2 Samuel 5:1-5, 9-10

2 Samuel 5:1-5, 9-10
Ordinary B32


Then all the tribesA of IsraelB cameC to DavidD at Hebron,E

Notes on verse 1a

A “tribes” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.
B “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
C “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
D “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
E “Hebron” = Chebron. From cheber (company, society, enchantment, wide); from chabar (to unite, ally, attach, touch; to join in a literal or figurative sense; also, specially, using magic knots or spells to fascinate or connect). This is Hebron, meaning “seat of association” or “league.”

and said, “Look,F we are your boneG and flesh.H 

Notes on verse 1b

F “look” = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
G “bone” = etsem. From atsam (vast, numerous, strong; to close one’s eyes, to make powerful; to break bones). This is self, life, strength, bone, or substance.
H “flesh” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.

For some time,I while SaulJ wasK kingL over us, it was you who led outM Israel and brought it in.N

Notes on verse 2a

I “for some time” = gam + ethmol + gam + shilshom. Literally “also in time past, also before that time.” Gam is also, likewise, again. Ethmol is 8x in OT. Probably from et (with, among, beside, including, toward, near); from anah (to meet, happen, approach)} + mul (front, opposite, toward); {from mul (to cut short, circumcise, blunt, destroy)}. OR from et (with, by, from, near); {probably from anah (to meet, happen, encounter)} + mul (see above). This is formerly, before, yesterday, time. Shilshom is from shalash (to make triplicate, do a third time); from the same as shalosh (three, fork, three times). This is three days ago, before, yesterday in the past.
J “Saul” = Shaul. From shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”
K “was” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
L “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
M “led out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
N “brought…in” = bo. Same as “came” in v1. See note C above.

The LordO said to you: It is you who shall be shepherdP of my peopleQ Israel, you who shall be rulerR over Israel.” 

Notes on verse 2b

O “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “was” in v2. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note K above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
P “be shepherd” = ra’ah. This is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher.
Q “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
R “ruler” = nagid. From nagad (this is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain). This is a commander or leader as the one who stands at the front, whether in a military, religious, or civic setting. It can also mean honorable or noble in an abstract sense.

So all the eldersS of Israel came to the king at Hebron; and King David madeT a covenantU with them at Hebron beforeV the Lord, and they anointedW David king over Israel. 

Notes on verse 3

S “elders” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
T “made” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
U “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from bara (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.
V “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
W “anointed” = mashach. This is smear, paint, spread, or paint. It can also be to rub with oil or, otherwise stated, to anoint. This implies a consecration. This root verb is where the word “messiah” comes from.

David was thirtyX years oldY when he began to reign,Z and he reigned fortyAA years. 

Notes on verse 4

X “thirty” = sheloshim. Perhaps related to “for some time” in v2. From the same as shalosh (see note I above). This is thirty or thirtieth.
Y “old” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
Z “reign” = malak. Related to “king” in v2. See note L above.
AA “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.

At Hebron he reigned over JudahBB sevenCC years and sixDD months;EE and at JerusalemFF he reigned over all Israel and Judah thirty-threeGG years.

Notes on verse 5

BB “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
CC “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
DD “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
EE “months” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.
FF “Jerusalem” = Yerushalaim. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
GG “three” = shalosh. Perhaps related to “for some time” in v2 & “thirty” in v4. See note I above.

9 David occupiedHH the stronghold,II and namedJJ it the cityKK of David.

Notes on verse 9a

HH “occupied” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
II “stronghold” = matsud. From matsod (bulwark, siege works, net, snare); from tsud (to hunt, to lie in wait in order to catch an animal; used figuratively for capturing people). This is a castle, fortress, or stronghold. Also, a snare, net, or prey. It can abstractly mean capture.
JJ “named” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
KK “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.

David builtLL the city all aroundMM from the MilloNN inward.OO 

Notes on verse 9b

LL “built” = banah. Related to “old” in v4. See note Y above.
MM “all around” = sabib. From sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.
NN “Millo” = Millo. 10x in OT. From male (fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate; fill in a literal or figurative sense). This is Millo, a city near Shechem or a stronghold in Jerusalem. It means “filled,” “terrace,” “elevation,” “rampart,” filling,” “setting up,” or “storage facility.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Millo.html
OO “inward” = bayit. Related to “old” in v4 & “built” in v9. Perhaps related to banah (see note Y above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

10 And David became greater and greater,PP for the Lord, the GodQQ of hosts,RR was with him.

Notes on verse 10

PP “became greater and greater” = halakhalak + gadol. Halak is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc. Gadol is from gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
QQ “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v1. See note B above.
RR “hosts” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.

Image credit: “King Saul Gains and Loses his Crown” by Edge Group – Lion Hudson, Illustrators Jeff Anderson, Siku, and Richard Thomas, 2015.

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