Acts 10:34-43

Acts 10:34-43
Easter A


34 Then Peter began to speakA to them: “I trulyB understandC that God shows no partiality,D 

Notes on verse 34

A “began to speak” = anoigo + de + Petros + ho + stoma + eiron. Literally, “then Peter opened [his] mouth, he said.” Anoigo is from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense. Petros is related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder. Stoma is perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
B “truly” = epi + aletheia. Literally, “upon truth.” Aletheia is from alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
C “understand” = katalambano. 15x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take hold of something with great intention for one’s own interest. It can be seize or arrest – grasping forcefully. Figuratively, it can also mean to comprehend, to win, to surprise, or to possess.
D “God shows no partiality” = ou + eimi + prosopolemptes + ho + Theos. Literally, “God is not one who accepts [or respects] a face.” It’s an idiom for showing partiality. Eimi is to be or exist. Prosopolemptes is related to “understand” in v34. 1x in NT. From prosopon (face, surface, or front; can imply presence); {from pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)} + lambano (see note C above). This is one who accepts a face, meaning one who acts in a partial way. Theos is from Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

35 but in everyE peopleF anyone who fearsG him

Notes on verse 35a

E “every” = pas. This is all or every.
F ] “people” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
G “fears” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.

and practicesH righteousnessI isJ acceptableK to him. 

Notes on verse 35b

H “practices” = ergazomai. From ergon (work, task, action, employment). This is to work, labor, perform, toil.
I “righteousness” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
J “is” = eimi. Same as “God shows no partiality” in v34. See note D above.
K “acceptable” = dektos. 5x in NT. From dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is favorable, welcome, approved, pleasing.

36 You knowL the messageM he sentN

Notes on verse 36a

L “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
M “message” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
N “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

to the peopleO of Israel,P preachingQ peaceR

Notes on verse 36b

O “people” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
P “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
Q “preaching” = euaggelizo. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggello (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
R “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)

by JesusS ChristT—he is LordU of all.V 

Notes on verse 36c

S “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
T “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
U “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
V “all” = pas. Same as “every” in v35. See note E above.

37 That messageW spreadX throughoutY Judea,Z

Notes on verse 37a

W “message” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
X “spread” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
Y {untranslated} = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
Z “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

beginningAA in GalileeBB after the baptismCC that JohnDD announced:EE 

Notes on verse 37b

AA “beginning” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
BB “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
CC “baptism” = baptisma. From baptizo (to submerge, wash, or immerse; used specially for baptism); from bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is dipping or sinking. Also, the rite of baptism.
DD “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v36. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note S above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status)}. This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
EE “announced” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.

38 how God anointedFF Jesus of NazarethGG with the HolyHH SpiritII

Notes on verse 38a

FF “anointed” = chrio. Related to “Christ” in v36. 5x in NT. See note T above.
GG “Nazareth” = Nazareth. 12x in NT. Perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazareth, meaning perhaps branch or protected. It is a city in Galilee. See
HH “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
II “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

and with power;JJ how he went aboutKK doing goodLL

Notes on verse 38b

JJ “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
KK “went about” = dierchomai. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
LL “doing good” = euergeteo. Related to “preaching” in v36 & “does” in v35. 1x in NT. From euergetes (good deed, benefit, service); {from eu (see note Q above) + ergon (see note H above)}. This is to do something good or benefit.

and healingMM all who were oppressedNN by the devil,OO for God was with him. 

Notes on verse 38c

MM “healing” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.
NN “oppressed” = katadunasteuo. Related to “power” in v38. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout) + dunastes (ruler, powerful, or court official; someone who has power and authority or, by extension, someone in the royal court); {from dunamai (see note JJ above)}. This is to use power to put others down. So, it is to overpower or oppress, to tyrannize.
OO “devil” = diabolos. From diaballo (laying a charge against someone, generally with hostility; literally, to thrust through or cast back and forth– used for slandering, accusing, or gossiping; whether or not the sentiment is true, it is spread with negative intention); {from dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a properly a slanderer or someone who accuses falsely – criticizing unfairly with the intent to cause harm or damage character. This can also mean backbiter or malicious gossip. Also, the Slanderer, the Devil.

39 We are witnessesPP to all that he didQQ bothRR in JudeaSS and in Jerusalem.TT

Notes on verse 39a

PP “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.
QQ “did” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
RR {untranslated} = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.
SS “Judea” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judea” in v37. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (see note Z above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
TT “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

They put him to deathUU by hangingVV him on a tree,WW 40 but God raisedXX him on the thirdYY dayZZ

Notes on verses 39b-40a

UU “put…to death” = anaireo. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
VV “hanging” = kremannumi.7x in NT. This is to hang or suspend. Figuratively, it means to depend.
WW “tree” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.
XX “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
YY “third” = tritos. From treis (three). This is third.
ZZ “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.

and allowedAAA him to appear,BBB 41 not to all the peopleCCC but to us who were chosenDDD by God as witnesses

Notes on verses 40b-41a

AAA “allowed” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
BBB “appear” = emphanes. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is visible, apparent, openly, or understood.
CCC “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
DDD “chosen” = procheirotoneo. 1x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + cheirotoneo (to vote by reaching out one’s head to, to send out, to be one who votes); {from cheir (literally, hand; figuratively, the means a person uses to accomplish things; power, means, or instrument) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain)}. This is to reach out one’s hand beforehand, i.e. to choose ahead of time.

and who ateEEE and drank withFFF him after he roseGGG from the dead.HHH 

Notes on verse 41b

EEE “ate” = sunesthio. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust); {akin to edo (to eat)}. This is to eat with.
FFF “drank with” = sumpino. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is to drink in company with.
GGG “rose” = anistemi. Related to “sent” in v36. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note N above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
HHH “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

42 He commandedIII us to preachJJJ to the peopleKKK and to testifyLLL

Notes on verse 42a

III “commanded” = paraggello. Related to “preaching” in v36. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (see note Q above). This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
JJJ “preach” = kerusso. Same as “announced” in v37. See note EE above.
KKK “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v41. See note CCC above.
LLL “testify” = diamarturomai. Related to “witnesses” in v39. 15x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + marturomai (to witness, testify, call as a witness, affirm, charge, protest); {from martus (see note PP above)}. This is to affirm, give evidence, testify thoroughly. It is giving full testimony.

that he is the one ordainedMMM by God as judgeNNN of the livingOOO and the dead. 

Notes on verse 42b

MMM “ordained” = horizo. 8x in NT. From the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined. Literally, this is setting horizons.
NNN “judge” = krites. 19x in NT. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judge or ruler.
OOO “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

43 All the prophetsPPP testifyQQQ about him that everyoneRRR who believesSSS in him

Notes on verse 43a

PPP “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “appear” in v40. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (see note BBB above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
QQQ “testify” = martureo. Related to “witnesses” in v39 & “testify” in v42. From martus (see note PP above). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
RRR “everyone” = pas. Same as “every” in v35. See note E above.
SSS “believes” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

receivesTTT forgivenessUUU of sinsVVV through his name.”WWW

Notes on verse 43b

TTT “receives” = lambano. Related to “understand” and “shows…partiality” in v34. See note C above.
UUU “forgiveness” = aphesis. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to send away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send, to go)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
VVV “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
WWW “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

Image credit: “St Peter” (5th-century mosaic detail from the mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna”) by Lawrence OP.

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