1 Samuel 27:1-3, 8-12

1 Samuel 27:1-3, 8-12
A Women’s Lectionary – Proper 18


DavidA said in his heart,B “I shall certainly perishC

Notes on verse 1a

A “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
B “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
C “perish” = saphah. This is to capture, sweep away, scrape, remove, heap up, scatter, ruin, or perish.

oneD dayE by the handF of Saul;G there is nothing betterH for me

Notes on verse 1b

D “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
E “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
F “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
G “Saul” = Shaul. From shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”
H “better” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.

than to escapeI to the landJ of the Philistines;K

Notes on verse 1c

I “escape” = malat + malat. This is to be smooth, which implies to escape as slipping away from. It can also be release, rescue, deliver, or preserve. It can be used specifically to meaning giving birth or making sparks. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
J “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
K “Philistines” = Pelishti. From Pelesheth (Philistia); from palash (to mourn, wallow, maybe roll in). This is Philistines. Their name may mean “griever” or “burrower” or “weakener.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Philistine.html.

then Saul will despairL of seekingM me anyN longer within the bordersO of Israel,P and I shall escape out of his hand.” 

Notes on verse 1d

L “despair” = yaash. 6x in OT. This is to be desperate, be of no use, be hopeless.
M “seeking” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.
N “any” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
O “borders” = gebul. Perhaps from gabal (to border, twist like rope). This is boundary, limit, coast, space. Properly, it is a line that is twisted, which implies a boundary and, by extension, the boundaries of a territory or other enclosed space.
P “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

So David set outQ and went over,R he and the sixS hundredT menU who were with him,

Notes on verse 2a

Q “set out” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
R “went over” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
S “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
T “hundred” = meah. This is hundred or some number times one hundred (i.e. hundredfold or the base of two hundred, three hundred, etc.).
U “men” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.

to KingV AchishW sonX of MaochY of Gath.Z 

Notes on verse 2b

V “King” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
W “Achish” = Akish. This is Achish or Akish. It may mean “hew was afraid” or “majestic” or “angry” or “gift of God.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Achish.html
X “son” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
Y “Maoch” = Maok. 1x in OT. From maak (to pierce, squeeze, stick, handle). This is Maoch, meaning “oppressed.”
Z “Gath” = Gath. From the same as gath (wine press); {perhaps from nagan (to strike a stringed instrument, to pluck or play it)}. This is Gath, a Philistine city whose name means “wine press.” It shares a root with “Gethsemane.”

David stayedAA with Achish at Gath, he and his troops,BB every man with his household,CC and David with his twoDD wives,EE

Notes on verse 3a

AA “stayed” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
BB “troops” = ish. Same as “men” in v2. See note U above.
CC “household” = bayit. Related to “son” in v2. From banah (see note X above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
DD “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
EE “wives” = ishshah. Related to “men” in v2. From ish (see note U above). This is woman, wife, or female.

AhinoamFF of JezreelGG and AbigailHH

Notes on verse 3b

FF “Ahinoam” = Achinoam. 7x in OT. From ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like) + noam (pleasantness, beauty, favor, agreeableness, delight, splendor, or grace); {from naem (to be pleasant, beautiful, sweet, or agreeable in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Achinoam or Ahinoam, meaning “my brother is delight” or “brother of pleasantness” or “kindred to sweetness” or “brother of grace” or “a delightful ally.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Ahinoam.html
GG “Jezreel” = Yizreelith. Related to “Israel” in v1. 5x in OT. From Yizreeli (person from Jezreel); from Yizreel (Jezreel or Yizreel. It means “God sows” or “God will sow”); {from zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield) + el (see note P above)}. This is a female from Jezreel.
HH “Abigail” = Abigayil. 17x in OT. From ab (father, ancestor, grandfather; father in a literal or figurative sense) + gil (circle, rejoicing, or age); {from gil (properly, twirling around because of a strong feeling – whether of rejoicing or from fear; to rejoice, be glad or joyful, to cry)}. This is Abigail, meaning “my father is joy” or “the father is joyful” or “father of exultation” or “source of joy.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Abigail.html

of Carmel,II Nabal’sJJ widow.KK 

Notes on verse 3c

II “Carmel” = Karmelith. 2x in OT. From Karmeli (person from Carmel); from Karmel (Carmel, a city whose name means “fruitful plentiful field” or “plantation” or “orchard” or “garden”); from the same as kerem (vineyard, garden, vines, or a vintage). This is a woman from Carmel. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Carmel.html
JJ “Nabal’s” = Nabal. From nabal (to be foolish, senseless, fall away, faint, wither, to be wicked, disgrace). This is Nabal, meaning “dolt.”
KK “widow” = ishshah. Same as “wives” in v3. See note EE above.

Now David and his menLL went upMM and made raidsNN on the Geshurites,OO the Girzites,PP and the Amalekites,QQ

Notes on verse 8a

LL “men” = enosh. Related to “men” in v2 & “wives” in v3. See note U above.
MM “went up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
NN “made raids” = pashat. This is to raid or invade. Figuratively, it means to strip or plunder.
OO “Geshurites” = Geshuri. 6x in OT. From Geshur (Geshur or Geshurite; “bridge”). This is Geshurite, a person from Geshur.
PP“Girzites” = Girzi. 1x in OT. From Girzi (Girzite); from Gerizim (Gerizim; “cut up,” which is to say “rocky”); from garaz (to cut). This is Girzites or Gezrites – people from Gezer.
QQ “Amalekites” = Amaleqi. 12x in OT. From Amaleq (Amalek or Amalekites; the person and their descendants); perhaps from amal (to work – hard labor) OR from am (people or nation; a tribe, troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals); {from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} + laqaq (to lap, lick) OR from am (see above) + malaq (to wring, nip; to remove a bird’s head). This is Amalekite, perhaps meaning “people that wring,” “people that lap,” “nippers,” or “lickers.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Amalekite.html & https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Amalek.html

for these were the landed settlementsRR from TelamSS on the way toTT ShurUU and on to the land of Egypt.VV 

Notes on verse 8b

RR “settlements” = yashab. Same as “stayed” in v3. See note AA above.
SS “Telam” = asher + olam. Literally, “that are from of old.” Olam is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
TT “on the way to” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
UU “Shur” = Shur. 6x in OT. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant) OR from shur (to excite, to rise up). This is Sur, a desert place in eastern Egypt. It may mean “wall,” “bull,” or “fortification.”  See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Shur.html 
VV “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

David struckWW the land, leaving neither man nor womanXX alive,YY but took awayZZ the sheep,AAA the oxen,BBB the donkeys,CCC

Notes on verse 9a

WW “struck” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
XX “woman” = ishshah. Same as “wives” in v3. See note EE above.
YY “leaving…alive” = chayah. This is to live or keep alive in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be revive, nourish, or save.
ZZ “took away” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
AAA “sheep” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
BBB “oxen” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
CCC “donkeys” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.

the camels,DDD and the clothingEEE and came backFFF to Achish. 

Notes on verse 9b

DDD “camels” = gamal. From gamal (how one deals with someone whether positively or negatively – so to reward, requite; to wean or the work that goes into something ripening). This is a camel as an animal of labor or one that bears burdens. The English word “camel” is from a Semitic source, perhaps Hebrew or others.
EEE “clothing” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.
FFF “came back” = shub + bo. Shub is to turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.” Bo is the same as “on the way to” in v8. See note TT above.

10 When Achish asked, “Against whom have you made a raid today?”GGG

David would say, “Against the NegebHHH of Judah,”III or “Against the Negeb of the Jerahmeelites,”JJJ or “Against the Negeb of the Kenites.”KKK 

Notes on verse 10

GGG “today” = yom. Same as “day” in v1. See note E above.
HHH “Negeb” = Negeb. Root may mean to be parched. The Negeb is the south country – sometimes used to refer to Egypt. This is a land that suffers from a lot of drought.
III “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
JJJ “Jerahmeelites” = Yerachmeeli. Related to “Israel” in v1 & “Jezreel” in v3. 2x in OT. From Yerachmeel (Jerahmeel, Yerachmeel; may mean “may God have compassion” or “God will be compassionate” or “he will obtain mercy of God”); {from racham (to love, have compassion, have mercy); {from racham (compassion, tender love, womb, compassion; the womb as that which cherishes the fetus); from the same as rechem (womb)} + el (see note P above)}. This is Jerahmeelite, a person from Jerahmeel. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Jerahmeel.html
KKK “Kenites” = Qeni. 13x in OT. From Qayin (Cain, the name or Kenite – the people or their territory; meaning “spear,” “smith,” “acquisition,” or “political leader.”); from the same as qayin (spear); from qun (to chant a lament, to play a musical note). This is Kenite. It may mean “nestling,” “people of the spear,” or “senatorial.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Cain.html & https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Kenite.html

11 David left neither man nor woman alive to be brought backLLL to Gath, thinking, “MMMThey might tellNNN about us and say, ‘David has doneOOO so and so.’”

Notes on verse 11a

LLL “brought back” = bo. Same as “on the way to” in v8. See note TT above.
MMM {untranslated} = pen. Perhaps from panah (to turn, face, appear). This is lest, if, or.
NNN “tell” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
OOO “done” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.

Such was his practicePPP allQQQ the timeRRR he livedSSS in the countryTTT of the Philistines. 

Notes on verse 11b

PPP “practice” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
QQQ “all” = kol. Same as “any” in v1. See note N above.
RRR “time” = yom. Literally, “day.” Same as “day” in v1. See note E above.
SSS “lived” = yashab. Same as “stayed” in v3. See note AA above.
TTT “country” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.

12 Achish trustedUUU David, thinking, “He has made himself utterly abhorrentVVV to his peopleWWW Israel; therefore he shall alwaysXXX beYYY my servant.”ZZZ

Notes on verse 12

UUU “trusted” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.
VVV “utterly abhorrent” = baash + baash. 18x in OT. This is to stink or be foul. Figuratively, it can refer to offensive behavior – morally odious or loathsome. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
WWW “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XXX “always” = olam. Same as “Telam” in v8. See note SS above.
YYY “be” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
ZZZ “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.

Image credit: “King Saul Gains and Loses his Crown” by Jeff Anderson, Siku, and Richard Thomas of Edge Group – Lion Hudson.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply