2 Kings 22:1-20 & 23:1-3

2 Kings 22:1-20 & 23:1-3
NL 212


22:1 JosiahI was eightII yearsIII oldIV

Notes on verse 22:1a

I “Josiah” = Yoshiyyah. From Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)} + asheyah (buttress, pillar) OR ashuyah (foundation); {related to asheyah (see above)} + Yah (see above) OR from yaash (to be desperate, be of no use, be hopeless) + Yah (see above) OR from ashah (to support) + Yah (see above) OR from ishshah (woman, wife, female); {from ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail)} + Yah (see above) OR from ishsheh (offering by fire, burnt offering; can be any sacrifice); {from eshshah (a fire); from esh (fire, burning, flaming, hot; fire in a literal or figurative sense)} + Yah (see above). This is Josiah, meaning “the Lord supports;” “despair of the Lord,” “support of the Lord,” “woman of the Lord,” “fire offering of the Lord,” “given of the Lord,” “the Lord heals,” “the one who the Lord heals,” or “fire made by the Lord.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Josiah.html
II “eight” = shemoneh. Perhaps from shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat); from shaman (to grow fat, shine, be oily). This is eight or eighth. It can refer to abundance as being more than 7, the number of sacred fullness.
III “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
IV “old” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.

when he began to reign;V he reigned thirtyVI-oneVII years in Jerusalem.VIII

Notes on verse 22:1b

V “began to reign” = malak. To be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned. By implication, to take counsel. This word may be from the Hebrew word for king “melek” or vice versa.
VI “thirty” = sheloshim. From the same as shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is thirty or thirtieth.
VII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
VIII “Jerusalem” = Yerushalaim. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

His mother’sIX nameX was JedidahXI

Notes on verse 22:1c

IX “mother’s” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
X “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
XI “Jedidah” = Yedidah. 1x in OT. From the same as yadid (lovely, amiable, beloved); perhaps from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle, love token; root may mean to boil). This is Jedidah, meaning “beloved.”

daughterXII of AdaiahXIII of Bozkath.XIV 

Notes on verse 22:1d

XII “daughter” = bat. Related to “old” in v22:1. From ben (see note IV above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
XIII “Adaiah” = Adayah. Related to “Josiah” in v22:1. 9x in OT. From adah (adorning oneself with ornaments, decorate) + Yah (see note I above) OR from adah (to advance or continue; to take away or remove; adorning oneself with ornaments) + Yah (see above) OR yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) + Yah (see above) OR from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve) + Yah (see above). This is Adaiah, meaning “the Lord has ornamented himself” or “the Lord has adorned” or “ornament of the Lord” or “the Lord forever” or “congregation of the Lord.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Adaiah.html
XIV “Bozkath” = Botsqath. 2x in OT. From the same as batseq (to swell, blister). This is Bozkath, meaning “a swell of ground.”

He didXV what was rightXVI in the sightXVII of the LordXVIII 

Notes on verse 22:2a

XV “did” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XVI “right” = yashar. From yashar (to be straight, right, even, smooth, or agreeable; figuratively, to make something pleasant or prosperous). This is straight, right, level. Also, it is pleasing, whether pleasing God or pleasing other people. So, it is upright or righteous.
XVII “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
XVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Josiah” and “Adaiah” in v22:1. See note I above.

and walkedXIX in allXX the wayXXI

Notes on verse 22:2b

XIX “walked” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XX “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XXI “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.

of his fatherXXII David;XXIII he did not turn asideXXIV to the rightXXV or to the left.XXVI

Notes on verse 22:2c

XXII “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIII “David” = David. Related to “Jedidah” in v22:1. From the same as dod (see note XI above). The root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
XXIV “turn aside” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
XXV “right” = yamin. May be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This can mean right hand, right side, or south. Since most people are right-handed, the metaphorical usage of this word presumes that the right hand is stronger and more agile. Thus, it is the instrument of power and action.
XXVI “left” = semol. Perhaps from the same as simlah (mantle, clothes, wrapper); perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is left, left side, or north as the part that is dark.

XXVIIIn the eighteenthXXVIII year of KingXXIX Josiah, the king sentXXX ShaphanXXXI

Notes on verse 22:3a

XXVII {untranslated} = hayah. Related to “Josiah” and “Adaiah” in v22:1 & “Lord” in v22:2. See note I above.
XXVIII “eighteenth” = shemoneh + asar. Shemoneh is the same as “eight” in v22:1. See note II above. Asar is from the same as eser (ten). This is -teen or -teenth.
XXIX “King” = melek. Related to “began to reign” in v22:1. From malak (see note V above). This is king or royal.
XXX “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XXXI “Shaphan” = Shaphan. From saphan (treasure); perhaps from the same as saphan (to cover, reserve, hide, roof, treasure). This is a coney or hyrax – an animals that hides. It is also the name Shaphan.

sonXXXII of AzaliahXXXIII son of Meshullam,XXXIV

Notes on verse 22:3b

XXXII “son” = ben. Same as “old” in v22:1. See note IV above.
XXXIII “Azaliah” = Atsalyahu. Related to “Josiah” and “Adaiah” in v22:1 & “Lord” in v22:2 & {untranslated} in v22:3. 2x in OT. From atsal (to reserve, refuse, join, separate, keep) + Yah (see note I above). This is Azaliah, meaning “the Lord has reserved” or “prolonged” or “the Lord has set aside” or “reserved of the Lord.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Azaliah.html
XXXIV “Meshullam” = Meshullam. Related to “Jerusalem” in v22:1. From shalam (see note VIII above). This is Meshullam, meaning “allied” or “recompensed” or “peacemaker” or “rewarded” or “repaying” or “unifier.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Meshullam.html

the secretary,XXXV to the houseXXXVI of the Lord, saying,XXXVII 

Notes on verse 22:3c

XXXV “secretary” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.
XXXVI “house” = bayit. Related to “old” and “daughter” in v22:1. Probably from banah (see note IV above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XXXVII “saying” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.

“Go upXXXVIII to the highXXXIX priestXL HilkiahXLI

Notes on verse 22:4a

XXXVIII “go up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIX “high” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
XL “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
XLI “Hilkiah” = Chilqiyyahu. Related to “Josiah” and “Adaiah” in v22:1 & “Lord” in v22:2 & {untranslated} and “Azaliah” in v22:3. From cheleq (portion, catch, division, reward, share, smooth tongue, flattery, associate); {from chalaq (to be smooth in a figurative sense; can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute; figuratively, it can also mean to flatter)} + Yah (see note I above). This is Hilkiah, meaning “my portion is the Lord” or “portion of the Lord.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Hilkiah.html

and have him add up the entire sumXLII of the silverXLIII that has been broughtXLIV into the house of the Lord that the keepersXLV of the thresholdXLVI have collectedXLVII from the people;XLVIII 

Notes on verse 22:4b

XLII “add up the entire sum” = tamam. This is to finish or accomplish. It is to make perfect, demonstrate that you are upright, consume or cease. It is to complete in a literal or figurative sense, positive or negative.
XLIII “silver” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
XLIV “brought” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XLV “keepers” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
XLVI “threshold” = saph. From saphaph (to guard an entry, be a doorkeeper, snatch). This is a basin or cup. It can also be a door post or threshold.
XLVII “collected” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
XLVIII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

let it be givenXLIX into the handL of the workersLI who have the oversightLII of the house of the Lord;

Notes on verse 22:5a

XLIX “given” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
L “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LI “workers” = asah + melakah. Literally, “those doing the work.” Asah is the same as “did” in v22:2. See note XV above. Melakah is from the same as malak (messenger, an angel, or a deputy; human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God; also supernatural messengers i.e. angels). Properly, this is a deputyship or some kind of work. It can also be the product that comes from labor.
LII “have the oversight” = paqad. This is to attend to or visit – can be used for a friendly or violent encounter. So, it can be to oversee, care for, avenge, or charge.

let them give it to the workers who are at the house of the Lord repairingLIII the house, that is, to the carpenters,LIV to the builders,LV to the masons;LVI

Notes on verses 22:5b-6a

LIII “repairing” = chazaq + bedeq. Chazaq is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden. Bedeq is 10x in OT. Perahps from badaq (to mend, repair, restore). This is a breach, damage, leak, caulker.
LIV “carpenters” = charash. From charash (to scratch, which implies etching or plowing; to manufacture regardless of materials used; figuratively, to devise or conceal; a sense of secrecy; hence, being silent or left alone; speechless). This is an artisan, regardless of medium. So, for example, it could be an engrave, a blacksmith, a mason, and so on.
LV “builders” = banah. Related to “old” and “daughter” in v22:1 & “house” in v22:3. See note IV above.
LVI “masons” = gadar. 10x in OT. To build a wall or wall off, mason, repair, hedge, enclose. This is to wall in or wall around.

and let them use it to buyLVII timberLVIII and quarriedLIX stoneLX to repair the house. 

Notes on verse 22:6b

LVII “buy” = qanah. This is to acquire, create, purchase, own. Its root may mean to smith or to produce.
LVIII “timber” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.
LIX “quarried” = machtseb, 3x in OT. From chatsab (to hew or cut material like wood or stone; to dig, quarry, split, or engrave). This is a hewing or a quarry.
LX “stone” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”

ButLXI no accounting shall be askedLXII from them for the silver that is deliveredLXIII into their hand, for they dealLXIV honestly.”LXV

Notes on verse 22:7

LXI “but” = ak. Related to aken (surely, truly, nevertheless); from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is a positive statement – surely, also, certainly, alone, only.
LXII “accounting shall be asked” = chashab. This is properly to braid or interpenetrate. Literally it is to create or to wear. Figuratively, it can mean plotting – generally in a negative sense. More broadly, this can also mean think, consider, or make account of.
LXIII “delivered” = natan. Same as “given” in v22:5. See note XLIX above.
LXIV “deal” = asah. Same as “did” in v22:2. See note XV above.
LXV “honestly” = emunah. From aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. This word shares a root with the word “Amen.”

The high priest Hilkiah said to Shaphan the secretary, “I have foundLXVI the bookLXVII of the lawLXVIII in the house of the Lord.” When Hilkiah gave the book to Shaphan, he readLXIX it. 

Notes on verse 22:8

LXVI “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
LXVII “book” = sepher. Related to “secretary” in v22:3. See note XXXV above.
LXVIII “law” = torah. Related to “Jerusalem” in v22:1. From yarah (see note VIII above). This is law, instruction, teaching, or statute. It can also refer to the first five books of the Bible – the Torah.
LXIX “read” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.

Then Shaphan the secretary cameLXX to the king and reportedLXXI to the king,LXXII “Your servantsLXXIII have melted downLXXIV the silver that was found in the house and have delivered it into the hand of the workers who have oversight of the house of the Lord.” 

Notes on verse 22:9

LXX “came” = bo. Same as “brought” in v22:4. See note XLIV above.
LXXI “reported” = shubdabar. Literally, “bringing back…word.” Shub is to turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.” Dabar is from dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LXXII {untranslated} = amar. Same as “saying” in v22:3. See note XXXVII above.
LXXIII “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
LXXIV “melted down” = nathak. This is to pour out, melt, flow out, liquify. It can be to pour in a literal or figurative sense.

10 Shaphan the secretary informedLXXV the king,LXXVI “The priest Hilkiah has given me a book.” Shaphan then read it aloud toLXXVII the king.

Notes on verse 22:10

LXXV “informed” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
LXXVI {untranslated} = amar. Same as “saying” in v22:3. See note XXXVII above.
LXXVII “to” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

11 LXXVIIIWhen the king heardLXXIX the wordsLXXX of the book of the law, he toreLXXXI his clothes.LXXXII 

Notes on verse 22:11

LXXVIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v22:3. See note XXVII above.
LXXIX “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
LXXX “words” = dabar. Same as “reported” in v22:9. See note LXXI above.
LXXXI “tore” = qara. This is to tear or cut out in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to revile or to apply eye make up – as though they are made to look larger.
LXXXII “clothes” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.

12 Then the king commandedLXXXIII the priest Hilkiah, AhikamLXXXIV son of Shaphan, AchborLXXXV son of Micaiah,LXXXVI Shaphan the secretary, and the king’s servant Asaiah,LXXXVII saying, 

Notes on verse 22:12

LXXXIII “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
LXXXIV “Ahikam” = Achiqam. From ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like) + qum (to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is Ahikam, meaning “my brother has arisen” or “brother of rising,” which is to say “high,” or “brother of rising up.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Ahikam.html 
LXXXV “Achbor” = Akbor. 7x in OT. From the same as akbar (a mouse); probably from the same as akkabish (a spider; root may mean to entangle). This is Achbor, a name meaning “mouse.”
LXXXVI “Micaiah” = Mikayah. Related to “Josiah” and “Adaiah” in v22:1 & “Lord” in v22:2 & {untranslated} and “Azaliah” in v22:3 & “Hilkiah” in v4. 4x in OT. From mi (who, what, which, whoever) + ki (like) + Yah (see note I above). This is Micaiah, which means “who is like the Lord?”
LXXXVII “Asaiah” = Asayah. Related to “did” in v22:2 & to “Josiah” and “Adaiah” in v22:1 & “Lord” in v22:2 & {untranslated} and “Azaliah” in v22:3 & “Hilkiah” in v4 & “Micaiah” in v22:12. 8x in OT. From asah (see note XV above) + Yah (see note I above). This is Asaiah, meaning “the Lord has made.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Asaiah.html

13 “Go,LXXXVIII inquireLXXXIX of the Lord forXC me, forXCI the people, and forXCII all Judah,XCIII concerning the words of this book that has been found,

Notes on verse 22:13a

LXXXVIII “go” = halak. Same as “walked” in v22:2. See note XIX above.
LXXXIX “inquire” = darash. This is seek, ask, inquire, care for. Generally it means following in pursuit or following as part of a search, which implies seeking or asking. Also used specially to mean worship.
XC “for” = baad. Related to “Adaiah” in v22:1. Perhaps from ad (up to, while); from adah (see note XIII above). This is up to, behind, over, among.
XCI “for” = baad. Same as “for” in v22:13. See note XC above.
XCII “for” = baad. Same as “for” in v22:13. See note XC above.
XCIII “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”

for greatXCIV is the wrathXCV of the Lord that is kindledXCVI against us, because our ancestorsXCVII did not obeyXCVIII the words of this book to do according to all that is writtenXCIX concerning us.”

Notes on verse 22:13b

XCIV “great” = gadol. Same as “high” in v22:4. See note XXXIX above.
XCV “wrath” = chemah. From yacham (to be hot, mate; figuratively, to conceive). This is heat – figuratively it can be anger or fury. It can also refer to poison or venom as they can cause fever.
XCVI “kindled” = yatsath. This is to burn or be desolate.
XCVII “ancestors” = ab. Same as “father” in v22:2. See note XXII above.
XCVIII “obey” = shama. Same as “heard” in v22:11. See note LXXIX above.
XCIX “written” = kathab. This is to inscribe, write, record, or decree.

14 So the priest Hilkiah, Ahikam, Achbor, Shaphan, and Asaiah went to the prophetC HuldahCI the wifeCII of ShallumCIII

Notes on verse 22:14a

C “prophet” = nebiah. 6x in OT– of Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, Noadiah, and Isaiah’s wife. From nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired). This is to prophesy. Older usages referred to raving, religious ecstasy that sometimes went along with music. In later usage, it was religious teachings that sometimes held prediction. Prophesying is speaking the truth of what is and where it will lead. This word is specifically used for female prophet.
CI “Huldah” = Chuldah. 2x in OT. From choled (weasel, mole); from cheled (root may mean to glide quickly; life or a lifetime as a short length of time; an age, duration, or the world – all as transient). This is Huldah, meaning “earthling” or “mole” or “life” or “world” or “lifetime” or “rat.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Huldah.html
CII “wife” = ishshah. Related to “Josiah” in v22:1. See note I above.
CIII “Shallum” = Shallum. Related to “Jerusalem” in v22:1 & “Meshullam” in v22:3. From shalam (see note VIII above). This is Shallum, meaning “recompense” or “retribution.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Shallum.html

son of TikvahCIV son of Harhas,CV keeper of the wardrobe;CVI

Notes on verse 22:14b

CIV “Tikvah” = Tiqvah. 2x in OT. From tiqvah (literally, a cord used to attach things; figuratively, expectation, hope, what you long for); from qavah (to wait, look, gather together, bind together, collect; figuratively, to expect). This is Tikvah, meaning “hope.”
CV “Harhas” = Charchas. 1x in OT. Perhaps from the same as cheres (itch, the sun; may come from a word that means to scrape). This is Harhas, perhaps meaning “shining.”
CVI “wardrobe” = beged. Same as “clothes” in v22:11. See note LXXXII above.

she residedCVII in Jerusalem in the Second Quarter,CVIII where they consultedCIX her. 

Notes on verse 22:14c

CVII “resided” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
CVIII “Second Quarter” = mishneh. From shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is double, second, next, duplicate. It can also be second in rank or age.
CIX “consulted” = dabar. Related to “reported” in v22:9. See note LXXI above.

15 She declaredCX to them, “Thus says the Lord, the GodCXI of Israel:CXII TellCXIII the manCXIV who sent you to me: 

Notes on verse 22:15

CX “declared” = amar. Same as “saying” in v22:3. See note XXXVII above.
CXI “God” = Elohim.
CXII “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “God” in v22:15. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (see note CXI above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
CXIII “tell” = amar. Same as “saying” in v22:3. See note XXXVII above.
CXIV “man” = ish. Related to “Josiah” in v22:1 & “wife” in v22:14. See note I above.

16 ‘Thus says the Lord: I will indeedCXV bring disasterCXVI on this placeCXVII and on its inhabitantsCXVIII—all the words of the book that the king of Judah has read. 

Notes on verse 22:16

CXV “indeed” = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
CXVI “disaster” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
CXVII “place” = maqom. Related to “Ahikam” in v22:12. From qum (see note LXXXIV above). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CXVIII “inhabitants” = yashab. Same as “resided” in v22:14. See note CVII above.

17 BecauseCXIX they have abandonedCXX me and have made offeringsCXXI

Notes on verse 22:17a

CXIX “because” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
CXX “abandoned” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.
CXXI “made offerings” = qatar. Perhaps from qetoreth (smoke, incense, the scent of the sacrifice as it burned); from the same as qitor (thick smoke, vapor). This is to make an offering, particular one of burned incense. It focuses on the fragrance made from the sacrificial fire. This is generally used to refer to worship.

to otherCXXII gods,CXXIII so that they have provoked me to angerCXXIV with all the workCXXV of their hands, therefore my wrath will be kindled against this place, and it will not be quenched.’CXXVI 

Notes on verse 22:17b

CXXII “other” = acher. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is following, next, strange, other.
CXXIII “gods” = elohim. Same as “God” in v22:15. See note CXI above.
CXXIV “provoked…to anger” = kaas. This is to provoke, be angry, grieve, trouble.
CXXV “work” = maaseh. Related to “did” in v22:2 & “Asaiah” in v22:12. From asah (see note XV above). This is a work – any action whether positive or negative. It can also be a transaction, construction, activity, property, or something that is produced.
CXXVI “be quenched” = kabah. This is to provoke, be angry, grieve, trouble.

18 But as to the king of Judah who sent you to inquire of the Lord, thus shall you say to him: ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: Regarding the words that you have heard, 19 because your heartCXXVII was penitentCXXVIII and you humbledCXXIX yourself beforeCXXX the Lord,

Notes on verses 22:18-19a

CXXVII “heart” = lebab. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
CXXVIII “was penitent” = rakak. 8x in OT. This is to be tender, soft, faint, weak. It is to soften or mollify.
CXXIX “humbled” = kana. This is to be humble, subdue, humiliate, conquer. Properly, it means to bend the knee.
CXXX “before” = paneh. Same as “to” in v22:10. See note LXXVII above.

when you heard how I spokeCXXXI against this place and against its inhabitants, that they should becomeCXXXII a desolationCXXXIII and a curse,CXXXIV

Notes on verse 22:19b

CXXXI “spoke” = dabar. Same as “consulted” in v22:14. See note CIX above.
CXXXII “become” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v22:3. See note XXVII above.
CXXXIII “desolation” = shammah. From shamem (to be appalled, astonished; to stun or devastate, be destitute). This is desolation, horror, dismay, waste, astonishment.
CXXXIV “curse” = qelalah. From qalal (to be little, insignificant, swift; to bring down in esteem, create contempt, curse). This is cursing or vilification.

and because you have torn your clothes and weptCXXXV beforeCXXXVI me, I alsoCXXXVII have heard you, saysCXXXVIII the Lord. 

Notes on verse 22:19c

CXXXV “wept” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.
CXXXVI “before” = paneh. Same as “to” in v22:10. See note LXXVII above.
CXXXVII “also” = gam. This is also, moreover, again.
CXXXVIII “says” = neum. From na’am (to speak a prophecy; properly, to whisper, which implies saying an oracle). This is an utterance or speaking an oracle.

20 Therefore,CXXXIX, CXL I will gatherCXLI you to your ancestors, and you shall be gathered to your graveCXLII in peace;CXLIII

Notes on verse 22:20a

CXXXIX “therefore” = ken. Related to “but” in v22:7. Perhaps from kun (see note LXI above). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CXL {untranslated} = hen. Same as “indeed” in v22:16. See note CXV above.
CXLI “gather” = asaph. Same as “collected” in v22:4. See note XLVII above.
CXLII “grave” = qeber. From qabar (to bury). This is a place where one is buried such as a grave or tomb.
CXLIII “peace” = shalom. Related to “Jerusalem” in v22:1 & “Meshullam” in v22:3 & “Shallum” in v22:14. From shalam (see note VIII above). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).

your eyesCXLIV shall not seeCXLV all the disaster that I will bring on this place.’” They took the messageCXLVI backCXLVII to the king.

Notes on verse 22:20b

CXLIV “eyes” = ayin. Same as “sight” in v22:2. See note XVII above.
CXLV “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
CXLI “message” = dabar. Same as “reported” in v22:9. See note LXXI above.
CXLVII “took…back” = shub. Same as “reported” in v22:9. See note LXXI above.

23:1 Then the king directedCXLVIII that all the eldersCXLIX of Judah and Jerusalem should be gathered to him. The king went up to the house of the Lord, and with him went all the peopleCL of Judah, all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the priests, the prophets,CLI

Notes on verses 23:1-2a

CXLVIII “directed” = shalach. Same as “sent” in v22:3. See note XXX above.
CXLIX “elders” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
CL “people” = ish. Same as “man” in v22:15. See note CXIV above.
CLI “prophets” = nabi. Related to “prophet” in v22:14. See note C above.

and all the people,CLII both smallCLIII and great; he read in their hearingCLIV all the words of the book of the covenantCLV that had been found in the house of the Lord. 

Notes on verse 23:2b

CLII “people” = am. Same as “people” in v22:4. See note XLVIII above.
CLIII “small” = qatan. From quwt (grieved, cut off, to detest). This is least, small, young, little one. It is literally smaller whether in amount or size. Figuratively it is smaller in the sense of younger or less important.
CLIV “hearing” = ozen. This is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.
CLV “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from barar (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.

The king stoodCLVI by the pillarCLVII and madeCLVIII a covenant beforeCLIX the Lord, to followCLX the Lord,

Notes on verse 23:3a

CLVI “stood” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
CLVII “pillar” = ammud. Related to “stood” in v23:3. From amad (see note CLVI above). This is a pillar, stand, or platform.
CLVIII “made” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
CLIX “before” = paneh. Same as “to” in v22:10. See note LXXVII above.
CLX “follow” = halak + achar. Halak is the same as “walked” in v22:2. See note XIX above. Achar is related to “other” in v22:17. From achar (see note CXXII above). This is after or the last part, following.

keeping his commandments,CLXI his decrees,CLXII and his statutes,CLXIII

Notes on verse 23:3b

CLXI “commandments” = mitsvah. Related to “commanded” in v22:12. From tsavah (see note LXXXIII above). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.
CLXII “decrees” = eduth. Related to “Adaiah” in v22:1. From ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (see note XIII above). This is testimony, ordinance, decree, warning, or witness.
CLXIII “statutes” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.

with all his heartCLXIV and all his soul,CLXV to performCLXVI the words of this covenant that were written in this book. All the peopleCLXVII joinedCLXVIII in the covenant.

Notes on verse 23:3c

CLXIV “heart” = leb. Related to “heart” in v22:19. From the same as lebab (see note CXXVII above). This is inner self, mind, will, courageous, friendly, the center.
CLXV “soul” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
CLXVI “perform” = qum. Related to “Ahikam” in v22:12 & “place” in v22:16. See note LXXXIV above.
CLXVII “people” = am. Same as “people” in v22:4. See note XLVIII above.
CLXVIII “joined” = amad. Same as “stood” in v23:3. See note CLVI above.

Image credit: “Mary Magdalene” by Georges Lacombe, 1896.

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