2 Peter 1:1-11

2 Peter 1:1-11
Narrative Lectionary


SimeonA Peter,B a servantC

Notes on verse 1a

A “Simeon” = Sumeon. 7x in NT. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
B “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
C “servant” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).

and apostleD of JesusE Christ,F

Notes on verse 1b

D “apostle” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
E “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
F “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

To those who have receivedG a faithH as equally honorableI as ours

Notes on verse 1c

G “received” = lagchano. 4x in NT. This is to choose by lot, to receive, determine.
H “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
I “equally honorable” = isotimos. 1x in NT. From isos (equal, same, similar, consistent); {perhaps from eido (to know, remember, perceive – to see and so understand)} + time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is equally privileged, having a similar value or make-up. Because it is the same, it warrants the same respect or honor.

through the righteousnessJ of our GodK and SaviorL Jesus Christ:

Notes on verse 1d

J “righteousness” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
K “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
L “Savior” = Soter. From sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is savior, deliverer, preserver.

May graceM and peaceN be yours in abundanceO

Notes on verse 2a

M “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
N “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
O “be…in abundance” = plethuno. 12x in NT. From plethos (fullness, multitude, great number); from pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is to increase, multiply, or abound. It is filling to its greatest potential or utmost capacity.

in the knowledgeP of God and of Jesus our Lord.Q

His divineR powerS

Notes on verses 2b-3a

P “knowledge” = epignosis. From epiginosko (to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction); {from epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is knowledge, intuition, or discernment. It is firsthand knowledge of someone or something gained through contact or experience. This is full discernment or true knowledge.
Q “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
R “divine” = theios. Related to “God” in v1. 3x in NT. From Theos (see note XI above). This is divine, godlike, having similar characteristics to the divine nature.
S “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.

has givenT us everythingU needed for lifeV and godliness,W

Notes on verse 3b

T “given” = doreomai. 3x in NT. From doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (to give in a literal or figurative sense). This is to give a present, to give generously and of one’s own will, to donate.
U “everything” = pas. This is all or every.
V “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
W “godliness” = eusebeia. 15x in NT– 1x in Acts, 8x in 1 Timothy, 1x in 2 Timothy, 1x in Titus, and 4x in 2 Peter. From eusebes (pious, devout, respectful); {from eu (good, well, well done) + sebomai (to worship, revere, adore, hold in high regard or in awe; veneration shown by a devout one)}. This is piety, devotion – showing reverence.

through the knowledge of him who calledX us by his ownY gloryZ and excellence.AA 

Notes on verse 3c

X “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
Y “his own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
Z “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
AA “excellence” = arete. 5x in NT. Perhaps from the same as arrhen (male, man); from arsen (male, man) or from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is moral goodness, excellence, praise. Properly, it means manliness and so is meant to express valor, virtue, or uprightness.

Thus he has given us, through these things, his preciousBB and very greatCC promises,DD

Notes on verse 4a

BB “precious” = timios. Related to “equally honorable” in v1. 13x in NT. From time (see note IX above). This is valued, precious, respected, or dear. It is something that holds value.
CC “very great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
DD “promises” = epaggelma. 2x in NT – both in 2 Peter. From epagellomai (to proclaim, profess, or make a promise that is fitting); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}}. This is a promise made freely.

so that through them you may escapeEE from the corruptionFF that is in the worldGG

Notes on verse 4b

EE “escape” = apopheugo. 3x in NT – all in 2 Peter. From apo (from, away from) + pheugo (to run away in a literal or figurative sense; to flee, escape, shun, or vanish). This is to flee, break away completely, escape.
FF “corruption” = phthora. 9x in NT. From phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, perish, waste away; figuratively, moral decay). This is destruction, corruption, or something perishable. It can be spontaneous decay or corruption inflicted on another in a literal or figurative sense.
GG “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

because of lustHH and may becomeII participantsJJ of the divine nature.KK 

Notes on verse 4c

HH “lust” = epithumia. From epithmueo (long for, set one’s heart on, yearn, desire); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is desire, a longing built on passionate emotion or urges. This can be a positive or a negative passion (lust or eagerness).
II “become” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
JJ “participants” = koinonos. 10x in NT. From koinonoia (sharing in common so it is fellowship, participation, communion, and aid that comes from the community); from koinos (common, shared, unclean, ritually profane); probably from sun (with, together with). This is partner, companion, partaker, sharer.
KK “nature” = phusis. 14x in NT. From phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is inherent nature, origin, species, growth, descent, natural disposition, condition. It shares a root with the word “physical.”

For this very reason, you must makeLL everyMM effortNN to supportOO your faith with excellence, and excellence with knowledge,PP 

Notes on verse 5

LL “make” = pareisphero. 1x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + eisphero (to carry in, lead into, or announce; literal or figurative); {from eis (to, into, for, among) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to bring in, smuggle, carry through, give.
MM “every” = pas. Same as “everything” in v3. See note XXI above.
NN “effort” = spoude. 12x in NT. From speudo (to hurry, urge on, await); probably from pous (foot in a figurative or literal sense). This is haste, diligence, earnestness, effort. It is being swift to demonstrate one’s enthusiasm. It is doing what one is told right away and with full effort.
OO “support” = epichoregeo. Related to “promises” in v4. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + choregeo (to be the leader of a performing group, to help pay the expenses of a chorus; thus, to supply, furnish); {from choros (a dance or chorus) + ago (see note XXX above)}. This is lavishly provide or supply. It can also mean to help, nourish, or contribute.
PP “knowledge” = gnosis. Related to “knowledge” in v2. From ginosko (see note XVI above). This is knowing, knowledge, understanding, wisdom. It is direct knowledge – working knowledge that links theory and application.

and knowledgeQQ with self-control,RR and self-control with endurance,SS and endurance with godliness, 

Notes on verse 6

QQ “knowledge” = gnosis. Same as “knowledge” in v5. See note XLII above.
RR “self-control” = egkrateia. 4x in NT. From egkrates (self-controlled, one who has power over, controlling, temperate); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, within) + kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised)}. This is self-control – mastery coming from within, dominion. It can also be continence or temperance.
SS “endurance” = hupomone. From hupo (by, under, about) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, and waiting in hope.

and godliness with mutual affection,TT and mutual affection with love.UU For if these things areVV yours and are increasingWW among you,

Notes on verses 7-8a

TT “mutual affection” = philadelphia. 6x in NT. From philadelphos (brotherly love; fraternal); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + adelphos (brother in a literal or figurative sense); {{from a (with, sharing) + delphus (womb)}}. This is literally brotherly love – figuratively love of members of the Christian community.
UU “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
VV “are” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
WW “are increasing” = pleonazo. 9x in NT. From pleion (many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent); from polus (much, many, abundant). This is to abound, increase, to superabound. It shares a root with “pleonasm.”

they keep you from beingXX ineffectiveYY and unfruitfulZZ in the knowledgeAAA of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Notes on verse 8b

XX “keep…from being” = ou + kathistemi. Kathistemi is related to “apostle” in v1. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (see note IV above). This is to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge, designate.
YY “ineffective” = argos. 8x in NT. From a (not) + ergon (word, task, action, employment). This is inactive, idle, lazy, thoughtless, useless, unemployed, unprofitable, barren.
ZZ “unfruitful” = akarpos. 7x in NT. From a (not, without) + karpos (a fruit or vegetable; sometimes an animal; figuratively, deeds, results, profits, or gain); {perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take); probably related to airo (see note raise XXVII above)}. This is unfruitful, unproductive, without profit. It can be in a literal or figurative sense.
AAA “knowledge” = epignosis. Same as “knowledge” in v2. See note XVI above.

For anyone who lacksBBB these things isCCC blind,DDD suffering from eye disease,EEE

Notes on verse 9a

BBB “lacks” = me + pareimi. Pareimi is from para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (to be, exist). This is to be near, to be there, to come.
CCC “is” = eimi. Related to “lacks” in v9. See note LIV above.
DDD “blind” = tuphlos. Derivation unclear. Perhaps from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (to raise smoke, smolder, slowly consume without flame). This is blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see. This is blind literally or figuratively.
EEE “suffering from eye disease” = muopazo. 1x in NT. From muops (shortsighted); {from musterion (a mystery or a secret doctrine that requires initiation to learn); {from mustes (an initiate); from mueo (to initiate someone into the secrets or mysteries of an order; to instruct learn, be disciples; properly, shutting your mouth and eyes to experience mystery); from muo (shutting eyes or mouth)} + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}}. This is shutting eyes, being shortsighted, not being able to see clearly.

forgetfulFFF of the cleansingGGG of pastHHH sins.III 

Notes on verse 9b

FFF “forgetful” = lethe. 1x in NT. From lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is forgetfulness or oblivion. It is related to the river and naiad Lethe in Greek mythology. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%9B%CE%AE%CE%B8%CE%B7#Ancient_Greek
GGG “cleansing” = lambano + ho + katharismos. Literally, “having received the purification.” Lambano does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action. Katharismos is 7x in NT. From katharizo (to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean; includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense); from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is cleansing or purification. It can be used in a literal, ritual, or moral sense.
HHH “past” = palai. 7x in NT. Perhaps from palin (back, again, further); probably from the same as pale (wrestling, struggle, conflict); from pallo (to sway or vibrate). This is long ago, former, ancient, in the past.
III “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

10 Therefore, brothersJJJ and sisters, be all the moreKKK eagerLLL to confirmMMM

Notes on verse 10a

JJJ “brothers” = adelphos. Related to “mutual affection” in v7. See note XLVI above.
KKK “all the more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
LLL “be…eager” = spoudazo. Related to “effort” in v5. 11x in NT. From spoude (see note XL above). This is hurrying with eagerness or zeal. It is doing everything you can, diligently and quickly, fervently.
MMM “confirm” = bebaiospoieo. Literally, “to make secure.” Bebaios is 9x in NT. From the same as basis (a step; hence, a foot, pace, or base); from baino (to walk or go). Properly, this is ground that is solid enough to walk over. So, this is firm, unshakable. Figuratively, it is guaranteed, valid, sure, steadfast, enduring. Literally and figuratively “solid footing.” Poieo is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

your callNNN and election,OOO for if you doPPP this, you will never stumble.QQQ 

Notes on verse 10b

NNN “call” = klesis. Related to “called” in v3. 11x in NT. From kaleo (see note XXIV above). This is a calling or invitation. In the Bible, this word always refers to a call from God.
OOO “election” = ekloge. 7x in NT. From eklego (to choose, select, elect); {from ek (from, from out of) + lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is properly a choosing out so it is a selection or choice. It is also used theologically to mean election i.e. God’s choice.
PPP “do” = poieo. Same as “confirm” in v10. See note LXV above.
QQQ “stumble” = ptaio. 5x in NT. Perhaps from pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is to stumble or cause to stumble. It can also refer to sinning or giving offense or failing.

11 For in this way, entryRRR into the eternalSSS kingdomTTT of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ will be richlyUUU providedVVV for you.

Notes on verse 11

RRR “entry” = eisodos. 5x in NT. From eis (to, into, towards, among) + hodos (way, road, path, journey). This is an entrance or reception in a literal of figurative sense.
SSS “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time); from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
TTT “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “confirm” in v10. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (see note LXV above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
UUU “richly” = plousios. Related to “are increasing” in v8 & “be…in abundance” in v2. From ploutos (abundance, wealth, or riches; money, possessions, spiritual abundance, or a valuable bestowment); from polus (see note XLIX above) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (see note XV above). This is wealthy, having full resources. It can be a rich person or refer to God’s abundance.
VVV “provided” = epichoregeo. Same as “support” in v5. See note XLI above.

Image credit: “Treasure in the Field” by Peter Koenig.

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