1 Kings 2:10-12; 3:3-14

1 Kings 2:10-12; 3:3-14
Ordinary B38


2:10 Then DavidA sleptB with his ancestors,C and was buriedD in the cityE of David. 

Notes on verse 2:10

A “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
B “slept” = shakab. This is to lie down, lodge. It is lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons.
C “ancestors” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
D “buried” = qabar. This is to bury or inter. It could also refer to the person who does the burying.
E “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.

11 The timeF that David reignedG over IsraelH was fortyI years;

Notes on verse 2:11a

F “time” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
G “reigned” = malak. To be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned. By implication, to take counsel. This word may be from the Hebrew word for king “melek” or vice versa.
H “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
I “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.

he reigned sevenJ years in Hebron,K and thirtyL-threeM years in Jerusalem.N 

Notes on verse 2:11b

J “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
K “Hebron” = Chebron. From cheber (company, society, enchantment, wide); from chabar (to unite, ally, attach, touch; to join in a literal or figurative sense; also, specially, using magic knots or spells to fascinate or connect). This is Hebron, meaning “seat of association” or “league.”
L “thirty” = sheloshim. From the same as shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is thirty or thirtieth.
M “three” = shalosh. Related to “thirty” in v2:11. See note L above.
N “Jerusalem” = Yerushalaim. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

12 So SolomonO satP on the throneQ of his fatherR David; and his kingdomS was firmly established.T

Notes on verse 2:12

O “Solomon” = Shelomoh. Related to “Jerusalem” in v2:11. From shalam (see note N above). This is Solomon or Shelomoh, meaning “peaceful.” It is the same word as the Hebrew word for peace – shalom.
P “sat” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
Q “throne” = kisse. From the same as kese (full moon); perhaps from kasah (to cover, conceal, overwhelm; to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret). This is throne – a seat that is covered or has a canopy. Thus, it is a seat that conveys authority.
R “father” = ab. Same as “ancestors” in v2:10. See note C above.
S “kingdom” = melek. Related to “reigned” in v2:11. Perhaps from malak (see note G above). This is king or royal.
T “established” = kun. Properly, this means in a perpendicular position. So, it is set up in a literal sense – establish, fix, fasten, prepare. In a figurative sense, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous.

3:3 Solomon lovedU the Lord,V walkingW in the statutesX of his father David;

Notes on verse 3:3a

U “loved” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
V “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
W “walking” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
X “statutes” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.

only,Y he sacrificedZ and offered incenseAA at the high places.BB 

Notes on verse 3:3b

Y “only” = raq. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit.
Z “sacrificed” = zabach. This is slaughtering an animal, generally for the purpose of sacrifice. It can mean kill or offer.
AA “offered incense” = qatar. From qetoreth (smoke, incense, the scent of the sacrifice as it burned); from the same as qitor (thick smoke, vapor). This is to make an offering, particular one of burned incense. It focuses on the fragrance made from the sacrificial fire. This is generally used to refer to worship.
BB “high places” = bamah. The root might mean being high. This is height, wave, or elevation.

4 The king wentCC to GibeonDD to sacrifice there, for that was the principalEE high place;

Notes on verse 3:4a

CC “went” = halak. Same as “walking” in v3:3. See note W above.
DD “Gibeon” = Gibon. From the same as Geba (Geba or Gibeah; hillock); from the same as gabia (cup, bowl, flower; root might mean being convex). This is Gibeon or Gibon, meaning hilly.
EE “principal” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.

Solomon used to offerFF a thousandGG burnt offeringsHH on that altar.II 

Notes on verse 3:4b

FF “offer” = alah. Related to “burnt offerings” in v3:4. See note HH below.
GG “thousand” = eleph. Perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.
HH “burnt offerings” = olah. From alah (to go up, climb, approach, bring; to be high or actively climb; can be literal or figurative). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole things is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.
II “altar” = mizbeach. Related to “sacrificed” in v3:3. From zabach (see note Z above). From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is an altar.

5 At Gibeon the Lord appearedJJ to Solomon in a dreamKK by night;LL and GodMM said, “AskNN what I should giveOO you.” 

Notes on verse 3:5

JJ “appeared” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
KK “dream” = chalom. From chalam (properly, to bind solidly and so to be plump; to be healthy or strong, to recover; figuratively, to dream). This is a dream or dreamer.
LL “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
MM “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v2:11. See note H above.
NN “ask” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
OO “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.

6 And Solomon said, “You have shownPP greatQQ and steadfast loveRR to your servantSS my father David,

Notes on verse 3:6a

PP “shown” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
QQ “great” = gadol. Same as “principal” in v3:4. See note EE above.
RR “steadfast love” = chesed. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed. When done by God to humanity, this is mercy/loving kindness. When done by humanity to God, it is piety.
SS “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.

because he walked beforeTT you in faithfulness,UU in righteousness,VV and in uprightnessWW of heartXX toward you;

Notes on verse 3:6b

TT “before” = paneh. Literally “before your face.” From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
UU “faithfulness” = emet. From aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This is firmness or stability. Figuratively, it is faithfulness, truth, or trustworthiness. This is the same root that “amen” comes from.
VV “righteousness” = tsedaqah. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity). This is righteousness, justice, righteous acts, and moral virtue.
WW “uprightness” = yesharah. 1x in OT. From yashar (straight, right, level; pleasing, whether pleasing God or pleasing people; upright or righteous); from yashar (to be straight, right, even, smooth, or agreeable; figuratively, to make something pleasant or prosperous). This is uprightness or rectitude.
XX “heart” = lebab. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.

and you have keptYY for him this great and steadfast love, and have given him a sonZZ to sit on his throne today.AAA

Notes on verse 3:6c

YY “kept” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
ZZ “son” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
AAA “today” = yom + zeh. Literally “this day.” Yom is the same as “time” in v2:11. See note F above.


And now, O Lord my God, you have made your servant kingBBB in place of my father David, although I am only a littleCCC child;DDD I do not knowEEE how to go outFFF or come in.GGG 

Notes on verse 3:7

BBB “made…king” = malak. Same as “reigned” in v2:11. See note G above.
CCC “little” = qaton. From qut (to cut off, be grieved; figuratively to detest). This is small, young, least, not important. It could be a small quantity, size, age, or importance.
DDD “child” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
EEE “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
FFF “go out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
GGG “come in” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.

8 And your servant is in the midstHHH of the peopleIII whom you have chosen,JJJ

Notes on verse 3:8a

HHH “midst” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
III “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
JJJ “chosen” = bachar. This is to choose, appoint, try, excellent.

a greatKKK people, so numerousLLL they cannot be numberedMMM or counted.NNN 

Notes on verse 3:8b

KKK “great” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
LLL “numerous” = rob. Related to “great” in v3:8. From rabab (see note KKK above). This is any kind of abundance.
MMM “numbered” = manah. To weigh out, reckon, count, number, set, tell. By implication, it is allotting or providing something officially.
NNN “counted” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.

9 Give your servant therefore an understanding mindOOO to governPPP your people, able to discernQQQ

Notes on verse 3:9a

OOO “understanding mind” = leb + shama. Literally, “listening heart.” Leb is related to “heart” in v3:6. From the same as lebab (see note XX above). It has the same meaning. Shama is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
PPP “govern” = shaphat. This is to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, or govern. It can refer to God judging or to human judges. This is pronouncing a verdict in favor or against so it implies consequences or punishment. It can also mean to litigate or govern as one with authority.
QQQ “discern” = bin. This is to discern, consider, attend to. It refers to distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand.

betweenRRR goodSSS and evil;TTT for who canUUU govern this your greatVVV people?”

Notes on verse 3:9b

RRR “between” = bayin. Related to “discern” in v3:9. From bin (see note QQQ above). This is among, between, interval.
SSS “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
TTT “evil” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
UUU “can” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
VVV “great” = kabed. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is heavy, grievous, sore. It can also be weighty in the sense of gravitas. The word for “glory” in Hebrew comes from this root (kabod).

10 ItWWW pleasedXXX theYYY LordZZZ that Solomon had asked this.AAAA 

Notes on verse 3:10

WWW “it” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XXX “pleased” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.
YYY {untranslated} = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
ZZZ “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
AAAA Literally, “the thing was pleasing in the sight of the Lord that Solomon had asked this thing.”

11 God said to him, “Because you have asked this,BBBB and have not asked for yourself long lifeCCCC or riches,DDDD or for the lifeEEEE of your enemies,FFFF

Notes on verse 3:11a

BBBB {untranslated} = dabar. Same as “it” in v3:10. See note WWW above.
CCCC “long life” = yom + rab. Literally, “many days.” Yom is the same as “time” in v2:11. See note F above. Rab is the same as “great” in v3.8. See note KKK above.
DDDD “riches” = osher. From ashar (to gain wealth, become rich, enrich; to accumulate). This is fortune or wealth.
EEEE “life” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
FFFF “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.

but have asked for yourself understandingGGGG to discernHHHH what is right,IIII 

Notes on verse 3:11b

GGGG “understanding” = bin. Same as “discern” in v3:9. See note QQQ above.
HHHH “discern” = shama. Same as “understanding” in v3:9. See note OOO above.
IIII “what is right” = mishpat. Related to “govern” in v3:9. From shaphat (see note PPP above). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.

12JJJJ I now doKKKK according to your word.LLLL IndeedMMMM I give you a wiseNNNN and discerningOOOO mind;

Notes on verse 3:12a

JJJJ {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
KKKK “do” = asah. Same as “shown” in v3:6. See note PP above.
LLLL “word” = dabar. Same as “it” in v3:10. See note WWW above.
MMMM “indeed” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v3:12. See note JJJJ above.
NNNN “wise” = chakam. From chakam (to be wise or teach wisdom; this is wisdom in thought, word, or action). This is wise, skillful, cunning, or artful.
OOOO “discerning” = bin. Same as “discern” in v3:9. See note QQQ above.

no one like you has beenPPPP beforeQQQQ you and no one like you shall ariseRRRR after you. 

Notes on verse 3:12b

PPPP “been” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v3:3. See note V above.
QQQQ “before” = paneh. Literally “before your face.” Same as “before” in v3:6. See note TT above.
RRRR “arise” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.

13 I give you also what you have not asked, both riches and honorSSSS all your life;TTTT no otherUUUU king shall compareVVVV with you. 

Notes on verse 3:13

SSSS “honor” = kabod. Related to “great” in v3:9. From kabad (see note VVV above). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.
TTTT “life” = yom. Literally “days.” Same as “time” in v2:11. See note F above.
UUUU “other” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
VVVV “compare” = hayah. Same as “been” in v3:12. See note PPPP above.

14 If you will walk in my ways,WWWW keeping my statutesXXXX and my commandments,YYYY as your father David walked, then I will lengthenZZZZ your life.”AAAAA

Notes on verse 3:14

WWWW “ways” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
XXXX “statutes” = choq. Related to “statutes” in v3:3. See note X above.
YYYY “commandments” = mitsvah. From tsavah (to charge, command, order, enjoin). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.
ZZZZ “lengthen” = arak. This is to continue, lengthen prolong, delay, or endure. It is being long or causing something to be long in a literal or figurative sense.
AAAAA “life” = yom. Literally, “days.” Same as “time” in v2:11. See note F above.

Image credit: “Solomon the Temple Builder” by Curtis and Pip Reid of Bible Pathway Adventures.

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