1 Corinthians 12

1 Corinthians 12


Now concerning spiritual gifts,I brothersII and sisters, I do not wantIII you to be ignorant.IV 

Notes on verse 1

I “spiritual gifts” = pneumatikos. From pneuma (wind, breath, or ghost; a breeze or blast of air, a breath; figuratively, a spirit, the human soul or the part of us that is rational; also angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit); from pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is spiritual, spiritual people, or spiritual things – that which is ethereal or divine or religious.
II “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
III “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
IV “be ignorant” = agnoeo. From a (not) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is unaware not to know. Sometimes it is willful ignorance, but other times it is simply not knowing.

You knowV that when you wereVI gentilesVII you were enticedVIII

Notes on verse 2a

V “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
VI “were” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
VII “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
VIII “enticed” = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.

and led astrayIX to idolsX that could not speak.XI 

Notes on verse 2b

IX “led astray” = apago. Related to “enticed” in v2. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (see note VIII above). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
X “idols” = eidolon. Related to “know” in v3. 11x in NT. From eidos (form, shape, sight, appearance); from eido (see note V above). This is image, idol, worship or an idol.
XI “could not speak” = aphonos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)} This is without voice, silent, meaningless.

Therefore I want you to understandXII that no one speakingXIII by the SpiritXIV of GodXV

Notes on verse 3a

XII “want…to understand” = gnorizo. Related to “be ignorant” in v1. From ginosko (see note IV above). This is to declare, know, discover, make known.
XIII “speaking” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
XIV “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

ever saysXVI “Let JesusXVII be cursed!”XVIII

Notes on verse 3b

XVI “says” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XVII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XVIII “be cursed” = anathema. 6x in NT. From anatithemi (to set up or fort, communicate, submit, declare); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is solemn, anathema, or accursed. From its root, it is a thing that is laid up, such as a votive offering or something one pledges to God. So, it can be a divine curse or a divine ban, something or someone that is cast out.

and no one canXIX sayXX “Jesus is Lord”XXI except by the HolyXXII Spirit.

Notes on verse 3c

XIX “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
XX “say” = eiron. This is to speak say, answer, command.
XXI “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XXII “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.

Now there are varietiesXXIII of giftsXXIV but the same Spirit, and there are varieties of servicesXXV but the same Lord, 

Notes on verses 4-5

XXIII “varieties” = diairesis. 3x in NT. From diaireo (to divide, distribute); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer)}. This is diversity, variety, difference, or distribution. It can also refer to spiritual endowments.
XXIV “gifts” = charisma. 17x in NT. From charizomai (to show favor, kindness, or grace, to pardon, forgive); from charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, undeserved favor, a free gift, or a spiritual gift. It is the working of grace, some spiritual gift or religious qualification. It could be some kind of miraculous endowment.
XXV “services” = diakonia. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is service, ministry, attending someone, service. It can mean serving someone at a table or otherwise as their servant/slave. It is also used for people who serve/minister in temples, as well as the work of Christian ministry. Figuratively, this word can mean money given for charity. This shares a root with “deacon” and is where the word “diaconate” comes from.

and there are varieties of activities,XXVI but it is the same God who activatesXXVII allXXVIII of them in everyone.XXIX 

Notes on verse 6

XXVI “activities” = energema. 2x in NT. From energeo (to work, accomplish, be fervent or effectual); {(active, effective, operative, energized, powerful); {from en (in, at, by, with, among) + ergon (word, task, action, employment); {from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do)}}}. This is effect, working, activity.
XXVII “activates” = energeo. Related to “activities” in v6. See note XXVI above.
XXVIII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XXIX “everyone” = pas. Same as “all” in v6. See note XXVIII above.

To eachXXX is givenXXXI the manifestationXXXII of the Spirit for the common good.XXXIII 

Notes on verse 7

XXX “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
XXXI “given” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXII “manifestation” = phanerosis. Related to “could not speak” in v2. 2x in NT. From phaneroo (to make visible or clear, to make known; properly, to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view); from phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (see note XI above); from the same as phaino (see note XI above). This is manifestation or disclosure. It is an exhibition, expression, or bestowment.   
XXXIII “common good” = sumphero. 17x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to collect, bring together, or be profitable to. It is combining things such that there is gain or profit or advantage.

To oneXXXIV is given through the Spirit the utteranceXXXV of wisdomXXXVI and to anotherXXXVII the utterance of knowledge according to the same Spirit, 

Notes on verse 8

XXXIV {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXXV “utterance” = logos. Related to “says” in v3. From lego (see note XVI above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XXXVI “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.
XXXVII “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).

to anotherXXXVIII faith by the same Spirit, to another giftsXXXIX of healingXL by the oneXLI Spirit, 

Notes on verse 9

XXXVIII “another” = allos. Same as “another” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
XXXIX “gifts” = charisma. Same as “gifts” in v4. See note XXIV above.
XL “healing” = iama. 3x in NT. From iaomai (to heal, particularly from a physical illness, or a spiritual difficulty; to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense). This is healing or remedy.
XLI “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.

10 to anotherXLII the workingXLIII of powerful deeds,XLIV to anotherXLV prophecy,XLVI

Notes on verse 10a

XLII “another” = allos. Same as “another” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
XLIII “working” = energema. Same as “activities” in v6. See note XXVI above.
XLIV “powerful deeds” = dunamis. Related to “can” in v3. From dunamai (see note XIX above). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XLV “another” = allos. Same as “another” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
XLVI “prophecy” = propheteia. Related to “could not speak” in v2 & “manifestation” in v7. 19x in NT. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note XI above); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (see note XI above)}}. This is prophecy or prediction. It is when a prophet reveals the truth that they received.

to anotherXLVII the discernmentXLVIII of spirits, to anotherXLIX

Notes on verse 10b

XLVII “another” = allos. Same as “another” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
XLVIII “discernment” = diakrisis. 3x in NT. From diakrino (to judge, separate, contend, investigate, thoroughly judge); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging)}. This is discernment, passing judgment, or deciding.
XLIX “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.

various kindsL of tongues,LI to anotherLII the interpretationLIII of tongues. 

Notes on verse 10c

L “various kinds” = genos. From ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense.
LI “tongues” = glossa. Root refers to a point that sticks out. This is tongue in a literal sense, but can also refer to language or a nation that speaks a different language. Figuratively, it can also refer to speaking in tongues or speech inspired by the Spirit.
LII “another” = allos. Same as “another” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
LIII “interpretation” = hermeneia. 2x in NT. From hermeneuo (to interpret, explain, translate); {probably from Hermes (Greek god who was messenger to the other gods, also god of language); perhaps from ereo (to say, tell, speak)}. This is interpretation or explanation. It can involve translating, but it is not word for word – more of a gloss or overview.

11 All these are activated by one and the same Spirit, who allotsLIV to each one individuallyLV just as the Spirit chooses.LVI

12 For just as the bodyLVII is one and hasLVIII

Notes on verses 11-12a

LIV “allots” = diaireo. Related to “varieties” in v4. 2x in NT. See note XXIII above.
LV “individually” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
LVI “chooses” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
LVII “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
LVIII “has” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.

manyLIX members,LX and allLXI the members of the body, though many, are one body, so it is with Christ.LXII 

Notes on verse 12b

LIX “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
LX “members” = melos. This is a limb or an organ of the body. So, it is a member of a greater whole. It is used figuratively for the body of Christ.
LXI {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “were” in v12. See note VI above.
LXII “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

13 For in the one Spirit we were all baptizedLXIII into one body—JewsLXIV or Greeks,LXV

Notes on verse 13a

LXIII “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
LXIV “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
LXV “Greeks” = Hellen. From Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is Greek, but was used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helen_(given_name)

slavesLXVI or freeLXVII—and we were all made to drinkLXVIII of one Spirit.

Notes on verse 13b

LXVI “slaves” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
LXVII “free” = eleutheros. Probably from erchomai (to come or go). This is a free person, at liberty, not a slave. Properly, it is unshackled – figuratively, it is one who has the freedom to choose their destiny. Also, it is one who does not have obligation or liability.
LXVIII “drink” = potizo. 15x in NT. From potos (drink or for drinking) OR from pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is to give to drink, water, furnish, irrigate, or feed.

14 Indeed, the body does not consist ofLXIX one member but of many. 15 If the footLXX would say,LXXI “Because I am not a hand,LXXII I do not belongLXXIII to the body,” that would not makeLXXIV it any less a part of the body. 

Notes on verses 14-15

LXIX “does…consist of” = eimi. Same as “were” in v12. See note VI above.
LXX “foot” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXI “say” = eiron. Same as “say” in v3. See note XX above.
LXXII “hand” = cheir. Perhaps from cheimon (winter, storm – winter as the rainy season); related to the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn). This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
LXXIII “belong” = eimi. Same as “were” in v12. See note VI above.
LXXIV “make” = eimi. Same as “were” in v12. See note VI above.

16 And if the earLXXV would say,LXXVI “Because I am not an eye,LXXVII I do not belong to the body,” that would not make it any less a part of the body. 17 If the wholeLXXVIII body were an eye, where would the hearingLXXIX be? If the whole body were hearing, where would the sense of smellLXXX be? 

Notes on verses 16-17

LXXV “ear” = ous. This is the physical ear, or the perception of hearing, whether physical or cognitive.
LXXVI “say” = eiron. Same as “say” in v3. See note XX above.
LXXVII “eye” = ophthalmos. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by); from horao (become, seem, appear). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
LXXVIII “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
LXXIX “hearing” = akoe. From akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing). This is hearing, ear, audience, fame, report, rumor.
LXXX “sense of smell” = osphresis. 1x in NT. From osphrainomai (to smell) OR from ozo (to stink or have a scent). This is the sense of smell or the act of smelling.

18 But as it is, God arrangedLXXXI the members in the body, each one of them, as he chose.LXXXII 19 If all were a single member, where would the body be? 20 As it is, there are manyLXXXIII members yet one body. 21 The eye cannotLXXXIV sayLXXXV to the hand,

Notes on verses 18-21a

LXXXI “arranged” = tithemi. Related to “be cursed” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LXXXII “chose” = thelo. Same as “want” in v1. See note III above.
LXXXIII {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v8. See note XXXIV above.
LXXXIV “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is the same as “can” in v3. See note XIX above.
LXXXV “say” = eiron. Same as “say” in v3. See note XX above.

“I have no needLXXXVI of you,” nor again the headLXXXVII to the feet, “I have no need of you.” 22 On the contrary,LXXXVIII the members of the body that seemLXXXIX

Notes on verses 21b-22a

LXXXVI “need” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
LXXXVII “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
LXXXVIII “on the contrary” = alla + polus + mallon. Polus is the same as “many” in v12. See note LIX above. Mallon is rather, more than, or better.
LXXXIX “seem” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”

to beXC weakerXCI are indispensable,XCII 

Notes on verse 22b

XC “be” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
XCI “weaker” = asthenes. From a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}. This is without strength so weak, sick, helpless, frail, feeble. It can also be unimpressive or impotent. It can be used for physical or moral weakness.
XCII “indispensable” = anagkaios. 8x in NT. From anagke (necessity – something that happens that requires an immediate response; associated with pain or distress); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + agcho (to press tightly or compress)} OR ana (see above) + agkale (the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load); {from agkos (a bend)}. This is necessary, essential, proper, intimate. It can be used to refer to close relatives.

23 and those members of the body that we thinkXCIII, XCIV less honorableXCV

Notes on verse 23a

XCIII “think” = dokeo. Same as “seem” in v22. See note LXXXIX above.
XCIV {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “were” in v12. See note VI above.
XCV “less honorable” = atimos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is without honor, despised, not valued, not recognized.

we clotheXCVI with greaterXCVII honor,XCVIII and our less respectableXCIX members

Notes on verse 23b

XCVI “clothe” = peritithemi. Related to “be cursed” in v3 & “arranged” in v18. 8x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + tithemi (see note XVIII above). This is to place around i.e. to clothe. Figuratively, it can mean to bestow or to present.
XCVII “greater” = perissos. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently.
XCVIII “honor” = time. Related to “less honorable” in v23. See note XCV above.
XCIX “less respectable” = aschemon. Related to “has” in v12. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + schema (figure, appearance, form – outer shape; figuratively, can be external condition); {from echo (see note LVIII above)}. This is without form or shape. Figuratively, it is indecent, unattractive, improper, or unpresentable.

are treatedC with greater respect,CI 24 whereas our more respectableCII members do notCIII need this.

Notes on verses 23c-24a

C “treated” = echo. Same as “has” in v12. See note LVIII above.
CI “respect” = euschemosune. Related to “has” in v12 & “less respectable” in v23. 1x in NT. From euchemon (presentable, seemly, prominent, noble, appropriate, desirable, well-formed); {from eu (good, well, well done) + schema (see note XCIX above)}. This is presentable, decorum, or attractiveness.
CII “more respectable” = euschemon. Related to “has” in v12 & “less respectable” and “respect” in v23. 5x in NT. See note CI above.
CIII {untranslated} = echo. Same as “has” in v12. See note LVIII above.

But God has so arrangedCIV the body, giving the greater honor to the inferiorCV member, 25 that there may be no dissensionCVI within the body, but the members may have the same careCVII for one another. 

Notes on verses 24b-25

CIV “arranged” = sugkerannumi. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kerannumi (to mix, mingle); {from kerao (to mix)}. This is to mix together, arrange, unite so that different elements work in concert, assimilate.
CV “inferior” = hustereo. 16x in NT– same verb used by the rich young man when he asks Jesus what do I still lack? (Mt 19:20); used in the parable of the prodigal son to describe him as impoverished (Lk 15:14); used when the wine ran out at the wedding at Cana (Jn 2:3); all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God (Rom 3:23); used in describing the body of Christ – that we give greater honor to the inferior member (1 Cor 12:24). From husteros (last, later). This is to fall behind, come late, be interior, suffer need, be left out., to fail to meet a goal.
CVI “dissension” = schisma. 8x in NT. From schizo (to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense). This is a split or a tear. Figuratively, it can refer to a schism, division, or dissension. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).
CVII “care” = merimnao. 19x in NT. From merimna (care, worry, anxiety; being separated from the whole); from merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment). This is to be anxious, distracted, or care for. It is being pulled in different directions – usually a negative.

26 If one member suffers,CVIII allCIX suffer together withCX it;

Notes on verse 26a

CVIII “suffers” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
CIX {untranslated} = melos. Same as “members” in v12. See note LX above.
CX “suffer together with” = sumpascho. Related to “suffers” in v26. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together) + pascho (see note CVIII above). This is to suffer together or sympathize. It is sharing pain. It can refer to persecution in particular.

if one member is honored,CXI allCXII rejoiceCXIII together with it.

Notes on verse 26b

CXI “honored” = doxazo. Related to “seem” in v22. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (see note LXXXIX above). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
CXII {untranslated} = melos. Same as “members” in v12. See note LX above.
CXIII “rejoice” = sugchairo. Related to “gifts” in v4. 7x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + chairo (see note XXIV above). This is to share joy or rejoice together.

27 Now you are the body of Christ and individuallyCXIV members of it. 28 AndCXV God has appointedCXVI in the churchCXVII

Notes on verses 27-28a

CXIV “individually” = meros. Related to “care” in v25. See note CVII above.
CXV {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v8. See note XXXIV above.
CXVI “appointed” = tithemi. Same as “arranged” in v18. See note LXXXI above.
CXVII “church” = ekklesia. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.

firstCXVIII apostles,CXIX secondCXX prophets,CXXI

Notes on verse 28b

CXVIII “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
CXIX “apostles” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
CXX “second” = deuteros. From duo (two, both). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Deuteronomy
CXXI “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “could not speak” in v2 & “manifestation” in v7 & “prophecy” in v10. See note XLVI above.

thirdCXXII teachers,CXXIII then deeds of power, then giftsCXXIV of healing, forms of assistance,CXXV forms of leadership,CXXVI various kinds of tongues. 

Notes on verse 28c

CXXII “third” = tritos. From treis (three). This is third.
CXXIII “teachers” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
CXXIV “gifts” = charisma. Same as “gifts” in v4. See note XXIV above.
CXXV “forms of assistance” = antilempsis. 1x in NT. From antilambano (to take hold of, give help, share); {from anti (opposite, instead of, against) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual)}. This is help, relief, helper.
CXXVI “forms of leadership” = kubernesis. 1x in NT. From kupernao (to guide, govern). This is steering like one who guides a ship. It can also refer to a director or leader.

29 Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Do all work powerful deeds?CXXVII 30 Do all possessCXXVIII giftsCXXIX of healing? Do all speakCXXX in tongues? Do all interpret?CXXXI 

Notes on verses 29-30

CXXVII “work powerful deeds” = dunamis. Same as “powerful deeds” in v10. See note XLIV above.
CXXVIII “possess” = echo. Same as “has” in v12. See note LVIII above.
CXXIX “gifts” = charisma. Same as “gifts” in v4. See note XXIV above.
CXXX “speak” = laleo. Same as “speaking” in v3. See note XIII above.
CXXXI “interpret” = diermeneuo. Related to “interpretation” in v10. 6x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + hermeneuo (see note LIII above). This is to explain thoroughly, interpret, or translate.

31 But striveCXXXII for the greaterCXXXIII gifts.CXXXIV

Notes on verse 30a

CXXXII “strive” = zeloo. 12x in NT. From zelos (eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other; burning anger or burning love) perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is jealous, eager for, burning with zeal, deeply committed, envy.
CXXXIII “greater” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CXXXIV “gifts” = charisma. Same as “gifts” in v4. See note XXIV above.

And I will showCXXXV you a still more excellentCXXXVI way.CXXXVII

Notes on verse 30b

CXXXV “show” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
CXXXVI “more excellent” = huperbole. 8x in NT. From huperballo (to surpass, exceed, or excel; properly, to throw beyond or run beyond; transcending, eminent, or surpassing); {from huper (over, above, beyond) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, rush, drop)}. This is excess, surpassing, exceedingly. Properly, it means to throw past so it can also mean abundance or preeminence. It is where the word “hyperbole” comes from.
CXXXVII “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

Image credit: “Edtaonisl (Ecclesiastic)” by Francis Picabia, 1913.

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