Acts 18:24-27

Acts 18:24-27
A Women’s Lectionary 27


24 Now there cameA to EphesusB a JewC

Notes on verse 24a

A “came” = katanatao. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among); + antao (to meet with personally) OR from kata (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to come down, reach, arrive. It can be to descend from a higher elevation to a lower one or, more specifically, go to the coast or from out in the waters back to the coast. Figuratively, it is arriving at one’s destination or receiving inheritance.
B “Ephesus” = Ephesos. 16x in NT. Perhaps from Luwian Apa-ša (“later-city”) OR from Hittite Apasa (capital of Arzawa – an allied group in western Anatolia); {from appa (behind, back, after)}. This is Ephesus, meaning the “later place,” which would perhaps have the sense of a city named Newtown or Lands End. See &
C “Jew” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

namedD ApollosE fromF Alexandria.G

Notes on verse 24b

D “named” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
E “Apollos” = Apollos. 10x in NT. Probably from Apollonios (belonging to Apollo); from the same as apollonia (Apollonia, a Macedonian city); from Apollon (the Greek god Apollo, who was god of “light, music, medicine, poetry, prophecy, dance, manly beauty”); possibly from Pre-Greek (to drive away) OR from Greek apollumi (to destroy) OR apolouon (washing) OR apoluon (delivering) OR haploun (simple) OR aeiballon (always shooting) OR a (not) + polus (parts). This is Apollos. See
F “from” = genos. From ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense.
G “Alexandria” = Alexandreus. 2x in NT From Alexandreia (Alexandria); {from Alexandros (Alexander, “man-defender”); {from alexo (to ward off) + aner (man, male, sir, husband)}}. See

He was an eloquentH man,I well-versedJ in the scriptures.K 

Notes on verse 24c

H “eloquent” = logios. 1x in NT. From logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (to speak, tell, mention)} This is educated, eloquent, one who has reason, an orator.
I “man” = aner. Related to “Alexandria” in v24. See note G above.
J “well-versed” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
K “scriptures” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.

25 He had been instructedL in the WayM of the Lord,N and he spoke with burning enthusiasmO

Notes on verse 25a

L “instructed” = katecheo. 8x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + echeo (to sound, reverberate, give a loud sound); {from echos (a loud sound, roaring, or echo. It can also be a report, rumor, or fame); from eche (noise or sound)}. This is literally to sound down. It is to study something by sounding it out and repeating it. It can also imply indoctrinate. This is where “catechism” comes from.
M “Way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
N “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
O “with burning enthusiasm” = zeo + ho + pneuma. Literally, “being fervent in spirit.” 2x in NT. Zeo is to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow. It is used figuratively for being fervent or earnest. The word is onomatopoeia for the sound that water makes when it boils. Pneuma is from pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

and taughtP accuratelyQ the things concerning Jesus,R

Notes on verse 25b

P “taught” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
Q “accurately” = akribos. 9x in NT. From akriboo (examine carefully, learn diligently); from akribes (high point, extreme) OR from akros (the point, end); from akrib– (learning precise information with as much accuracy as possible; probing inquiry to gain a comprehensive, exact sense of the facts). This is carefully, strictly, diligently, with great accuracy. This is investigated to the finest point and so precise.
R “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

though he knewS onlyT the baptismU of John.V 

Notes on verse 25c

S “knew” = epistamai. 14x in NT. From epihistemi (to stand upon, be present, stand by, be urgent; to attack, confront, appear); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to know, stand on, get knowledge face to face or with personal effort, comprehend, be acquainted. It is related to “epistemology.”
T “only” = monon. From monos (alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate); from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is merely, only, simply, sole. It can also imply alone.
U “baptism” = baptisma. From baptizo (to submerge, wash, or immerse; used specially for baptism); from bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is dipping or sinking. Also, the rite of baptism.
V “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v25. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note R above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

26 He beganW to speak boldlyX in the synagogue,Y

Notes on verse 26a

W “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
X “speak boldly” = parresiazomai. 9x in NT– 7 in the book of Acts. From parresia (confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness; can imply assurance – free speech); {from pas (all, every, each) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}}. This is to be confident, speak freely or with boldness. It can also refer to a confident spirit or manner.
Y “synagogue” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

but when PriscillaZ and AquilaAA heardBB him

Notes on verse 26b

Z “Priscilla” = Priskilla. 3x in NT. From Priska (Prisca, “of earlier times.”); from Latin priscus (Priscus, a male name); from Latin priscus (ancient, former); from prae (first, earlier). This is Priscilla, it is an affectionate short form of Prisca. So, it means “little Prisca.” Prisca means “of earlier times.” See &
AA “Aquila” = Akulas. 6x in NT. From Latin Aquila (Aquila); from aquila (eagle); perhaps related to aquilus (“blackish, the color of darkness”); perhaps from aqua (water). This is Aquila, meaning eagle. See
BB “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

they took him asideCC and explainedDD the Way of GodEE to him more accurately. 

Notes on verse 26c

CC “took…aside” = proslambano. 12x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take aside, accept, receive, or welcome. It can be to take in a friendly or hospitable sense or to eat (i.e. take food).
DD “explained” = ektithemi. 4x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to set forth, expound, abandon, declare.
EE “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

27 And when he wishedFF to cross overGG to Achaia,HH

Notes on verse 27a

FF “wished” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
GG “cross over” = dierchomai. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
HH “Achaia” = Achaia. 10x in NT. Perhaps from achos (pain, distress, or grief). This is Achaia, perhaps meaning pain or trouble. Achaia was also a name used to refer to Demeter. See

the brothersII and sisters encouragedJJ him and wroteKK to the disciplesLL to welcomeMM him.

Notes on verse 27b

II “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
JJ “encouraged” = protrepo. 1x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); {from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn forward, encourage, persuade.
KK “wrote” = grapho. Related to “scriptures” in v24. See note K above.
LL “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
MM “welcome” = apodechomai. 7x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is to welcome, embrace, receive, approve of. It can also mean to show hospitality.

On his arrivalNN he greatlyOO helpedPP those who through graceQQ had become believers,RR

Notes on verse 27c

NN “arrival” = paraginomai. Related to “from” in v24. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note F above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
OO “greatly” = polus. Related to “Apollos” in v24. See note E above.
PP “helped” = sumballo. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with, joined closely) + ballo (to throw, cast, rush, place, put, drop; to throw in a more or less intense/violent way). This is properly to throw together. So, it can mean happening upon someone or something with or without hostile motives. In the sense of combining, it can mean to speak, consult, or dispute. Mentally, it can mean to consider something as throwing multiple ideas together to ponder and weigh them. It can imply coming to someone’s aid, joining them, or attacking.
QQ “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
RR “become believers” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

Image credit: “Icon of Saints Priscilla and Aquila.” Photo by Octave444.

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