1 Corinthians 1:3-9

1 Corinthians 1:3-9
First Sunday of Advent B


3 GraceA to you and peaceB from GodC our Father and the LordD JesusE Christ.F

Notes on verse 3

A “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
B “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
C “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
D “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
E “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
F “Christ” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

4 I give thanksG to my God alwaysH for you because of the grace of God that has been given you in Christ Jesus, for in every way you have been enrichedI in him, in speechJ and knowledgeK of every kind— 

Notes on verses 4-5

G “give thanks” = eucharisteo. Related to “grace” in v3. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (see ote A above). This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
H “always” = pantote. From pas (all, every, each) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
I “enriched” = ploutizo. 3x in NT. From ploutos (wealth, riches; abundance whether material or spiritual); from polus (much, many, abundant) OR from pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to wash, plunge); from pluo (to flow) OR from pletho (to accomplish, supply, fill, or fulfill; this is to fill to maximum extent or fill up to individual capacity; this is fill in a literal or figurative sense). This is to make rich, cause to abound in, or enrich. Can be used literally or figuratively.
J “speech” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
K “knowledge” = gnosis. From ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is knowing, knowledge, understanding, wisdom. It is direct knowledge – working knowledge that links theory and application.

just as the testimonyL of Christ has been strengthenedM among you— 7 so that you are not lacking in any spiritual giftN as you wait forO the revealingP of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Notes on verses 6-7

L “testimony” = marturion. 19x in NT. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is something that counts as evidence whether a witness, testimony, or other proof.
M “strengthened” = bebaioo. 8x in NT. From bebaios (firm, secure, sure, certain, steadfast, enduring); from baino (to walk, go). This is properly, walking on solid ground. Thus, something that is firm, reliable, sure, unshakable. Figuratively, it is totally dependable and guaranteed support, security. It is good to place one’s trust in it because it’s solid footing.
N “gift” = charisma. Related to “grace” in v3 & “give thanks” in v4. 17x in NT. From charizomai (to show favor, kindness, or grace, to pardon, forgive); from charis (see note A above). This is grace, undeserved favor, a free gift, or a spiritual gift. It is the working of grace, some spiritual gift or religious qualification. It could be some kind of miraculous endowment.
O “wait for” = apekdechomai. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ekdechomai (to take or receive, expect, await; to welcome someone from your heart; focusing on the goal of waiting or the outcome); {from ek (from, from out of) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is eager awaiting or fully expecting something.
P “revealing” = apokalupsis. 18x in NT. From apokalupto (properly to uncover; revealing something that was hidden or obstructed; particularly refers to revealing the essence of something; to make plain or manifest); {from apo (from, away from) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is uncovering, unveiling, appearing, manifestation, or revelation. This is where the word “apocalypse” comes from.

He will also strengthen you to the end,Q so that you may be blamelessR on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. God is faithful;S by him you were calledT into the fellowshipU of his Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.

Notes on verses 8-9

Q “end” = telos. From tel– (to reach a goal or aim); This is an end, aim, purpose, completion, goal, consummation, or tax. It is completing a stage of something and everything that results from that completion. It can be literal or figurative.
R “blameless” = anegkletos. 5x in NT. From a (not, without) + egkaleo (to accuse, bring charges, call to account, call in a debt, make a demand) [from en (in, on, at, by, with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is one who cannot be called to account – one who would not be convicted if legally scrutinized. So, this is someone who is irreproachable, blameless, or unaccused.
S “faithful” = pistos. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.
T “called” = kaleo. Related to “blameless” in v8. See note R above.
U “fellowship” = koinonia. 19x in NT. From koinonos (partner, companion, partaker, sharer); From koinos (common, shared, unclean, ritually profane); probably from sun (with, together with). This is sharing in common so it is fellowship, participation, communion, and aid that comes from the community.

Image credit: Painting of a feast at the Tomb of Vibia – Catacombs of Domitila in Rome.

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