Acts 1

Acts 1


In theI firstII book,III

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
II “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
III “book” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

Theophilus,IV I wroteV about allVI

Notes on verse 1b

IV “Theophilus” = Theophilus. 2x in NT. From Theos (God, god) + philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is Theophilus, meaning “friend of God.”
V “wrote” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
VI “all” = pas. This is all or every.

that JesusVII beganVIII to doIX and teachX 

Notes on verse 1c

VII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
VIII “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
IX “do” = poieo. Same as “wrote” in v1. See note V above.
X “teach” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.

until the dayXI when he was taken upXII to heaven, after giving instructionsXIII

Notes on verse 2a

XI “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XII “taken up” = analambano. 13x in NT. From ana (up, again, anew) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take up, lead away, raise. It is often used of the ascension.
XIII “giving instructions” = entellomai. 15x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {related to telos (end, event, purpose, consummation)}. This is to charge or command – focuses on the final objective. So, this is looking at the final outcome of the command – how things will end up.

through the HolyXIV SpiritXV to the apostlesXVI whom he had chosen.XVII 

Notes on verse 2b

XIV “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XV “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XVI “apostles” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
XVII “chosen” = eklego. Related to “book” in v1. From ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note III above). This is to choose, select.

After his sufferingXVIII he presentedXIX himself aliveXX to them

Notes on verse 3a

XVIII “suffering” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
XIX “presented” = paristemi. Related to “apostles” in v2. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note XVI above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
XX “alive” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

by manyXXI convincing proofs,XXII appearingXXIII to them

Notes on verse 3b

XXI “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XXII “convincing proofs” = tekmerion. 1x in NT. Perhaps from tekmar (mark, sign, goal, or limit). This is a sure sign or convincing proof.
XXIII “appearing” = optanomai. 1x in NT. Related to horao (to see, experience, to stare at; discernment; paying attention what is perceived and learning or discerning; can also imply spiritual insight). This is to appear or be seen. It is looking with eyes open wide, as in wonder.

during fortyXXIV days and speakingXXV about the kingdomXXVI of God.XXVII 

Notes on verse 3c

XXIV “forty” = tesserakonta. From tessares (four). This is forty, which sometimes symbolizes a complete period of time or an indefinite long time.
XXV “speaking” = lego. Related to “book” in v1 & “chosen” in v2. See note III above.
XXVI “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
XXVII “God” = Theos. Related to “Theophilus” in v1. See note IV above.

While staying withXXVIII them, he orderedXXIX them not to leaveXXX JerusalemXXXI

Notes on verse 4a

XXVIII “staying with” = sunalizo. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + halizo (to throng). This is to gather or accumulate together.
XXIX “ordered” = paraggello. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (lead, bring, drive, carry, guide, go)}. This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
XXX “leave” = chorizo. 13x in NT. From choris (apart from, separate from); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). Properly, this is to separate or create space. It can be literal as divide, depart, or withdraw. It can be figurative in reference to divorce.
XXXI “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

but to waitXXXII there for the promiseXXXIII of the Father.XXXIV “This,” he said, “is what you have heardXXXV from me; 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXII “wait” = perimeno. 1x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, encompassing) + meno (to stay, wait, endure). This is to wait steadily, regardless of what difficulty arises.
XXXIII “promise” = epaggelia. Related to “ordered” in v4. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (see note XXIX above). This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
XXXIV “Father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XXXV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

for JohnXXXVI, XXXVII baptizedXXXVIII with water,XXXIX but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.”

Notes on verse 5

XXXVI “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v1. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note VII above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XXXVII {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XXXVIII “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
XXXIX “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.

SoXL when they had come together,XLI they askedXLII him,XLIII

Notes on verse 6a

XL {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XLI “come together” = sunerchomai. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
XLII “asked” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
XLIII {untranslated} = lego. Same as “speaking” in v3. See note XXV above.

“Lord,XLIV is this the timeXLV when you will restoreXLVI the kingdom to Israel?”XLVII 

Notes on verse 6b

XLIV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XLV “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
XLVI “restore” = apokathistemi. Related to “apostles” in v2 & “presented” in v3. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kathistemi (to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (see note XVI above)}. This is to restore something to its original place or status. It can be give back, set up again or, figuratively, to restore full freedom or liberty. This word can also be used of healing – restoring full health.
XLVII “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

He replied, “It isXLVIII not for you to knowXLIX the times or periodsL

Notes on verse 7a

XLVIII “is” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XLIX “know” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
L “periods” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.

that the Father has setLI by his ownLII authority.LIII 

Notes on verse 7b

LI “set” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
LII “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
LIII “authority” = exousia. Related to “is” in v7. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note XLVIII above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.

But you will receiveLIV powerLV when the Holy Spirit has comeLVI upon you, and you will be my witnessesLVII in Jerusalem,

Notes on verse 8a

LIV “receive” = lambano. Related to “taken up” in v2. See note XII above.
LV “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
LVI “come” = eperchomai. Related to “come together” in v6. 10x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + erchomai (see note XLI above). This is to come upon, arrive, occur. It focuses on the impact or influence beyond the initial coming.
LVII “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.

in all JudeaLVIII and Samaria,LIX and to the endsLX of the earth.”LXI 

Notes on verse 8b

LVIII “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
LIX “Samaria” = Samareia. 11x in NT. From Hebrew Shomron (capital of the northern kingdom of Israel); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaria, meaning watch station.
LX “ends” = eschatos. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (to have, possess, hold). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
LXI “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

When he had said this, as they were watching,LXII he was lifted up,LXIII and a cloudLXIV tookLXV him out of their sight.LXVI 

Notes on verse 9

LXII “watching” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
LXIII “lifted up” = epairo. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself.
LXIV “cloud” = nephele. From nephos (cloud; figurative for a great crowd or multitude). This is cloud or cloudiness.
LXV “took” = hupolambano. Related to “taken up” in v2 & “receive” in v8. 5x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + lambano (see note XII above). This is to take up or bear up, to receive. It can also mean to welcome or entertain. Further, it can mean to take up discussion of a topic, to suppose, or imagine.
LXVI “sight” = ophthalmos. Related to “appearing” in v3. From optanomai (see note XXIII above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.

10 While he was goingLXVII and they were gazing upLXVIII toward heaven,LXIX

Notes on verse 10a

LXVII “going” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
LXVIII “gazing up” = atenizo. 14x in NT. From a (has an intensive sense) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to gaze or look steadily at with one’s full attention and fascination.
LXIX “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “lifted up” in v9. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (see note LXIII above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

suddenlyLXX twoLXXI menLXXII in whiteLXXIII robesLXXIV stood byLXXV them. 

Notes on verse 10b

LXX “suddenly” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LXXI “two” = duo. This is two or both.
LXXII “men” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
LXXIII “white” = leukos. Related to luke (light). This is bright, white, or brilliant.
LXXIV “robes” = esthes. 8x in NT. From hennumi (to clothe). This is robe, clothing, dress. It is used of both human and angelic apparel.
LXXV “stood by” = paristemi. Same as “presented” in v3. See note XIX above.

11 They said, “Men of Galilee,LXXVI why do you standLXXVII lookingLXXVIII up toward heaven?

Notes on verse 11a

LXXVI “Galilee” = Galilaios. 11x in NT. From galilaia (Galilee, the region and the sea); from Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilean.
LXXVII “stand” = histemi. Related to “apostles” in v2 & “presented” in v3 & “restore” in v6. See note XVI above.
LXXVIII “looking” = blepo. Same as “watching” in v9. See note LXII above.

This Jesus, who has been taken upLXXIX from you into heaven, will comeLXXX in the same wayLXXXI as you sawLXXXII him go into heaven.”

Notes on verse 11b

LXXIX “taken up” = analambano. Same as “taken up” in v2. See note XII above.
LXXX “come” = erchomai. Related to “come together” in v6 & “come” in v8. See note XLI above.
LXXXI “way” = tropos. 13x in NT. From the same as trope (turning, change, shifting); from trepo (to turn). This is turning and taking on a new direction or manner. It can refer to way, fashion, style, or character. This is where the word “trope” comes from.
LXXXII “saw” = theaomai. From thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit like a spectator. This is the root of the word “theatre.”

12 Then they returnedLXXXIII to Jerusalem from the mountLXXXIV calledLXXXV Olivet,LXXXVI

Notes on verse 12a

LXXXIII “returned” = hupostrepho. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIV “mount” = oros. Related to “lifted up” in v9 & “heaven” in v10. See note LXIX above.
LXXXV “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
LXXXVI “Olivet” = Elaion. 1x in NT. From elaia (olive or olive tree; also, the Mount of Olives; sometimes used figuratively to refer to the people of God). This is olive orchard or grove. It is used specifically to refer to the Mount of Olives.

which is nearLXXXVII Jerusalem, a Sabbath day’sLXXXVIII journeyLXXXIX away.XC 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXXVII “near” = eggus. Perhaps from agcho (to squeeze). This is nearby or near in time.
LXXXVIII “Sabbath day’s” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
LXXXIX “journey” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
XC “away” = echo. Related to “ends” in v8. See note LX above.

13 When they had enteredXCI the city, they wentXCII to the room upstairsXCIII where they were staying:XCIV

Notes on verse 13a

XCI “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “come together” in v6 & “come” in v8 & “come” in v11. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XLI above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
XCII “went” = anabaino. Related to “kingdom” in v3. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (see note XXVI above). This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
XCIII “room upstairs” = huperoon. 4x in NT. From huperoos(upper); from huper (over, above, beyond). This refers to an upper chamber on the third floor.
XCIV “staying” = katameno. Related to “wait” in v4. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + meno (see note XXXII above). This is to remain, dwell, stay, reside.

Peter,XCV and John, and James,XCVI and Andrew,XCVII

Notes on verse 13b

XCV “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XCVI “James” = Iakobos. From Hebrew Yaaqob (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
XCVII “Andrew” = Andreas. Related to “men” in v10. 13x in NT. From aner (see note LXXII above). This is Andrew, meaning manly.

PhilipXCVIII and Thomas,XCIX BartholomewC and Matthew,CI

Notes on verse 13c

XCVIII “Philip” = Philippos. Related to “Theophilus” in v1. From philos (see note IV above) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
XCIX “Thomas” = Thomas. 11x in NT. From Hebrew toam (twin). This is Thomas, meaning twin.
C “Bartholomew” = Bartholomaios. 4x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son, age); {Aramaic corresponding to ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children)} + Talmay (Talmay, meaning “plowman” or “ridged”); {from the same as telem (furrow or ridge; root may mean to accumulate)}. This is Bartholomew, meaning “son of Tolmai.”
CI “Matthew” = Matthaios. Related to “Jesus” in v1 & “John” in v5. 5x in NT. From maththaios (Matthew); from Hebrew mattityahu (Matthew, “gift of the Lord”); {from mattanah (gift, offering of sacrifice, present, bribe); {from mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively)} + YHVH (see note VII above)}. This is Matthew or Matthaeus, meaning “give of the Lord” or “given of the Lord.” See

James son of Alphaeus,CII and SimonCIII the Zealot,CIV and JudasCV son of James. 

Notes on verse 13d

CII “Alphaeus” = Alphaios. 5x in NT. From Hebrew halap (to exchange, renew, traverse). This is Alphaeus, which shares a root with Clopas. It means “traverse” or “exchange.” See
CIII “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
CIV “Zealot” = Zelotes. 8x in NT. From zeloo (jealous, eager for, burning with zeal, deeply committed, envy); from zelos (eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other; burning anger or burning love) perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is zealous or a zealot – someone eagerly devoted to someone or something. This is where the word “zealot” comes from.
CV “Judas” = Ioudas. Related to “Judea” in v8. From Hebrew Yehudah (see note LVIII above). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.

14 All these were constantly devotingCVI themselves to prayer,CVII togetherCVIII with certain women,CIX

Notes on verse 14a

CVI “constantly devoting” = proskartereo. 10x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kartereo (to be strong, endure; figuratively to be steadfast, to persevere, to be patient); {from kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised)}. This is to show strength consistently in the face of trials. It can also mean to persist, stand ready, be earnest, or attend to something.
CVII “prayer” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.
CVIII “together” = homothumadon. 11x in NT. From homou (together); {from homos (the same)} + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is having one mind or a shared passion. It is people who share the same desire.
CIX “women” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.

including MaryCX the motherCXI of Jesus, as well as his brothers.CXII

Notes on verse 14b

CX “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
CXI “mother” = meter. This is mother in a literal or figurative sense.
CXII “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

15 In those days Peter stood upCXIII amongCXIV the brothers and sisters (together the crowdCXV

Notes on verse 15a

CXIII “stood up” = anistemi. Related to “apostles” in v2 & “presented” in v3 & “restore” in v6 & “stand” in v11. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XVI above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CXIV “among” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
CXV “crowd” = ochlos. Related to “ends” in v8 & “away” in v12. Perhaps from echo (see note LX above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.

numberedCXVI about one hundredCXVII twentyCXVIII persons) and said, 

Notes on verse 15b

CXVI “numbered” = onoma. Related to “know” in v7. May be from ginosko (see note XLIX above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
CXVII “one hundred” = hekaton. 17x in NT. This is hundred literal or figurative.
CXVIII “twenty” = eikosi. 11x in NT. This is twenty.

16 “Brothers and sisters,CXIX the scriptureCXX had to beCXXI fulfilled,CXXII

Notes on verse 16a

CXIX “brothers and sisters” = aner + adelphos. Aner is the same as “men” in v10. See note LXXII above. Adelphos is the same as “brothers” in v14. See note CXII above.
CXX “scripture” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CXXI “had to be” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CXXII “fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.

which the Holy Spirit throughCXXIII DavidCXXIV foretoldCXXV concerning Judas,

Notes on verse 16b

CXXIII {untranslated} = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
CXXIV “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
CXXV “foretold” = proepo. 1x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + epo (to answer, bring word, command). This is to say before, predict, foretell.

who becameCXXVI a guideCXXVII for those who arrestedCXXVIII Jesus, 

Notes on verse 16c

CXXVI “becoming” = ginomai. Related to “women” in v14. See note CIX above.
CXXVII “guide” = hodegos. Related to “ordered” and “promise” in v4 & to “journey” in v12. 5x in NT. From hodos (way, road, path, or journey; can imply progress along a route) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (see note XXIX above)}. This is leader or guide. It can be used figuratively for a teacher.
CXXVIII “arrested” = sullambano. Related to “taken up” in v2 & “receive” in v8 & “took” in v9. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (see note XII above). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arresat or take hold of someone.

17 for he was numberedCXXIX among us and was allottedCXXX his shareCXXXI in this ministry.”CXXXII 

Notes on verse 17

CXXIX “numbered” = katarithmeo. Related to “lifted up” in v9 & “heaven” in v10 & “mount” in v12. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to) + arithmeo (to number of count); {from arithmos (a number or total that has been counted to together); from airo (see LXIII above)}. This is to number with, count, reckon together.
CXXX “allotted” = lagchano. 4x in NT. This is to choose by lot, to receive, determine.
CXXXI “share” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.
CXXXII “ministry” = diakonia. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is service, ministry, attending someone, service. It can mean serving someone at a table or otherwise as their servant/slave. It is also used for people who serve/minister in temples, as well as the work of Christian ministry. Figuratively, this word can mean money given for charity. This shares a root with “deacon” and is where the word “diaconate” comes from.

18 (Now this man acquiredCXXXIII a fieldCXXXIV with the rewardCXXXV of his wickedness,CXXXVI

Notes on verse 18a

CXXXIII “acquired” = ktaomai. 7x in NT. This is to get, purchase, acquire, gain.
CXXXIV “field” = chorion. Related to “leave” in v4. 10x in NT. From chora (see note XXX above). This is place, estate, possession, piece of ground, property.
CXXXV “reward” = misthos. This is wages, pay, or salary. It can also be reward, recompense, or punishment. It is pay for services rendered in a literal or figurative way, either good or bad.
CXXXVI “wickedness” = adikia. From adikos (unjust, unrighteous, wicked, treacherous); {from a (not, without) + dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known)}. This is injustice, unrighteousness, of some other kind of harm or wrong. It is justice in a legal setting or a morally wrong action or character.

and fallingCXXXVII headlong,CXXXVIII he burst openCXXXIX in the middle,CXL and all his bowelsCXLI gushed out.CXLII 

Notes on verse 18b

CXXXVII “falling” = ginomai. Same as “becoming” in v16. See note CXXVI above.
CXXXVIII “headlong” = prenes. 1x in NT. Related to pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above). This is leaning forward, prone, falling down head-fist.
CXXXIX “burst open” = lasko. 1x in NT. Related to lakao (to kick); from lax (heel-wise). This is to make a loud cracking sound such that something bursts open.
CXL “in the middle” = mesos. Same as “among” in v15. See note CXIV above.
CXLI “bowels” = splagchnon. 11x in NT. Perhaps from splen (spleen). This is inner organs, entrails, heart, liver. The guts were seen as the root of emotions. So, this could be visceral empathy or sympathy.
CXLII “gushed out” = ekcheo. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (to pour). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.

19 This became knownCXLIII to all the residentsCXLIV of Jerusalem, so that the field was called in theirCXLV

Notes on verse 19a

CXLIII “known” = gnostos. Related to “know” in v7 & {untranslated} in v15. 15x in NT. From ginosko (see note XLIX above). This is known or acquaintance.
CXLIV “residents” = katoikeo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
CXLV “their” = idios. Same as “own” in v7. See note LII above.

languageCXLVI Hakeldama,CXLVII that is, Field of Blood.)CXLVIII 

Notes on verse 19b

CXLVI “language” = dialektos. Related to “book” in v1 & “chosen” in v2 & “speaking” in v3. 6x in NT. From dialegomai (to discuss, preach, reason, argue, lecture); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + lego (see note III above)}. This is speech, language, tongue, or dialect. It can also be mode of discourse. It is the root where “dialect” and “dialogue” come from.
CXLVII “Hakeldama” = Hakeldamach. 1x in NT. From Aramaic chaqel d’ma (literally “field of blood”). This is Hakeldama or Hakeldamach, a field whose name means “field of blood.” See
CXLVIII “Blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).

20 “For it is writtenCXLIX in the bookCL of Psalms,CLI

Notes on verse 20a

CXLIX “written” = grapho. Related to “scripture” in v16. See note CXX above.
CL “book” = biblos. 10x in NT– 5x in reference to books of the Bible, 3x of the book of life, 1x of genealogical account of Jesus, 1x of books of magic. Perhaps from bublos (papyrus); from Phoenician Byblos (a Phoenician city that exported papyrus for writing); {from gb (well, origin) + I (God)}; from Proto-Canaanite g-b-l (Gubla – maybe meaning to border). This is the inside bark of papyrus so it could refer to anything that was written on – a scroll, book, record, roll. It could also have an association with the sacred. See
CLI “Psalms” = Psalmos. 7x in NT. From psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub)}. This is a psalm, a song sung of praise – generally accompanied by a harp or other stringed instrument. It can also refer to the book of Psalms.

‘Let his houseCLII become desolate,CLIII
    and let there be no one to liveCLIV in it’;


Notes on verse 20b

CLII “house” = epaulis. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aule (a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air; could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards); {perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow)}. This is a dwelling over the head – a word for house or estate.
CLIII “desolate” = eremos. Properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated. It could be a deserted area or a desert place. It could be seen as secluded, solitary, or lonesome. Any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally.
CLIV “live” = katoikeo. Same as “residents” in v19. See note CXLIV above.

‘Let anotherCLV takeCLVI his position of overseer.’CLVII

Notes on verse 20c

CLV “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
CLVI “take” = lambano. Same as “receive” in v8. See note LIV above.
CLVII “position of overseer” = episkope. 4x in NT. From episkeptomai (to look at, look out for, see, select, visit); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + the base of skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully); perhaps related to skapto (to dig or excavate)}}. This is oversight, supervision, visitation. It also came to refer to Christian bishops overseeing the church. It is the same root that “episcopal” comes from.

21 “So one of the men who have accompaniedCLVIII us during all the time that the Lord Jesus went inCLIX and outCLX among us, 22 beginning from the baptismCLXI of John until the day when he was taken upCLXII from us—oneCLXIII of these must become a witness with us to his resurrection.”CLXIV 

Notes on verses 21-22

CLVIII “accompanied” = sunerchomai. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note XLI above). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
CLIX “went in” = eiserchomai. Same as “entered” in v13. See note XCI above.
CLX “out” = exerchomai. Related to “come together” in v6 & “come” in v8 & “come” in v11 & “entered” in v13. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XLI above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CLXI “baptism” = baptisma. Related to “baptized” in v5. From baptizo (see note XXXVIII above). This is dipping or sinking. Also, the rite of baptism.
CLXII “taken up” = analambano. Same as “taken up” in v2. See note XII above.
CLXIII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
CLXIV “resurrection” = anastasis. Related to “apostles” in v2 & “presented” in v3 & “restore” in v6 & “stand” in v11 & “stood up” in v15. From anistemi (see note CXIII above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.

23 So they proposedCLXV two, JosephCLXVI called Barsabbas,CLXVII

Notes on verse 23a

CLXV “proposed” = histemi. Same as “stand” in v11. See note LXXVII above.
CLXVI “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
CLXVII “Barsabbas” = Barsabbas. Related to “Bartholomew” in v13. 2x in NT. From Aramaic bar (see note C above) + perhaps Aramaic tseba (to desire, be pleased); {corresponding to Hebrew tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on) OR from tsabah (to swell, grow, amass like an army)} OR from bar (see above) + seba (imbibe) OR from bar (see above) + shaba (to swear, make an oath). This is Barsabbas, meaning “son of Sabbas” or “man of the host” or “one of the drunks” or “son of an oath” or “man of war” or “son of a drunk.” See

who was also knownCLXVIII as Justus,CLXIX and Matthias.CLXX 

Notes on verse 23b

CLXVIII “known” = epikaleo. Related to “called” in v12. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (see note LXXXV above). This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
CLXIX “Justus” = Ioustos. 3x in NT. From Latin Justus (Justus); from iustus (righteous, legal, suitable, exact, direct). This is Justus, meaning “just.” See &
CLXX “Matthias” = Matthias. Related to “Matthew” in v13 & to “Jesus” in v1 & “John” in v5. 2x in NT. From Maththias (Matthias); from Hebrew Mattathias (Mattathias, “gift of the Lord); from Hebrew Mattithyahu (see note CI above}}. This is Matthias or Mattithyah, meaning “gift of the Lord.” See

24 Then they prayedCLXXI and said, “Lord, you know everyone’sCLXXII heart.CLXXIII ShowCLXXIV us which one of these two you have chosen 

Notes on verse 24

CLXXI “prayed” = proseuchomai. Related to “prayer” in v14. See note CVII above.
CLXXII “everyone’s” = pas. Same as “all” in v1. See note VI above.
CLXXIII “know…heart” = kardiognostes. Related to “know” in v7 & {untranslated} in v15 & “known” in v19. 2x in NT. From kardia (the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings; the center of something; only used figuratively in the Bible) + gnostes (expert, a knower); {from ginosko (see note XLIX above)}. This is one who knows hearts i.e. the inner life, moral convictions. Used of God both times.
CLXXIV “show” = anadeiknumi. Related to “wickedness” in v18. 2x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + deiknumi (see note CXXXVI above). This is to show, appoint, exhibit, indicate.

25 to takeCLXXV the placeCLXXVI in this ministry and apostleshipCLXXVII from which Judas turned asideCLXXVIII to go to his own place.” 

Notes on verse 25

CLXXV “take” = lambano. Same as “receive” in v8. See note LIV above.
CLXXVI “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
CLXXVII “apostleship” = apostole. Related to “apostles” in v2 & “presented” in v3 & “restore” in v6 & “stand” in v11 & “stood up” in v15 & “resurrection” in v22. 4x in NT. From apostello (see note XVI above). This is commission or the responsibilities of an apostle.
CLXXVIII “turned aside” = parabaino. Related to “kingdom” in v3 & “went” in v13. 3x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + the same as basis (see note XXVI above). This is literally to go past. So it can be to violate, break, or transgress. It is intentionally stepping across a boundary that one is aware of. It can also mean to turn aside or depart.

26 And they castCLXXIX lots for them, and the lot fellCLXXX on Matthias, and he was addedCLXXXI to the elevenCLXXXII apostles.

Notes on verse 26

CLXXIX “cast” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXX “fell” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.
CLXXXI “added” = sugkatapsephizomai. Related to “Psalms” in v20. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kata (down, against, throughout) + psephizo (to count or calculate; it refers to the stones as counters); {from psephos (smooth pebble; used to cast a vote or as a counter); from the same as psallo (see note CLI above) or from pselaphao (to touch, feel, or grope about; a light touch to explore, discover, or confirm something with physical contact; figuratively, to search for); {probably from psallo (see above) + haphao (to handle)}}. This is to enroll among, condemn with, add.
CLXXXII “eleven” = hendeka. Related to “one” in v22. 6x in NT– all referring to the apostles minus Judas. From heis (see note CLXIII above) + deka (ten). This is eleven.

Image credit: “The Five Glorious Mysteries – Ascension of Jesus Christ” by Michael Franke at Marienpark in Heede, Emsland. Photo by Frank Vincentz, 2018.

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