Exodus 16

Exodus 16


The wholeI congregationII of the IsraelitesIII set outIV from Elim;V

Notes on verse 1a

I “whole” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
II “congregation” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
III “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
IV “set out” = nasa. This is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.
V “Elim” = Elim. 6x in OT. From ayil (terebinth, oak); {from the same as ulam (porch, hall); from the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power)} OR from alal (to stick out, protrude). This is Elim, a place whose name means “terebinths,” “palm-trees,” “large trees,” “grove of oaks,” or “protruder.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Elim.html

and Israel cameVI to the wildernessVII of Sin,VIII which is betweenIX Elim and Sinai,X

Notes on verse 1b

VI “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
VII “wilderness” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
VIII “Sin” = Sin. 6x in OT. Perhaps from asam (to gather, store) OR from seneh (thorn bush) OR related to Aramaic siyn (a god called Sin) OR perhaps Hebrew siyn (related to mud or clay). This is Sin, the name of a city. It may mean, “clay” or “bush.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Sinai.html
IX “between” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
X “Sinai” = Sinay. Related to “Sin” in v1. Probably from the same as Sin (see note VIII above). This is Sinai – a place whose name may mean “bush of the Lord” or “muddy.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Sinai.html

on the fifteenthXI dayXII of the secondXIII monthXIV after they had departedXV from the landXVI of Egypt.XVII 

Notes on verse 1c

XI “fifteenth” = chamesh + asar. Chamesh is five of fifth. Asar is from the same as eser (ten). This is ten, -teen, or -teenth.
XII “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XIII “second” = sheni. From shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is double, again, another, second.
XIV “month” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.
XV “departed” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XVI “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XVII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

The whole congregation of the Israelites complainedXVIII against MosesXIX and AaronXX in the wilderness. 

Notes on verse 2

XVIII “complained” = lun. This is to stop – usually to lodge for the night. It can imply dwelling, enduring, or staying permanently. Figuratively, it can mean being obstinate, particularly with one’s words – to complain.
XIX “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XX “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron

The Israelites said to them, “If onlyXXI we had diedXXII by the handXXIII of the LordXXIV in the land of Egypt,

Notes on verse 3a

XXI “if only” = mi + natan. Mi is who, what, which, whoever, o that. Natan is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XXII “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XXIII “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XXIV “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.

when we satXXV by the fleshpotsXXVI and ateXXVII our fillXXVIII of bread;XXIX for you have brought us outXXX into this wilderness to killXXXI this whole assemblyXXXII with hunger.”XXXIII

Notes on verse 3b

XXV “sat” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XXVI “fleshpots” = siyr + basar. Siyr is from a root that may mean to boil. So it is a pot or pan. It can also be a thorn because it grows quickly or a hook. Basar is from basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
XXVII “ate” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVIII “fill” = soba. 8x in OT. From saba (to be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense; to have plenty of). This is abundance, fullness, satisfaction. Properly, it is being sated – having enough food. Figuratively, it is fullness of joy.
XXIX “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
XXX “brought…out” = yatsa. Same as “departed” in v1. See note XV above.
XXXI “kill” = mut. Same as “died” in v3. See note XXII above.
XXXII “assembly” = qahal. This is an assembly, congregation, or multitude.
XXXIII “hunger” = raab. From raeb (to be hungry). This is hunger, death, or hunger from famine.

4 Then the Lord said to Moses, “XXXIVI am going to rain bread from heavenXXXV for you, and each day the peopleXXXVI shall go outXXXVII

Notes on verse 4a

XXXIV {untranslated} = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
XXXV “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
XXXVI “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XXXVII “go out” = yatsa. Same as “departed” in v1. See note XV above.

and gatherXXXVIII enoughXXXIX for that day. In that way I will testXL them, whether they will followXLI my instructionXLII or not. 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXVIII “gather” = laqat. This is to pick up, glean, gather.
XXXIX “enough” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v1. From dabar (see note VII above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XL “test” = nasah. This is to test, prove, try, tempt, or attempt.
XLI “follow” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XLII “instruction” = torah. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach). This is law, instruction, teaching, or statute. It can also refer to the first five books of the Bible – the Torah.

5 XLIIIOn the sixthXLIV day, when they prepareXLV what they bring in,XLVI it will beXLVII twiceXLVIII as much as they gather on other days.” 

So Moses and Aaron said to allXLIX the Israelites, “In the eveningL you shall knowLI that it was the Lord who brought you out of the land of Egypt, 

Notes on verses 5-6

XLIII {untranslated} = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v3. See note XXIV above.
XLIV “sixth” = shishshi. From shesh (six; figuratively, a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand). This is sixth.
XLV “prepare” = kun. Properly, this means in a perpendicular position. So, it is set up in a literal sense – establish, fix, fasten, prepare. In a figurative sense, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous.
XLVI “bring in” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XLVII “be” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XLIII above.
XLVIII “twice” = mishneh. Related to “second” in v1. From shanah (see note XIII above). This is double, second, next, duplicate. It can also be second in rank or age.
XLIX “all” = kol. Same as “whole” in v1. See note I above.
L “evening” = ereb. This is dusk or evening.
LI “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.

and in the morningLII you shall seeLIII the gloryLIV of the Lord, because he has heardLV your complainingLVI against the Lord. For what are we, that you complain against us?” 

Notes on verse 7

LII “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
LIII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
LIV “glory” = kabod. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.
LV “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
LVI “complaining” = tlunah. Related to “complained” in v2. 9x in OT. From lun (see note XVIII above). This is murmuring, stubbornness, grumbling. It can also mean exalted.

And Moses said, “When the Lord givesLVII you meatLVIII to eat in the evening and your fillLIX of bread in the morning, because the Lord has heard the complaining that you utterLX against him—what are we? Your complaining is not against us but against the Lord.”

Then Moses said to Aaron, “Say to the whole congregation of the Israelites, ‘Draw nearLXI toLXII the Lord, for he has heard your complaining.’” 10 AndLXIII as Aaron spokeLXIV to the whole congregation of the Israelites,

Notes on verses 8-10a

LVII “gives” = natan. Same as “if only” in v3. See note XXI above.
LVIII “meat” = basar. Same as “fleshpots” in v3. See note XXVI above.
LIX “fill” = saba. Related to “fill” in v3. See note XXVIII above.
LX “utter” = tlunah. Same as “complaining” in v7. See note LVI above.
LXI “draw near” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
LXII “to” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XLIII above.
LXIV “spoke” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v1 & “enough” in v4. See note VII above.

they lookedLXV toward the wilderness, andLXVI the glory of the Lord appearedLXVII in the cloud.LXVIII 

11 The Lord spoke to Moses and said, 12 “I have heard the complaining of the Israelites; say to them, ‘AtLXIX twilightLXX you shall eat meat, and in the morning you shall have your fill of bread; then you shall know that I am the Lord your God.’”LXXI

Notes on verses 10b-12

LXV “looked” = panah. Related to “to” in v9. See note LXII above.
LXVI {untranslated} = hinneh. Related to {untranslated} in v4. From hen (see note XXXIV above). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
LXVII “appeared” = raah. Same as “see” in v7. See note LIII above.
LXVIII “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.
LXIX “at” = bayin. Same as “between” in v1. See note IX above.
LXX “twilight” = ereb. Same as “evening” in v6. See note L above.
LXXI “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v1. See note III above.

13 LXXIIIn the evening quailsLXXIII came upLXXIV and coveredLXXV the camp;LXXVI

Notes on verse 13a

LXXII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XLIII above.
LXXIII “quails” = selav. 4x in OT– all in reference to the quails in the wilderness wanderings. Perhaps related to Arabic (“to be fat”) OR related to shalah (to be quiet, safe, tranquil; can imply success or happiness; could also mean to deceive or be negligent). This is a quail as a slow-moving bird. See https://www.biblicalcyclopedia.com/Q/quail.html
LXXIV “came up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXV “covered” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
LXXVI “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.

and in the morning there was a layerLXXVII of dewLXXVIII aroundLXXIX the camp. 14 When the layer of dew lifted,LXXX thereLXXXI on the surfaceLXXXII of the wilderness was a fineLXXXIII flaky substance,LXXXIV as fine as frostLXXXV on the ground.LXXXVI 

Notes on verses 13b-14

LXXVII “layer” = shekabah. 9x in OT. From shakab (to lie down, lodge; lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons). This is an act of lying so it could be a layer, the act of copulation, or an emission.
LXXVIII “dew” = tal. Perhaps from talal (to cover, roof, strew). This is dew or mist as something that covers plants.
LXXIX “around” = sabib. From sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.
LXXX “lifted” = alah. Same as “came up” in v13. See note LXXIV above.
LXXXI “there” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v10. See note LXVI above.
LXXXII “surface” = paneh. Same as “to” in v9. See note LXII above.
LXXXIII “fine” = daq. 15x in OT. From daqaq (to crush, crumble, make dust, be very small). This is thin, crushed, small, very little.
LXXXIV “flaky substance” = chaspas. 1x in OT. This is something flaky like a scale or round. Root may mean to peel.
LXXXV “frost” = kphor. 12x in OT. From kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel). This is a cover, which could imply a basin or goblet or a frost that covers the ground.
LXXXVI “ground” = erets. Same as “land” in v1. See note XVI above.

15 When the Israelites saw it, they said to oneLXXXVII another,LXXXVIII “WhatLXXXIX is it?” For they did not know what it was.

Notes on verse 15a

LXXXVII “one” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
LXXXVIII “another” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
LXXXIX “what” = man. 14x in OT. From mah (what, how, how long, why – a question or exclamation). This is manna, literally a whatzit.

Moses said to them, “It is the bread that the Lord has given you to eat.XC 16 This is whatXCI the Lord has commanded:XCII ‘Gather as much of it asXCIII eachXCIV of you needs,XCV

Notes on verses 15b-16a

XC “eat” = oklah. Literally, “for food.” Related to “ate” in v3. 18x in OT. From okel (food, prey, meat, eating); from akal (see note XXVII above). This is food, eating, fuel, meat, consume.
XCI “what” = dabar. Same as “enough” in v4. See note XXXIX above.
XCII “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
XCIII “as” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
XCIV “each” = ish. Same as “one” in v15. See note LXXXVII above.
XCV “needs” = okel. Related to “ate” in v3 & “eat” in v15. See note XC above.

an omerXCVI to a personXCVII according to the numberXCVIII of persons,XCIX allC providingCI for those in their own tents.’”CII 

Notes on verse 16b

XCVI “omer” = omer. 14x in OT. From amar (to bind sheaves, heap; discipline as piling on blows). This is a shear or an omer – a dry measuring unit.
XCVII “person” = gulgoleth. 12x in OT. From galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is skull or head. It is a census or poll that counts people by head. It is also where “Golgotha” takes its name from.
XCVIII “number” = mispar. From the same as sepher (writing itself or something that is written like a document, book, letter, evidence, bill, scroll, or register); from saphar (to tally or record something; to enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare). This is a number, whether definite or symbolic – could be innumerable, few, abundance. It can also be a tally or account – or a narration.
XCIX “persons” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
C “all” = ish. Same as “one” in v15. See note LXXXVII above.
CI “providing” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CII “tents” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.

17 The Israelites didCIII so,CIV some gathering more,CV some less.CVI 18 But when they measuredCVII it with an omer, those who gathered muchCVIII had nothing over,CIX and those who gathered littleCX had no shortage;CXI they gathered as much as each of them needed. 

Notes on verses 17-18

CIII “did” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
CIV “so” = ken. Related to “prepare” in v5. Perhaps from kun (see note XLV above). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CV “more” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
CVI “less” = maat. This is diminished, decreased, reduced, insignificant. It is a broad sense of being small or becoming small. Figuratively, this can mean ineffective.
CVII “measured” = madad. This is to measure, stretch, be extended, continue.
CVIII “gathered much” = rabah. Same as “more” in v147. See note CV above.
CIX “had…over” = adaph. 9x in OT. This is to have excess, be left over, remain.
CX “gathered little” = maat. Same as “less” in v17. See note CVI above.
CXI “had…shortage” = chaser. This is to lack, abate, have need of, bereave, fail.

19 And Moses said to them, “Let no one leave any of it overCXII until morning.” 20 But they did not listenCXIII to Moses; someCXIV left partCXV of it until morning, and it bredCXVI wormsCXVII and became foul.CXVIII And Moses was angryCXIX with them. 

Notes on verses 19-20

CXII “leave…over” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.
CXIII “listen” = shama. Same as “heard” in v7. See note LV above.
CXIV “some” = enosh. Related to “one” in v15. See note LXXXVII above.
CXV “left part” = yathar. Same as “leave…over” in v19. See note CXII above.
CXVI “bred” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
CXVII “worms” = tola. This is a worm or maggot, perhaps a crimson-grub of species coccus ilicis. It is used in the manufacture of red dye. So, this word could be crimson, purple, or something dyed in those colors. It could also refer to an oppressor.
CXVIII “became foul” = baash. 18x in OT. This is to stink or be foul. Figuratively, it can refer to offensive behavior – morally odious or loathsome.
CXIX “was angry” = qatsaph. This is angry or provoked to wrath. It suggests a bursting into anger.

21 Morning by morning they gathered it, as much as each needed; but when the sunCXX grew hot,CXXI it melted.CXXII 22 CXXIIIOn the sixth day they gathered twice as much food,CXXIV twoCXXV omers apiece.CXXVI

Notes on verses 21-22a

CXX “sun” = shemesh. This is sun or toward the east. Its root may mean being brilliant. Figuratively, this could be a ray or an arch.
CXXI “grew hot” = chamam. 13x in OT. This is to be warm, heat. It is to be hot in a literal or figurative sense, to mate.
CXXII “melted” = masas. This is to melt, discourage, faint. It can be to deteriorate from a sickness or weaken because of sleepiness or an emotional response.
CXXIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XLIII above.
CXXIV “food” = lechem. Same as “bread” in v3. See note XXIX above.
CXXV “two” = shenayim. Related to “second” in v1 & “twice” In v5. From sheni (see note XIII above). This is two, both, second, couple.
CXXVI “apiece” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.

When all the leadersCXXVII of the congregation came and toldCXXVIII Moses, 23 he said to them, “This is what the Lord has commanded:CXXIX ‘TomorrowCXXX is a day of solemn rest,CXXXI a holyCXXXII sabbathCXXXIII to the Lord;

Notes on verses 22b-23a

CXXVII “leaders” = nasi. From nasa (to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively; to carry, take, or arise; to bring forth, advance, accept). This is one lifted up or exalter. So, it could be prince, chief, ruler, captain, king, or vapor.
CXXVIII “told” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
CXXIX “commanded” = dabar. Same as “spoke” in v10. See note LXIV above.
CXXX “tomorrow” = machar. Perhaps from achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is tomorrow or later. It is some kind of deferred time, so it could also mean indefinitely or refer to the time to come.
CXXXI “solemn rest” = shabbaton. 11x in OT. From shabat (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is a holiday, rest, a day to take a sabbath from work.
CXXXII “holy” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.
CXXXIII “sabbath” = shabbat. Related to “solemn rest” in v23. From shabat (see note CXXX above). This is sabbath, literally meaning rest or intermission.

bakeCXXXIV what you want to bake and boilCXXXV what you want to boil, and all that is left overCXXXVI put asideCXXXVII to be keptCXXXVIII until morning.’” 

Notes on verse 23b

CXXXIV “bake” = aphah. This is one who cooks or bakes – particularly one who cooks meat.
CXXXV “boil” = bashal. This is to boil up, roast, or bake. It can also mean ripen, produce, or seethe.
CXXXVI “is left over” = adaph. Same as “had…over” in v18. See note CIX above.
CXXXVII “put aside” = yanach. Perhaps from the same as nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is to lay down, let alone, pacify, cast down, or deposit. It can also mean to allow something or someone to stay.
CXXXVIII “be kept” = mishmeret. From mishmar (jail, guard, watch, guard post); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is a guard or watch or guard post. It is used figuratively for obligation, duty, or observance, including religious observance.

24 So they put it aside until morning, as Moses commanded them; and it did not become foul, and there were no wormsCXXXIX in it. 25 Moses said, “Eat it today,CXL for today is a sabbath to the Lord; today you will not findCXLI it in the field.CXLII 26 SixCXLIII days you shall gather it; but on the seventhCXLIV day, which is a sabbath, there will be none.”

Notes on verses 24-26

CXXXIX “worms” = rimmah. 7x in OT – 1x in Exodus, 5x in Job, 1x in Isaiah. Perhaps from ramam (to rise in a literal or figurative sense; to get up or exalt). This is worm or maggot.
CXL “today” = yom. Same as “day” in v1. See note XII above.
CXLI “find” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
CXLII “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
CXLIII “six” = shesh. Related to “sixth” in v5. See note XLIV above.
CXLIV “seventh” = shebi. From sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is seventh.

27 CXLVOn the seventh day some of the people went out to gather, and they found none. 28 The Lord said to Moses, “How long will you refuse to keepCXLVI my commandmentsCXLVII and instructions? 29 See! The Lord has given you the sabbath, thereforeCXLVIII on the sixth day he gives you food for two days; each of you stayCXLIX where you are;

Notes on verses 27-29a

CXLV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XLIII above.
CXLVI “keep” = shamar. Related to “be kept” in v23. See note CXXXVIII above.
CXLVII “commandments” = mitsvah. Related to “commanded” in v16. From tsavah (see note XCII above). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.
CXLVIII “therefore” = ken. Same as “so” in v17. See note CIV above.
CXLIX “stay” = yashab. Same as “sat” in v3. See note XXV above.

do not leaveCL, CLI your placeCLII on the seventh day.” 30 So the people restedCLIII on the seventh day.

Notes on verses 29b-30

CL “leave” = yatsa. Same as “departed” in v1. See note XV above.
CLI {untranslated} = ish. Same as “one” in v15. See note LXXXVII above.
CLII “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CLIII “rested” = shabat. Related to “solemn rest” and “sabbath” in v23. See note CXXXI above.

31 The houseCLIV of Israel calledCLV it manna; it was like corianderCLVI seed,CLVII white,CLVIII and the tasteCLIX of it was like wafersCLX made with honey.CLXI 

Notes on verse 31

CLIV “house” = bayit. Related to “Israelites” in v1. Probably from banah (see note III above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
CLV “called” = qarashem. Qara is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth. Shem may be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
CLVI “coriander” = gad. 2x in OT– both in reference to manna. Perhaps from gadad (to cut, gather, assemble, crowd; also, to gash as pushing in, to gather military troops). This is coriander, whose seed has furrows.
CLVII “seed” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
CLVIII “white” = laban. From laban (to be white or make a brick). This is white or something that is white.
CLIX “taste” = taam. 13x in OT. From taam (to taste, perceive). This is taste, perception, discernment, decree, understanding, sanity.
CLX “wafers” = tsappichit. 1x in OT. From the same as tsappachat (jar or cruse). This is a wafer or thin cake.
CLXI “honey” = debash. Root may mean being gummy. This is honey or honeycomb because it is so sticky. It can also refer to syrup.

32 Moses said, “This isCLXII what the Lord has commanded: ‘LetCLXIII an omer of it be kept throughout your generations,CLXIV in order that they may see the food with which I fedCLXV you in the wilderness, when I brought you out of the land of Egypt.’” 

Notes on verse 32

CLXII {untranslated} = dabar. Same as “enough” in v4. See note XXXIX above.
CLXIII {untranslated} = melo. From male (fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate; fill in a literal or figurative sense). This is fullness in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXIV “generations” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.
CLXV “fed” = akal. Same as “ate” in v3. See note XXVII above.

33 And Moses said to Aaron, “TakeCLXVI aCLXVII jar,CLXVIII and putCLXIX an omerCLXX of manna in it, and placeCLXXI it beforeCLXXII the Lord, to be kept throughout your generations.” 

Notes on verse 33

CLXVI “take” = laqach. Same as “providing” in v16. See note CI above.
CLXVII “a” = echad. Same as “apiece” in v22. See note CXXVI above.
CLXVIII “jar” = tsintsenet. 1x in OT. Perhaps from the same as tsinnah (large shield, buckler) OR the same as tsen (root may mean to be prickly; thorn, barb, cactus hedge). This is a pot or vase.
CLXIX “put” = natan. Same as “if only” in v3. See note XXI above.
CLXX {untranslated} = melo. Same as {untranslated} in v32. See note CLXIII above.
CLXXI “place” = yanach. Same as “put aside” in v23. See note CXXXVII above.
CLXXII “before” = paneh. Same as “to” in v9. See note LXII above.

34 As the Lord commanded Moses, so Aaron placed it beforeCLXXIII the covenant,CLXXIV for safekeeping.CLXXV 35 The Israelites ate manna fortyCLXXVI years, until they came to a habitableCLXXVII land;

Notes on verses 34-35a

CLXXIII “before” = paneh. Same as “to” in v9. See note LXII above.
CLXXIV “covenant” = edut. Related to “congregation” in v1. From ed (see note II above). This is testimony, ordinance, decree, warning, or witness.
CLXXV “safekeeping” = mishmeret. Same as “be kept” in v23. See note CXXXVIII above.
CLXXVI “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
CLXXVII “habitable” = yashab. Same as “sat” in v3. See note XXV above.

they ate manna, until they came to the borderCLXXVIII of the land of Canaan.CLXXIX 36 An omer is a tenthCLXXX of an ephah.CLXXXI

Notes on verses 35b-36

CLXXVIII “border” = qatseh. From qatsah (to cut off, cut short; figuratively, to destroy). This is end, brink, border, edge, frontier. It can refer to that which is within set boundaries.
CLXXIX “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaan
CLXXX “tenth” = asiri. Related to “fifteenth” in v1. From the same as eser (see note XI above). This is a tenth.
CLXXXI “ephah” = ephah. Perhaps from Egptian ipet (“a dry measure of volume equivalent to…about 19.2 litres”). This is an ephah – specifically, a measure for flour or grain. It can also be used ore generally to refer to a measure. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/jpt#Egyptian

Image credit: “Guatla (Coturnix coturnix)” by Ximo Galarza, 2018.

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