
XCIV “burned up” = lahat. 11x in OT. This is to set on fire, burn, kindle, be ablaze, consume.
XCV “wicked” = rasha. Related to “done wickedly” in v6. See note XXXIII above.

19 They madeXCVI a calfXCVII at HorebXCVIII
    and worshipedXCIX a cast image.C

Notes on verse 19

XCVI “made” = asah. Same as “do” in v3. See note XIV above.
XCVII “calf” = egel. May be from the same as agol (round, circular – root meaning revolve). This is a male calf as one that frisks about. Often used for one that is almost grown up. This is also the word used for the molten calf in Ex 32.
XCVIII “Horeb” = Choreb. 17x in OT. From chareb (to devastate, desolate, or be waste). Horeb means waste or desolate.
XCIX “worshiped” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.
C “cast image” = massekah. From nasak (to cover, pour out, offer; by analogy anointing a king). This is a pouring out or over. So it could be pouring molten metal to cast an image, making a libation (pouring out a drink offering), or otherwise covering.

20 They exchangedCI the gloryCII of God
    for the imageCIII of an oxCIV that eatsCV grass.CVI

Notes on verse 20

CI “exchanged” = mur. 15x in OT. This is to change, substitute, stand by, alter, remove.
CII “glory” = kabod. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.
CIII “image” = tabnith. From banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is a structure, model, figure, image, or resemblance.
CIV “ox” = shor. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant). This is bull, ox, head of cattle, cow.
CV “eats” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
CVI “grass” = eseb. Root may mean to be green or to glisten. This is grass or some other tender shoot.

21 They forgot God, their Savior,CVII
    who had done great thingsCVIII in Egypt,
22 wondrous works in the landCIX of Ham,CX
    and awesome deedsCXI by the Red Sea.

Notes on verses 21-22

CVII “Savior” = yasha. Same as “saved” in v8. See note XLII above.
CVIII “great things” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
CIX “land” = erets. Same as “earth” in v17. See note LXXXIV above.
CX “Ham” = Cham. 16x in OT. Perhaps from the same as cham (hot, warm); from chamam (to be warm, heat; to be hot in a literal or figurative sense; to mate). This is Ham, meaning “hot” or “protective wall.” See
CXI “awesome deeds” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.

23 Therefore he said he would destroyCXII them—
    had not Moses, his chosen one,
stoodCXIII in the breachCXIV beforeCXV him,
    to turn awayCXVI his wrathCXVII from destroyingCXVIII them.

Notes on verse 23

CXII “destroy” = shamad. This is to demolish, destroy, perish, overthrow, pluck down.
CXIII “stood” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
CXIV “breach” = perets. 19x in OT. From parats (to make a breach, burst out, compel, disperse; to break out literally or figuratively). This is a breach or a gap. It could be a break, whether literal or figurative.
CXV “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CXVI “turn away” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CXVII “wrath” = chemah. From yacham (to be hot, mate; figuratively, to conceive). This is heat – figuratively it can be anger or fury. It can also refer to poison or venom as they can cause fever.
CXVIII “destroying” = shachath. This is to go to ruin, perish, decay, batter, cast off, lose, one who destroys. This can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

24 Then they despisedCXIX the pleasantCXX land,
    having no faithCXXI in his promise.CXXII
25 They grumbledCXXIII in their tents,CXXIV
    and did not obeyCXXV the voiceCXXVI of the Lord.

Notes on verses 24-25

CXIX “despised” = ma’as. This is to reject, refuse, despise, disdain, reject, or spurn. It can also be to disappear or melt away.
CXX “pleasant” = chemdah. 18x in OT. From chemed (desire, delight); from chamad (to desire or delight in someone or something; something that is precious or coveted; to lust). This is desire or precious.
CXXI “having…faith” = aman. Same as “believed” in v12. See note LX above.
CXXII “promise” = dabar. Same as “words” in v12. See note LXI above.
CXXIII “grumbled” = ragan. 3x in OT. This is to murmur, criticize, rebel.
CXXIV “tents” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
CXXV “obey” = shama. Same as “declare” in v2. See note VIII above.
CXXVI “voice” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.

26 Therefore he raisedCXXVII his hand and swore to them
    that he would make them fallCXXVIII in the wilderness,
27 and would disperseCXXIX their descendantsCXXX among the nations,
    scatteringCXXXI them over the lands.

Notes on verses 26-27

CXXVII “raised” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
CXXVIII “make…fall” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
CXXIX “disperse” = naphal. Same as “make…fall” in v26. See note CXXVIII above.
CXXX “descendants” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
CXXXI “scattering” = zarah. This is to scatter or toss around. It can imply to disperse, cast away, or to scrutinize.

28 Then they attachedCXXXII themselves to the Baal of Peor,CXXXIII
    and ate sacrificesCXXXIV offered to the dead;CXXXV

Notes on verse 28

CXXXII “attached” = tsamad. 5x in OT. This is to bind, attach, frame, serve, or contrive.
CXXXIII “Baal of Peor” = Baal Peor. 6x in OT. From Baal (Baal, used for several Canaanite gods; literally, “lord”); {from the same as baal (owner, master, husband); from baal (to marry, have dominion over, to master)}} + Peor (Peor – a mountain in Moab and a god of Moab; perhaps meaning gap); {from paar (to gape, yawn; open wide – especially the mouth – in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Baal of Peor, a god of Moab.
CXXXIV “sacrifices” = zebach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is a slaughter – literally of an animal. So, it implies the act or the animals used in sacrifice. Further, it can mean offering.
CXXXV “dead” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

29 they provoked the Lord to angerCXXXVI with their deeds,CXXXVII
    and a plagueCXXXVIII broke outCXXXIX among them.
30 Then PhinehasCXL stood up and interceded,CXLI
    and the plague was stopped.CXLII

Notes on verses 29-30

CXXXVI “provoked…to anger” = kaas. This is to provoke, be angry, grieve, trouble.
CXXXVII “deeds” = maalal. From alal (to affect, do, practice, mock, overdo, glean, abuse, pain). This is some kind of deed, action, invention or practice whether good or bad.
CXXXVIII “plague” = maggephah. From nagaph (to strike, beat, hurt, stumble, defeat, inflict disease). This is a blow, calamity, plague, or defeat.
CXXXIX “broke out” = parats. Related to “breach” in v23. See note CXIV above.
CXL “Phinehas” = Phinechas. Perhaps from peh (mouth in a literal or figurative sense; literally, beak or jaws; figuratively, speech, commands, or promises); {perhaps from pa’ah (to puff, scatter, cut in pieces)} + nachash (a serpent or snake); {from nachash (to divine, interpret omens, learn from experience, observe; to hiss)} OR from panah (to turn, face, appear) + chasah (to seek refuge). This is Phinehas, a name that may mean “mouth of a serpent,” “bronze-colored one,” “mouth of brass,” “oracle,” “trust your heart,” or “turn and hide.” See
CXLI “interceded” = palal. This is to judge for oneself or in an official capacity. It can also mean to pray or make supplication, to entreat.
CXLII “stopped” = atsar. To inclose, restrain, keep, hold back, or prevail. It can also mean to maintain, rule, or gather together.

31 And that has been reckonedCXLIII to him as righteousness
    from generationCXLIV to generation forever.CXLV
32 They angeredCXLVI the Lord at the waters of Meribah,CXLVII

Notes on verses 31-32a

CXLIII “reckoned” = chashab. This is properly to braid or interpenetrate. Literally it is to create or to wear. Figuratively, it can mean plotting – generally in a negative sense. More broadly, this can also mean think, consider, or make account of.
CXLIV “generation” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.
CXLV “forever” = ad + olam. Literally, “until forever.” Olam is the same as “forever” in v1. See note VI above.
CXLVI “angered” = qatsaph. This is angry or provoked to wrath. It suggests a bursting into anger.
CXLVII “Meribah” = Meribah. 7x in OT. From the same as meribah (strife, quarrel); from rib (properly to toss or grapple; used figuratively to mean wrangling and so for arguments, complaints, or disputes; used in a legal setting for pleading or defending a case). This is Meribah, a place whose name means “strife.”

    and it went illCXLVIII with Moses on their account;CXLIX
33 for they made his spiritCL bitter,CLI
    and he spoke words that were rash.CLII

Notes on verses 32b-33

CXLVIII “went ill” = yara. 5x in OT. This is to tremble or be shattered from a violent encounter. Figuratively, it can refer to fear.
CXLIX “account” = abur. From abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is for, so that, on account of. Properly, it means crossed.
CL “spirit” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.
CLI “made…bitter” = marah. Same as “rebelled” in v7. See note XXXVIII above.
CLII “spoke words that were rash” = bata + saphah. Literally “spoke rashly with his lips.” Bata is 4x in OT. This is to babble or speak thoughtlessly or angrily. Saphah is lip, edge, border, bank – used for a boundary. It can also be speech or language.

34 They did not destroyCLIII the peoples,
    as the LordCLIV commanded them,
35 but they mingledCLV with the nations
    and learnedCLVI to do as they did.CLVII

Notes on verses 34-35

CLIII “destroy” = shamad. Same as “destroy” in v23. See note CXII above.
CLIV “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note III above. It has the same meaning as “Lord” above, but is spelled with a different vowel pointing.
CLV “mingled” = arab. This is to bargain, barter, give or take in pledge. It can also mean to braid or intermingle.
CLVI “learned” = lamad. Properly, this refers to goading (using a pointed stick to guide or prod one’s flock). By implication, it means teaching or instructing.
CLVII “do as they did” = maaseh. Same as “works” in v13. See note LXV above.

36 They servedCLVIII their idols,CLIX
    which becameCLX a snareCLXI to them.
37 They sacrificedCLXII their sonsCLXIII
    and their daughtersCLXIV to the demons;CLXV

Notes on verses 36-37

CLVIII “served” = abad. This is to work, serve, or compel. It can describe any kind of work or service (including religious devotion).  Also, till or cultivate. Used causatively, it can mean to enslave or keep in bondage.
CLIX “idols” = atsab. 18x in OT. This is an idol or image.
CLX “became” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1 & “Lord” in v34. See note III above.
CLXI “snare” = moqesh. From yaqosh (ensnare, lay bait, lure, trapper; to snare literally or figuratively). This is bait, barb, snare, trap; a noose or hook to trap animals in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXII “sacrificed” = zabach. Related to “sacrifices” in v28. See note CXXXIV above.
CLXIII “sons” = ben. Related to “image” in v20. Perhaps from banah (see note CIII above). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXIV “daughters” = bat. Related to “image” in v20 & “sons” in v37. From ben (see note CLXIII above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXV “demons” = shed. 2x in OT. Of foreign origin OR from shud (waste, swell up, devastate); {related to shadad (to ruin, assault, devastate, oppress, destroy completely; properly, it is being burly; figuratively it is something that is powerful)}. This is probably a demon.

38 they poured outCLXVI innocentCLXVII blood,CLXVIII
    the blood of their sons and daughters,
whom they sacrificed to the idols of Canaan;CLXIX
    and the land was pollutedCLXX with blood.
39 Thus they became uncleanCLXXI by their acts,CLXXII
    and prostitutedCLXXIII themselves in their doings.CLXXIV

Notes on verses 38-39

CLXVI “poured out” = shaphak. This is to pour out, gust, or slip. It can be to pour as blood, a drink offering, or molten metal. It can also mean to create a mound. Figuratively, it can refer to killing, or spending money.
CLXVII “innocent” = naqiy. From naqah (to be empty, cleanse, acquit; to be clean in a literal or figurative sense). This is blameless, innocent, free from punishment, or clear.
CLXVIII “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
CLXIX “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See
CLXX “polluted” = chaneph. 11x in OT. This is to profane, defile, corrupt. It is usually morally polluted.
CLXXI “became unclean” = tame. This is to defile, be unclean, pollute in a ritual or ethical sense.
CLXXII “acts” = maaseh. Same as “works” in v13. See note LXV above.
CLXXIII “prostituted” = zanah. This is being or playing a prostitute. Figuratively, it can also mean fornicating.
CLXXIV “doings” = maalal. Same as “deeds” in v29. See note CXXXVII above.

40 Then the angerCLXXV of the LordCLXXVI was kindledCLXXVII against his people,
    and he abhorredCLXXVIII his heritage;
41 he gave them into the hand of the nations,
    so that those who hatedCLXXIX them ruledCLXXX over them.

Notes on verses 40-41

CLXXV “aner” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
CLXXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note III above.
CLXXVII “was kindled” = charah. Perhaps related to charar (to be hot, burn, glow, melt, be scorched; figuratively, to incite passion, be angry). This is to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn. Figuratively it is a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy.
CLXXVIII “abhorred” = taab. From toebah (abomination, loathsome, something morally disgusting or abhorrent). This is to abhor, despise, to reject, to act abominably.
CLXXIX “hated” = sane. Same as “foe” in v10. See note LII above.
CLXXX “ruled” = mashal. This is to rule, reign, govern, have authority, wield.

42 Their enemies oppressedCLXXXI them,
    and they were brought into subjectionCLXXXII under their power.CLXXXIII
43 ManyCLXXXIV timesCLXXXV he deliveredCLXXXVI them,
    but they were rebellious in their purposes,CLXXXVII
    and were brought lowCLXXXVIII through their iniquity.CLXXXIX

Notes on verses 42-43

CLXXXI “oppressed” = lachats. 19x in OT. This is to press or squeeze. Figuratively, it is oppress, afflict, or distress.
CLXXXII “brought into subjection” = kana. Related to “Canaan” in v38. See note CLXIX above.
CLXXXIII “power” = yad. Same as “hand” in v10. See note LI above.
CLXXXIV “many” = rab. Related to “abundance” in v7. From rabab (see note XXXVII above).
CLXXXV “times” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.
CLXXXVI “delivered” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.
CLXXXVII “purposes” = etsah. Same as “counsel” in v13. See note LXVII above.
CLXXXVIII “brought low” = makak. 3x in OT. This is to be low, humiliate, sink, go down, perish. It can also be to fall into ruin.
CLXXXIX “iniquity” = avon. Related to “committed iniquity” in v6. Perhaps related to avah (see note XXXII above). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.

44 Nevertheless he regardedCXC their distressCXCI
    when he heardCXCII their cry.CXCIII
45 For their sake he remembered his covenant,CXCIV
    and showed compassionCXCV according to the abundance of his steadfast love.

Notes on verses 44-45

CXC “regarded” = raah. Same as “see” in v5. See note XXII above.
CXCI “distress” = tsar. Same as “adversaries” in v11. See note LVII above.
CXCII “heard” = shama. Same as “declare” in v2. See note VIII above.
CXCIII “cry” = rinnah. From ranan (a cry of joy or a joyful song; properly, emitting a shrill sound, especially one of joy). This is a song, shout, cry of joy, or proclamation. It could also be a shout of grief.
CXCIV “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from bara (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.
CXCV “showed compassion” = nacham. Properly, this is a strong breath or a sigh. This can be to be sorry, to pity, console. Comfort, or repent. But, one can also comfort oneself with less righteous thoughts, so this can also mean to avenge oneself.

46 He causedCXCVI them to be pitiedCXCVII
    byCXCVIII all who held them captive.CXCIX
47 Save us, O LordCC our God,CCI
    and gatherCCII us from among the nations,
that we may give thanks to your holyCCIII name
    and gloryCCIV in your praise.

Notes on verses 46-47

CXCVI “caused” = natan. Same as “gave” in v15. See note LXXIV above.
CXCVII “pitied” = racham. From the same as rechem (womb); from racham (to love, have compassion, have mercy); from racham (compassion, tender love, womb, compassion; the womb as that which cherishes the fetus). This is compassion, mercy, or tender love.
CXCVIII “by” = paneh. Same as “before” in v23. See note CXV above.
CXCIX “held…captive” = shabah. This is to carry away into captivity, bring away, capture, lead away.
CC “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note III above.
CCI “God” = Elohim. Related to “God” in v14. See note LXXI above.
CCII “gather” = qabats. This is to collect, assemble, heap, grasp, or gather.
CCIII “holy” = qodesh. Related to “holy one” in v16. See note LXXXIII above.
CCIV “glory” = shabach. 11x in OT. This is to glory, praise, triumph. It can also mean still or soothe. Properly, it is speaking to loudly or to calm through speech.

48 Blessed beCCV the Lord,CCVI the GodCCVII of Israel,CCVIII

Notes on verse 48a

CCV “blessed be” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
CCVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note III above.
CCVII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v47. See note CCI above.
CCVIII “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “God” in v14 & “God” in v47. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note LXXI above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

    from everlastingCCIX to everlasting.
And let all the people say, “Amen.”CCX
    Praise the Lord!CCXI

Notes on verse 48b

CCIX “everlasting” = olam. Same as “forever” in v1. See note VI above.
CCX “amen” = amen. Related to “believed” in v12. From aman (see note LX above). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
CCXI “Lord” = Yah. Related to “Lord” in v1 & “Lord” in v34 & “became” in v36. From YHVH (see note III above). This is Lord or God – a shortened form of God’s most holy name.

Image credit: “En Gedi Region” by Benno Rothenberg, 1956.

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