1 Kings 5:1-5 & 8:1-13

1 Kings 5:1-5 & 8:1-13
Narrative Lectionary


5:1 Now KingI HiramII of TyreIII sentIV his servantsV to Solomon,VI

Notes on verse 5:1a

I “King” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
II “Hiram” = Chiram. From Churam (Huram, a name); from Achiram (Ahiram; “brother of the lofty” or “brother of height”); {from ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like) + rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively)} OR from hor (noblemen) + rum (see above). This is Hiram or Chiram, a name that means “most noble,” “high born,” “brother of the lofty.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Hiram.html
III “Tyre” = Tsor. “From Phoenician “??‎ (ṣr /Ṣur/, “rock”)”” OR from the same as tsor (flint, stone, knife, edge); from the same as tsar (pebble, flint) or tsur (to confine, cramp, or bind in a literal or figurative sense; to besiege, assault, or distress). This is Tyre, the Phoenician city. Its name may mean “rock.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Tyre
IV “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
V “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
VI “Solomon” = Shelomoh. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is Solomon or Shelomoh, meaning “peaceful.” It is the same word as the Hebrew word for peace – shalom.

when he heardVII that they had anointedVIII him king in place of his father;IX for Hiram had alwaysX been a friendXI to David.XII 

Notes on verse 5:1b

VII “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
VIII “anointed” = mashach. This is smear, paint, spread, or paint. It can also be to rub with oil or, otherwise stated, to anoint. This implies a consecration. This root verb is where the word “messiah” comes from.
IX “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
X “always” = kol + yom. Literally, “all of the days.” Yom – root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XI “been a friend” = aheb + hayah. Aheb is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise. Hayah is to be or become, to happen.
XII “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”

Solomon sent word to Hiram, saying, 3 “You knowXIII that my father David couldXIV not buildXV a houseXVI

Notes on verses 5:2-3a

XIII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XIV “could” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
XV “build” = banah. This is to build, make, set up, restore, repair, or obtain children. It is to build literally or figuratively.
XVI “house” = bayit. Related to “build” in v5:3. Probably from banah (see note XV above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

for the nameXVII of the LordXVIII his GodXIX becauseXX of the warfareXXI with which his enemies surroundedXXII him,

Notes on verse 5:3b

XVII “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
XVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “been a friend” in v5:1. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note XI above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XIX “God” = Elohim.
XX “because” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XXI “warfare” = milchamah. From lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).
XXII “surrounded” = sabab. This is turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch. It is to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense.

until the Lord putXXIII them under the solesXXIV of his feet.XXV 

Notes on verse 5:3c

XXIII “put” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XXIV “soles” = kaph. From kaphaph (to bend – from a root meaning curve or bend down). This is palm of the hand or sole of the foot, footstep, grasp. Figuratively, it can also mean power.
XXV “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.

4 But now the Lord my God has given me restXXVI on every side;XXVII there is neither adversaryXXVIII nor misfortune.XXIX 

Notes on verse 5:4

XXVI “given…rest” = nuach. This is to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait. It is rest and so implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense. This is perhaps the root verb of the name “Noah.”
XXVII “on every side” = sabib. Related to “surrounded” in v5:3. From sabab (see note XXII above). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.
XXVIII “adversary” = satan. Perhaps from satan (to be an adversary, attack, accuse, resist). This is the Adversary. It could be personal, in reference to political enemies, or to refer to Satan.
XXIX “misfortune” = pega + ra’. Literally, “evil occurrence.” Pega is 2x in OT. From paga (to meet or happen, whether unintentionally or of violence; to plead, spare, reach, or intercede). This is an occurrence or impact. Ra’ is from ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.

5 SoXXX I intend to build a house for the name of the Lord my God, as the Lord saidXXXI to my father David, ‘Your son,XXXII whom I will setXXXIII on your throneXXXIV in your place, shall build the house for my name.’

Notes on verse 5:5

XXX “so” = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
XXXI “said” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
XXXII “son” = ben. Related to “build” and “house” in v5:3. From banah (see note XV above). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIII “set” = natan. Same as “put” in v5:3. See note XXIII above.
XXXIV “throne” = kisse. From the same as kese (full moon); perhaps from kasah (to cover, conceal, overwhelm; to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret). This is throne – a seat that is covered or has a canopy. Thus, it is a seat that conveys authority.

8:1 Then Solomon assembledXXXV the eldersXXXVI of IsraelXXXVII and all the headsXXXVIII of the tribes,XXXIX

Notes on verse 8:1a

XXXV “assembled” = qahal. From qahal (assembly, congregation, multitude). This is to gather, convene, assemble like a congregation.
XXXVI “elders” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
XXXVII “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “God” in v5:3. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note XIX above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XXXVIII “heads” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
XXXIX “tribes” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).

the leadersXL of the ancestralXLI houses of the Israelites,XLII before King Solomon in Jerusalem,XLIII

Notes on verse 8:1b

XL “leaders” = nasi. From nasa (to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively; to carry, take, or arise; to bring forth, advance, accept). This is one lifted up or exalter. So, it could be prince, chief, ruler, captain, king, or vapor.
XLI “ancestral” = ab. Same as “father” in v5:1. See note IX above.
XLII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “son” in v5:5. See note XXXII above. Yisrael is the same as “Israel” in v5:5. See note XXXVII above.
XLIII “Jerusalem” = Yerushalaim. Related to “Solomon” in v5:1. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (see note VI above). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

to bring upXLIV the arkXLV of the covenantXLVI of the Lord out of the cityXLVII of David, which is Zion.XLVIII 

Notes on verse 8:1c

XLIV “bring up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XLV “ark” = aron. Perhaps from arah (to gather or pluck). This is a chest, box, or coffin. It is used for the Ark of the Covenant.
XLVI “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from bara (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.
XLVII “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
XLVIII “Zion” = Tsiyyon. Related to tsyiyyun (signpost, monument); from tsavah (to charge someone, to command, order); from the same as tsiyyah (dryness drought); from a root meaning parched as desert, dry land. Zion can refer to a mountain in Jerusalem as well as another name for Jerusalem itself or the people.

2 All the peopleXLIX of Israel assembled to King Solomon at the festivalL in the monthLI Ethanim,LII which is the seventhLIII month.LIV 

Notes on verse 8:2

XLIX “people” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
L “festival” = chag. From chagag (feast, celebrating a festival, making a pilgrimage; properly, going in a circle or marching in sacred procession; implies giddiness and dancing; reeling to and fro). This is a feast, a sacrifice as part of a festival, or the gathering of the festival.
LI “month” = yerach. 13x in OT. From the same as yareach (moon). This is month.
LII “Ethanim” = Ethanim. 1x in OT. From ethan (continual, mighty, strong, ever-flowing, permanence). This is Ethanim, the seventh money, which means, “steady flowings” or “permanent brooks.”
LIII “seventh” = shebii. From sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is seventh.
LIV “month” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.

3 And all the elders of Israel came,LV and the priestsLVI carriedLVII the ark. 

Notes on verse 8:3

LV “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LVI “priests” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
LVII “carried” = nasa. Related to “leaders” in v8:1. See note XL above.

4 So they brought up the ark of the Lord, the tentLVIII of meeting,LIX and all the holyLX vesselsLXI that were in the tent; the priests and the LevitesLXII brought them up. 

Notes on verse 8:4

LVIII “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
LIX “meeting” = moed. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
LX “holy” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.
LXI “vessels” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
LXII “Levites” = Leviyyi. From Levi (Levi; perhaps meaning “attached”; Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants); perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levite or levitical.

5 King Solomon and all the congregationLXIII of Israel, who had assembledLXIV beforeLXV him,

Notes on verse 8:5a

LXIII “congregation” = edah. Related to “meeting” in v8:4. From yaad (see note LIX above) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
LXIV “assembled” = yaad. Related to “meeting” in v8:4 & “congregation” in v8:5. See note LIX above.
LXV “before” = paneh. Same as “because” in v5:3. See note XX above.

were with him before the ark, sacrificingLXVI so many sheepLXVII and oxenLXVIII that they could not be countedLXIX or numbered.LXX, LXXI 

Notes on verse 8:5b

LXVI “sacrificing” = zabach. This is slaughtering an animal, generally for the purpose of sacrifice. It can mean kill or offer.
LXVII “sheep” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
LXVIII “oxen” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
LXIX “counted” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.
LXX “numbered” = manah. To weigh out, reckon, count, number, set, tell. By implication, it is allotting or providing something officially.
LXXI {untranslated} = rob. From rabab (to be or become much or many, multiply). This is any kind of abundance.

Then the priests broughtLXXII the ark of the covenant of the Lord to its place,LXXIII in the inner sanctuaryLXXIV of the house, in the most holy place,LXXV underneath the wingsLXXVI of the cherubim.LXXVII 

Notes on verse 8:6

LXXII “brought” = bo. Same as “came” in v8:3. See note LV above.
LXXIII “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
LXXIV “inner sanctuary” = debir. Related to “said” in v5:5. 16x in OT. Perhaps from dabar (see note XXXI above). May mean a place of speaking like an oracle. It is the inner sanctuary of Solomon’s Temple.
LXXV “most holy place” = qodesh + qodesh. Literally, “holy of holies.” Same as “holy” in v8:4. See note LX above.
LXXVI “wings” = kanaph. This is wing, edge, corner, extremity. It can also be a flap or fold of a garment or the pinnacle of a building.
LXXVII “cherubim” = kerub. Perhaps related to Akkadian (“to bless” or “one who blesses”). This is a cherub – perhaps a class of angels. Seehttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D7%9B%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%91#Hebrew

7 For the cherubim spread outLXXVIII their wings over the place of the ark, so that the cherubim made a coveringLXXIX aboveLXXX the ark and its poles.LXXXI 

Notes on verse 8:7

LXXVIII “spread out” = paras. This is to spread or stretch out, extend, break up, chop to pieces, disperse, display.
LXXIX “made a covering” = sakak. This is to cover or overshadow. It could also be to hedge or fence it. Figuratively, this could be to defend, protect, or join together.
LXXX “above” = maal. Related to “bring up” in v8:1. From alah (see note XLIV above). This is the upper part, forward, high above, upwards, greater, heaven, or exceedingly.
LXXXI “poles” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.

8 The poles were so longLXXXII that the endsLXXXIII of the poles were seenLXXXIV from the holy place in front ofLXXXV the inner sanctuary; but they could not be seen from outside;LXXXVI they areLXXXVII there to this day.LXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 8:8

LXXXII “were so long” = arak. This is to continue, lengthen prolong, delay, or endure. It is being long or causing something to be long in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIII “ends” = rosh. Same as “heads” in v8:1. See note XXXVIII above.
LXXXIV “seen” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
LXXXV “in front of” = paneh. Same as “because” in v5:3. See note XX above.
LXXXVI “outside” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.
LXXXVII “are” = hayah. Same as “been a friend” in v5:1. See note XI above.
LXXXVIII “day” = yom. Same as “always” in v5:1. See note X above.

9 There was nothing in the ark exceptLXXXIX the twoXC tabletsXCI of stoneXCII

Notes on verse 8:9a

LXXXIX “except” = raq. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit.
XC “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
XCI “tablets” = luach. Root likely means glistening, so this would refer to a tablet as being polished in some sense, whether it’s made of stone, wood, or metal.
XCII “stone” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”

that MosesXCIII had placedXCIV there at Horeb,XCV where the Lord madeXCVI a covenant with the Israelites, when they came outXCVII of the landXCVIII of Egypt.XCIX 

Notes on verse 8:9b

XCIII “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XCIV “placed” = yanach. Related to “given…rest” in v5:4. Perhaps from nuach (see note XXVI above). This is to lay down, let alone, pacify, cast down, or deposit. It can also mean to allow something or someone to stay.
XCV “Horeb” = Choreb. 17x in OT. From chareb (to devastate, desolate, or be waste). Horeb means waste or desolate.
XCVI “made” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
XCVII “came out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVIII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XCIX “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Related to “Tyre” in v5:1. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (see note III above). This is Egypt.

10 AndC when the priests came out of the holy place, a cloudCI filledCII the house of the Lord,  11 so that the priests could not standCIII to ministerCIV because of the cloud; for the gloryCV of the Lord filled the house of the Lord.

Notes on verses 8:10-11

C {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “been a friend” in v5:1. See note XI above.
CI “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.
CII “filled” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
CIII “stand” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
CIV “minister” = sharat. This is ministering, serving, or waiting on. It can refer to one offering service as a worshipper or one serving as a servant.
CV “glory” = kabod. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.

12 Then Solomon said,

“The Lord has said that he would dwellCVI in thick darkness.CVII
13 I have builtCVIII you an exaltedCIX house,
    a placeCX for you to dwell inCXI forever.”CXII

Notes on verses 8:12-13

CVI “dwell” = shakan. This is to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently. It can mean abide or continue. “Mishkan,” taken from this verb, is the Hebrew word for the Tabernacle (as a place where God abided).
CVII “thick darkness” = araphel. 15x in OT. From araph (to droop, drip, drop). This is a cloud or deep darkness. It is gloom or gloomy as the sky being lowered.
CVIII “built” = banah + banah. Same as “build” in v5:3. See note XV above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CIX “exalted” = zebul. 5x in OT. From zabal (to dwell, inclose, reside). This is height, dwelling, elevation, place.
CX “place” = makon. 17x in OT. From kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is a foundation, fixture, basis. It can also be a place or abode as somewhere that is established.
CXI “dwell in” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
CXII “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).

Image credit: “The Ark of the Covenant” by Jeremy Park of Bible Scenes.

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