Acts 10:1-17, 34-48

Acts 10:1-17, 34-48
Narrative Lectionary 141

In CaesareaI there was a manII namedIII Cornelius,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Caesarea” = Kaisareia. 17x in NT. From kaisar (Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors); from Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesarea – part of the name of two cities in Palestine. See
II “man” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
III “named” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
IV “Cornelius” = Kornelios. 9x in NT – all in this chapter. From Latin Cornelius (Cornelius); perhaps related to cornu (horn, tusk, power). This is Cornelius. See

a centurionV of the ItalianVI Cohort,VII as it was called.VIII 

Notes on verse 1b

V “centurion” = hekatontarches. From hekaton (hundred) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is a centurion from the Roman army, leader a captain of one hundred soldiers.
VI “Italian” = Italikos. 1x in NT. From Italia (Italy); from Latin Italia (Italy, Italians); from Oscan viteliu (“land of bulls”); perhaps related to vitulus (calf). This is Italian. See
VII “Cohort” = speira. 7x in NT. From Latin spira (something wound up like a coil or twist, the base of a column, a hair braid, etc.); from Greek speira (a twist or wreath); from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to twist, turn). This is a group of soldiers or military guard. Properly, this is something wound up. Figuratively, it refers to a group of men. Thus, a tenth of a legion. Also used for Levitical janitors. This is where the word “spiral” comes from. See
VIII “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.

He was a devoutIX man who fearedX GodXI

Notes on verse 2a

IX “devout” = eusebes. 3x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + sebo (to worship, revere, adore, be devout; properly this is personally placing a high value on someone or something, showing respect). This is well-reverent, devout, godly.
X “feared” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
XI “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

with allXII his household;XIII he gaveXIV almsXV

Notes on verse 2b

XII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XIII “household” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
XIV “gave” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XV “alms” = eleemosune. 13x in NT. From eleos (mercy, compassion). This is compassion – particularly in giving to the poor. Often, it is translated as alms or charity.

generouslyXVI to the peopleXVII and prayedXVIII constantlyXIX to God. 

Notes on verse 2c

XVI “generously” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XVII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
XVIII “prayed” = deomai. From deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited) This is having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request.
XIX “constantly” = dia + pas. Literally, “through all.” Pas is the same as “all” in v2. See note XII above.

One afternoon at about three o’clockXX he had a visionXXI in which he clearlyXXII

Notes on verse 3a

XX “three o’clock” = hora + ennatos + ho+ hemera. Literally, “the ninth hour of the day.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from. Ennatos is 10x in NT. Related to “prayed” in v2. From enatos (needy, poor, lacking, ninth); {from en (in, on, by, with) + deo (see note XVIII above)} OR from ennea (nine). This is ninth. Hemera is perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XXI “vision” = horama. Related to “saw” in v3. 12x in NT. From horao (see note XXIII below). This is a sight, something seen, a vision. In the New Testament, it is always a supernatural vision.
XXII “clearly” = phaneros. 3x in NT. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); {from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is openly, publicly, evidently. Literally, it refers to something that comes to light.

sawXXIII an angelXXIV of God coming inXXV and saying to him, “Cornelius.” 

Notes on verse 3b

XXIII “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XXIV “angel” = aggelos. Probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
XXV “coming in” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.

He staredXXVI at him in terrorXXVII and said, “What isXXVIII it, Lord?”XXIX

Notes on verse 4a

XXVI “stared” = atenizo. 14x in NT. From a (has an intensive sense) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to gaze or look steadily at with one’s full attention and fascination.
XXVII “in terror” = emphobos + ginomai. Emphobos is related to “feared” in v2. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); {from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight)}. This is to be afraid, fully terrified. Ginomai is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XXVIII “is” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XXIX “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

He answered, “Your prayersXXX and your alms have ascendedXXXI as a memorialXXXII before God. 

Notes on verse 4b

XXX “prayers” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.
XXXI “ascended” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
XXXII “memorial” = mnemosunon. 3x in NT. From the same as mnemoneuo (to remember, recollect; does not necessarily imply remembering something that you forgot – it could be calling something to mind; to punish or rehearse); {from mnemon (mindful) OR from mneme (memory or mention); {from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence) or mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); or form meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); from masso (to knead, squeeze)}}. This is a remembrance, memory, memorial, record. It could also be an offering for remembrance.

Now sendXXXIII men to JoppaXXXIV, XXXV

Notes on verse 5a

XXXIII “send” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
XXXIV “Joppa” = Ioppe. 10x in NT– all in Acts. From Hebrew Yapho (Joppa, a city); from yaphah (to be beautiful; properly, to be bright; to decorate). This is Joppa, a city whose name means “beauty” or “beautiful.” See
XXXV {untranslated} = metapempo. Related to “send” in v5. 9x in NT. From meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + pempo (see note XXXIII above). This is to send after, summon, invite.

for a certain SimonXXXVI who is calledXXXVII Peter;XXXVIII 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVI “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XXXVII “called” = epikaleo. Related to “called” in v1. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (see note VIII above). This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
XXXVIII “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.

he is lodgingXXXIX with Simon, a tanner,XL whose houseXLI is by the seaside.”XLII, XLIII 

Notes on verse 6

XXXIX “lodging” = xenizo. 10x in NT. From xenos (foreign or foreigner, an alien or guest; also something new, novel, or strange). This is to receive as a guest or act as a host – to give or receive lodging. It could also be surprise, bewilder, or entertain. Also, it can be to think something it strange.
XL “tanner” = burseus. 3x in NT – all in reference to Simon the tanner. From bursa (hide). This is a tanner.
XLI “house” = oikia. Related to “household” in v2. From oikos (see note XIII above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
XLII “seaside” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
XLIII Some manuscripts add “he will tell you what you must do” = houtos + laleo + su + tis + su + dei + poieo. Dei is related to “prayed” in v2 & “three o’clock” in v3. From deo (see note XVIII above). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary. Poieo is the same as “gave” in v2. See note XIV above.

When the angel who spoke to him had left,XLIV he calledXLV twoXLVI

Notes on verse 7a

XLIV “left” = aperchomai. Related to “coming in” in v3. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note XXV above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XLV “called” = phoneo. Related to “clearly” in v3. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (see note XXII above) or phaino (see note XXII above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
XLVI “two” = duo. This is two or both.

of his slavesXLVII and a devout soldierXLVIII from the ranks of those who servedXLIX him, 

Notes on verse 7b

XLVII “slaves” = oiketes. Related to “household” in v2 & “house” in v6. 5x in NT. From oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); from oikos (see note XIII above). This is a servant working in a house.
XLVIII “soldier” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
XLIX “served” = proskartereo. 10x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kartereo (to be strong, endure; figuratively to be steadfast, to persevere, to be patient); {from kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised)}. This is to show strength consistently in the face of trials. It can also mean to persist, stand ready, be earnest, or attend to something.

and after tellingL them everythingLI he sentLII them to Joppa.

Notes on verse 8

L “telling” = exegeomai. Related to “angel” in v3. 6x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (see note XXIV above)}. This is to lead the way, bring forth. Figuratively, it is to unfold or explain something thoroughly to show what is most important. This is where the word “exegesis” comes from.
LI “everything” = hapas. Related to “all” in v2. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (see note XIX above) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
LII “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

About noonLIII the next day,LIV as they were on their journeyLV

Notes on verse 9a

LIII “noon” = hora + hektos. Literally, “sixth hour.” Hora is the same as “three o’clock” in v3. See note XX above. Hektos is 14x in NT. From hex (six). This is sixth.
LIV “next day” = epaurion. 17x in NT. From epi (on, upon, something fitting) + aurion (tomorrow); {from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow)}. This is tomorrow, the next day.
LV “were on…journey” = hodoiporeo. 1x in NT. From hodoiporos (traveler); {from hodos (way, road, path, journey) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}}. This is to travel down a path, take a journey.

and approachingLVI the city,LVII Peter went upLVIII on the roofLIX to pray.LX 

Notes on verse 9b

LVI “approaching” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
LVII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
LVIII “went up” = anabaino. Same as “ascended” in v4. See note XXXI above.
LIX “roof” = doma. 7x in NT. From demo (to build). This is housetop or roof – a flat roof. Properly, it is more generally a building, but used specifically for roofs.
LX “pray” = proseuchomai. Related to “prayers” in v4. See note XXX above.

10 He becameLXI hungryLXII and wantedLXIII something to eat,LXIV

Notes on verse 10a

LXI “became” = ginomai. Same as “in terror” in v4. See note XXVII above.
LXII “hungry” = prospeinos. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + the same as peinao (to hunger, be needy, or desire earnestly; to be famished in a definitive sense or in comparison to someone or something else; figuratively, to crave); {from peina (hunger); related to penomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day)}. This is intensely hungry.
LXIII “wanted” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
LXIV “eat” = geuomai. 15x in NT. This is to taste, which implies eating. It can be used figuratively to mean experience, whether positively or negatively.

and while it was being preparedLXV he fellLXVI into a trance.LXVII 

Notes on verse 10b

LXV “being prepared” = paraskeuazo. 4x in NT. From para (from beside, by) + skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense); {from skeuazo (to prepare using a tool)}. This is to prepare, get ready.
LXVI “fell” = ginomai. Same as “in terror” in v4. See note XXVII above.
LXVII “trance” = ekstasis. Related to “sent” in v8. 7x in NT. From existemi (to displace or take something or someone from standing; figuratively, to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself; astonished, amazed, or mad); {from ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note LII above)}. This is bewilderment, amazement, distraction, shock, a trance, rapture. It is the root of the word “ecstasy.”

11 He sawLXVIII the heavenLXIX openedLXX

Notes on verse 11a

LXVIII “saw” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
LXIX “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
LXX “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.

and somethingLXXI like a largeLXXII sheetLXXIII coming down,LXXIV

Notes on verse 11b

LXXI “something” = skeuos. Related to “being prepared” in v10. See note LXV above.
LXXII “large” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
LXXIII “sheet” = othone. 2x in NT – both in Acts describing this vision. This is a cloth made of linen, a sail.
LXXIV “coming down” = katabaino. Related to “ascended” in v4. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note XXXI above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

being loweredLXXV to the groundLXXVI by its fourLXXVII corners.LXXVIII 

Notes on verse 11c

LXXV “lowered” = kathiemi. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout) + hiemi (to send). This is to lower, send.
LXXVI “ground” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
LXXVII “four” = tessares. This is four – used figuratively for total coverage.
LXXVIII “corners” = arche. Related to “centurion” in v1. From archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (see note V above). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.

12 In it wereLXXIX all kinds of four-footed creaturesLXXX and reptilesLXXXI and birdsLXXXII of the air.LXXXIII 

Notes on verse 12

LXXIX “were” = huparcho. Related to “centurion” in v1 & “corners” in v11. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note V above). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
LXXX “four-footed creatures” = tetrapous. Related to “four” in v11. 3x in NT. From tessares (see note LXXVII above) + pous (foot in a literal or figurative sense). This is four-footed.
LXXXI “reptiles” = herpeton + ho + ge. Literally “creeping things of the earth.” Herpeton is 4x in NT. From herpo (to crawl). This is an animal that creeps or crawls. It is often used for snakes, reptiles, small creatures. Ge is the same as “ground” in v11. See note LXXVI above.
LXXXII “birds” = peteinon. 14x in NT. From petomai (to fly). This is something with wings i.e. a bird.
LXXXIII “air” = ouranos. Same as “heaven” in v11. See note LXIX above.

13 Then he heardLXXXIV a voiceLXXXV saying, “Get up,LXXXVI Peter; killLXXXVII and eat.”LXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 13

LXXXIV “heard” = ginomai. Same as “in terror” in v4. See note XXVII above.
LXXXV “voice” = phone. Related to “clearly” in v3 & “called” in v7. See note XLV above.
LXXXVI “get up” = anistemi. Related to “sent” in v8 & “trance” in v10. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note LII above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
LXXXVII “kill” = thuo. 14x in NT. This is to rush along, breathe violently. It can also mean to offer sacrifice, specifically by fire (in reference to the blowing smoke).
LXXXVIII “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.

14 But Peter said, “By no means, Lord, for I have never eatenLXXXIX anythingXC that is profaneXCI or unclean.”XCII 

Notes on verse 14

LXXXIX “eaten” = phago. Same as “eat” in v13. See note LXXXVIII above.
XC “anything” = pas. Same as “all” in v2. See note XII above.
XCI “profane” = koinos. 14x in NT. From sun (with, together with). This is common, shared – something for ordinary or everyday use. It can also denote unclean, unholy, or profane – unholy rather than something reserved for a sacred purpose.
XCII “unclean” = akathartos. From a (not, without) + kathairo (to cleanse or purify by purging out unwanted elements); {from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying)}. This is unclean or impure, whether a thing or a person. It is something that is not mixed with something that would taint. This is unclean in a ritual or moral sense. It can also mean demonic or foul.

15 The voice said to him again, a second time,XCIII “What God has made clean,XCIV you must not call profane.”XCV 

Notes on verse 15

XCIII “second time” = deuteros. Related to “two” in v7. From duo (see note XLVI above). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See
XCIV “made clean” = katharizo. Related to “unclean” in v14. From katharos (see note XCII above). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.
XCV “call profane” = koinoo. Related to “profane” in v14. 14x in NT. From koinos (see note XCI above). This is to make something common i.e. treated as ordinary and so not ceremonially pure/sacred. So, it can also mean to pollute or desecrate.

16 This happenedXCVI three times,XCVII and the thingXCVIII was suddenlyXCIX taken upC to heaven.

Notes on verse 16

XCVI “happened” = ginomai. Same as “in terror” in v4. See note XXVII above.
XCVII “three times” = tris. 12x in NT. From treis (three). This is three times.
XCVIII “thing” = skeuos. Same as “something” in v11. See note LXXI above.
XCIX “suddenly” = eutheos. Related to “devout” in v2. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note XI above) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
C “taken up” = analambano. 13x in NT. From ana (up, again, anew) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take up, lead away, raise. It is often used of the ascension.

17 Now while Peter was greatly puzzledCI about what to makeCII of the vision that he had seen,CIII suddenlyCIV the men sentCV by Cornelius appeared.

Notes on verse 17a

CI “was greatly puzzled” = diaporeo. Related to “were on…journey” in v9. 4x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + aporeo (perplexed, in doubt; mentally at a loss); {from a (not, without) + poros (see note LV above)}. This is in trouble or doubt, having difficulty. This is being perplexed because you can’t find a solution.
CII “make” = eimi. Same as “is” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
CIII “seen” = horao. Same as “saw” in v3. See note XXIII above.
CIV “suddenly” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CV “sent” = apostello. Same as “sent” in v8. See note LII above.

They were asking forCVI Simon’s houseCVII and were standingCVIII by the gate.CIX 

Notes on verse 17b

CVI “asking for” = dierotao. 1x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to learn by asking questions, to ask directions.
CVII “house” = oikia. Same as “house” in v6. See note XLI above.
CVIII “standing” = epistemi. Related to “sent” in v8 & “trance” in v10 & “get up” in v13. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (see note LII above). This is to stand upon, be there, come to, be urgent.
CIX “gate” = pulon. 18x in NT. From pule (gate, large entrance to a city or a fortress; often used for an exit way; often figurative for authority and power). This is a porch, gateway, or vestibule. It is a passageway from the street through the house to the courtyard.

34 Then Peter beganCX to speak to them: “I trulyCXI understandCXII that GodCXIII shows no partiality,CXIV 

Notes on verse 34

CX “began” = anoigoho + stoma. Literally, “opened his mouth.” Anoigo is the same as “opened” in v11. See note LXX above. Stoma is perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
CXI “truly” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
CXII “understand” = katalambano. Related to “taken up” in v16. 15x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + lambano (see note C above). This is to take hold of something with great intention for one’s own interest. It can be seize or arrest – grasping forcefully. Figuratively, it can also mean to comprehend, to win, to surprise, or to possess.
CXIII {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “is” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
CXIV “shows…partiality” = prosopolemptes. Related to “taken up” in v16 & “understand” in v34 & “saw” and “vision” in v3. 1x in NT. From prosopon (face, surface, or front; can imply presence); {from pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note XXIII above)}} + lambano (see note C above). This is one who accepts a face, which is to say respects people or is partial.

35 but in everyCXV peopleCXVI anyone who fears him and practicesCXVII righteousnessCXVIII is acceptableCXIX to him. 

Notes on verse 35

CXV “every” = pas. Same as “all” in v2. See note XII above.
CXVI “people” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
CXVII “practices” = ergazomai. From ergon (work, task, action, employment). This is to work, labor, perform, toil.
CXVIII “righteousness” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
CXIX “acceptable” = dektos. 5x in NT. From dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is favorable, welcome, approved, pleasing.

36 You knowCXX the messageCXXI he sentCXXII to the peopleCXXIII of Israel,CXXIV

Notes on verse 36a

CXX “know” = eido. Related to “suddenly” in v17. See note CIV above.
CXXI “message” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXXII “sent” = apostello. Same as “sent” in v8. See note LII above.
CXXIII “people” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CXXIV “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

preachingCXXV peaceCXXVI by JesusCXXVII ChristCXXVIII—he is Lord of all. 

Notes on verse 36b

CXXV “preaching” = euaggelizo. Related to “devout” in v2 & “suddenly” in v16 & “angel” in v3 & “telling” in v8. From eu (see note IX above) + aggelos (see note IXIV above). This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
CXXVI “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
CXXVII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CXXVIII “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

37 That messageCXXIX spreadCXXX throughoutCXXXI Judea,CXXXII

Notes on verse 37a

CXXIX “message” = rhema. Related to “asking for” in v17. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (see note CVI above). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
CXXX “spread” = ginomai. Same as “in terror” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CXXXI “throughout” = kata + holos. Holos is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CXXXII “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

beginningCXXXIII in GalileeCXXXIV after the baptismCXXXV that JohnCXXXVI announced:CXXXVII 

Notes on verse 37b

CXXXIII “beginning” = archomai. Related to “centurion” in v1 & “corners” in v11 & “were” in v12. See note LXXVIII above.
CXXXIV “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
CXXXV “baptism” = baptisma. From baptizo (to submerge, wash, or immerse; used specially for baptism); from bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is dipping or sinking. Also, the rite of baptism.
CXXXVI “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v36. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note CXXVII above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
CXXXVII “announced” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.

38 how God anointedCXXXVIII Jesus of NazarethCXXXIX with the HolyCXL SpiritCXLI

Notes on verse 38a

CXXXVIII “anointed” = chrio. Related to “Christ” in v36. 5xin NT. See note CXXVIII above.
CXXXIX “Nazareth” = Nazareth. 12x in NT. Perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazareth, meaning perhaps branch or protected. It is a city in Galilee. See
CXL “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CXLI “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

and with power;CXLII how he went aboutCXLIII doing goodCXLIV

Notes on verse 38b

CXLII “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
CXLIII “went about” = dierchomai. Related to “coming in” in v3 & “left” in v7. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note XXV above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
CXLIV “doing good” = euergeteo. Related to “does” in v35 & “devout” in v2 & “suddenly” in v16 & “preaching” in v36. 1x in NT. From eurgetes (someone who does good, benefactor, philanthropist); {from eu (see note IX above) + the same as ergon (see note CXVII above)}}. This is doing good, to benefit.

and healingCXLV all who were oppressedCXLVI by the devil,CXLVII for God was with him. 

Notes on verse 38c

CXLV “healing” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLVI “oppressed” = katadunasteuo. Related to “power” in v38. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout) + dunastes (ruler, powerful, or court official; someone who has power and authority or, by extension, someone in the royal court); {from dunamai (see note CXLII above)}. This is to use power to put others down. So, it is to overpower or oppress, to tyrannize.
CXLVII “devil” = diabolos. From diaballo (laying a charge against someone, generally with hostility; literally, to thrust through or cast back and forth– used for slandering, accusing, or gossiping; whether or not the sentiment is true, it is spread with negative intention); {from dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a properly a slanderer or someone who accuses falsely – criticizing unfairly with the intent to cause harm or damage character. This can also mean backbiter or malicious gossip. Also, the Slanderer, the Devil.

39 We are witnessesCXLVIII to all that he didCXLIX both inCL JudeaCLI

Notes on verse 39a

CXLVIII “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.
CXLIX “did” = poeio. Same as “gave” in v2. See note XIV above.
CL {untranslated} = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.
CLI “Judea” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judea” in v37. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (see note CXXXII above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

and in Jerusalem.CLII They put him to deathCLIII by hangingCLIV him on a tree,CLV 

Notes on verse 39b

CLII “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
CLIII “put…to death” = anaireo. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
CLIV “hanging” = kremannumi. 7x in NT. This is to hang or suspend. Figuratively, it means to depend.
CLV “tree” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.

40 but God raisedCLVI him on the thirdCLVII dayCLVIII and allowedCLIX him to appear,CLX 

Notes on verse 40

CLVI “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CLVII “third” = tritos. Related to “three times” in v16. From treis (see note XCVII above). This is third.
CLVIII “day” = hemera. Same as “three o’clock” in v3. See note XX above.
CLIX “allowed” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
CLX “appear” = emphanes + ginomai. Emphanes is related to “clearly” in v3 & “called” in v7 & “voice” in v13. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is visible, apparent, openly, or understood. Ginomai is the same as “in terror” in v4. See note XXVII above.

41 not to all the peopleCLXI but to us who were chosenCLXII by God as witnesses and who ateCLXIII and drank withCLXIV him after he roseCLXV from the dead.CLXVI 

Notes on verse 41

CLXI “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v2. See note XVII above.
CLXII “chosen” = procheirotoneo. Related to “stared” in v4. 1x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + cheirotoneo (to elect by raising your hand to vote, appoint); {from cheir (hand in a literal sense; figuratively, the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can mean power, means, or instrument)) + teino (to stretch)}. This is to choose before, to reach out the hand in advance.
CLXIII “ate” = sunesthio. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust); {akin to edo (to eat)}. This is to eat with.
CLXIV “drank with” = sumpino. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is to drink together.
CLXV “rose” = anistemi. Same as “get up” in v13. See note LXXXVI above.
CLXVI “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

42 He commandedCLXVII us to preachCLXVIII to the peopleCLXIX and to testifyCLXX

Notes on verse 42a

CLXVII “commanded” = paraggello. Related to “angel” in v3 & “telling” in v8 & “preaching” in v36. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (see note XXIV above)}. This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
CLXVIII “preach” = kerusso. Same as “announced” in v37. See note CXXXVII above.
CLXIX “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v2. See note XVII above.
CLXX “testify” = diamarturomai. Related to “witnesses” in v39. 15x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + marturomai (to witness, testify, call as a witness, affirm, charge, protest); {from martus (see note CXLVIII above)}. This is to affirm, give evidence, testify thoroughly. It is giving full testimony.

that he is the one ordainedCLXXI by God as judgeCLXXII of the livingCLXXIII and the dead. 

Notes on verse 42b

CLXXI “ordained” = horizo. 8x in NT. From the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined. Literally, this is setting horizons.
CLXXII “judge” = krites. 19x in NT. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judge or ruler.
CLXXIII “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

43 All the prophetsCLXXIV testifyCLXXV about him that everyoneCLXXVI who believesCLXXVII in him

Notes on verse 43a

CLXXIV “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “clearly” in v3 & “called” in v7 & “voice” in v13 & “appear” in v40. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note XLV above). This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CLXXV “testify” = martureo. Related to “witnesses” in v39 & “testify” in v42. From martus (see note CXLVIII above). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXVI “everyone” = pas. Same as “all” in v2. See note XII above.
CLXXVII “believes” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

receivesCLXXVIII forgivenessCLXXIX of sinsCLXXX through his name.”

Notes on verse 43b

CLXXVIII “receives” = lambano. Related to “taken up” in v16 & “understand” and “shows…partiality” in v34. See note C above.
CLXXIX “forgiveness” = aphesis. Related to “send” in v5 & “lowered” in v11. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to send away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (see note LXXV above)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
CLXXX “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

44 While Peter was still speaking,CLXXXI the Holy Spirit fellCLXXXII upon all who heardCLXXXIII the word.CLXXXIV 

Notes on verse 44

CLXXXI {untranslated} = ho + rhema + houtos. Literally, “these words.” Rhema is the same as “message” in v37. See note CXXIX above.
CLXXXII “fell” = epipipto. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is fall upon. It could be in the sense of pressing in on, being seized with fear, being embraced (as in the parable of the prodigal son in Luke 15:20), bending over, being insulted, or the Spirit falling on people. So, it is coming upon someone with more or less affection or violence.
CLXXXIII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CLXXXIV “word” = logos. Same as “message” in v36. See note CXXI above.

45 The circumcisedCLXXXV believersCLXXXVI who had come withCLXXXVII

Notes on verse 45a

CLXXXV “circumcised” = peritome. Related to {untranslated} in v34. From peritemno (to circumcise; literally cut around); {from peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + same as tomos or tomoteros (see note CX above)}. This is properly, cut around, referring to the way that foreskin is removed and so this is to circumcise. It can be used or the rite or the people who are circumcised – in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXXVI “believers” = pistos. Related to “believes” in v43. From peitho (see note CLXXVII above). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.
CLXXXVII “come with” = sunerchomai. Related to “coming in” in v3 & “left” in v7 & “went about” in v38. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note XXV above). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.

Peter were astoundedCLXXXVIII that the giftCLXXXIX of the Holy Spirit had been poured outCXC even on the gentiles,CXCI 

Notes on verse 45b

CLXXXVIII “were astounded” = existemi. Related to “sent” in v8 & “trance” in v10 & “get up” in v13 & “standing” in v17. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note LII above). This is to displace or take something or someone from standing. Figuratively, it is to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself. By extension, it is astonished, amazed, or mad.
CLXXXIX “gift” = dorea. Related to “allowed” in v40. 11x in NT. From doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (see note CLIX above). This is a free gift given voluntarily and not received by merit or entitlement. It emphasizes the benevolence of the giver.
CXC “poured out” = ekcheo. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (to pour). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.
CXCI “gentiles” = ethnos. Same as “people” in v35. See note CXVI above.

46 for they heardCXCII them speaking in tonguesCXCIII and extollingCXCIV God.

Notes on verse 46a

CXCII “heard” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v44. See note CLXXXIII above.
CXCIII “tongues” = glossa. Root refers to a point that sticks out. This is tongue in a literal sense, but can also refer to language or a nation that speaks a different language. Figuratively, it can also refer to speaking in tongues or speech inspired by the Spirit.
CXCIV “extolling” = megaluno. Related to “large” in v11. 8x in NT. From megas (see note LXXII above). This is the same word used in Mary’s song of praise in Luke 1:46 “my soul magnifies the Lord.” This is to make great, increase, extoll, magnify. It is increase in a literal or figurative sense.

Then Peter said, 47 “CanCXCV, CXCVI anyone withholdCXCVII the waterCXCVIII for baptizingCXCIX these people who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?” 

Notes on verses 46b-47

CXCV “can” = dunamai. Related to “power” and “oppressed” in v38. See note CXLII above.
CXCVI {untranslated}= meti. 17x in NT. From me (not, neither, never; rules out conditional statements and their implications) + tis (someone, anyone, anything). This is asking a question when you expect the answer to be no. It is if not, surely no. But it also keeps a small possibility floating – but could it be?
CXCVII “withhold” = koluo. Perhaps from the same as kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf). This is to hinder or prevent, restrain, refuse. It can be prevent, whether through words or actions.
CXCVIII “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
CXCIX “baptizing” = baptizo. Related to “baptism” in v37. See note CXXXV above.

48 So he orderedCC them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they invitedCCI him to stayCCII for several days.

Notes on verse 48

CC “ordered” = prostasso. 7x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to allot, place, appoint, or instruct. This is allotting with a focus on the one who is making the allotment decisions. Figuratively, this can also mean to enjoin.
CCI “invited” = erotao. Related to “asking for” in v17 & “message” in v37. See note CVI above.
CCII “stay” = epimeno. Related to “memorial” in v4. 17x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + meno (see note XXXII above). This is to remain, terry, continue, or persevere. It denotes persistence in pursing a goal or task.

Image credit: “Wayside shrine in St. Veit im Jauntal in the community of Sankt Kanzian am Klopeiner See” by Josef Stelan, 2011.

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