Acts 22

Acts 22


I“BrothersII and fathers,III listenIV to the defenseV that I now make before you.”

Notes on verse 1

I {untranslated} = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
II “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
III “fathers” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
IV “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
V “defense” = apologia. 8x in NT. From apologeomai (to make an accounting or defend oneself – particularly in court; present proof or evidence using sound logic); {from apo (from, away from) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is a verbal defense, especially in a legal setting, that is well reasoned to respond to the issue at hand. It is an apology, clearing, plea, or vindication.

When they heardVI him addressingVII them in Hebrew,VIII 

Notes on verse 2a

VI “heard” = akouo. Same as “listen” in v1. See note IV above.
VII “addressing” = prosphoneo. 7x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + phoneo (to call out, summon, shout, address; making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument); from phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call to, address, give a speech, summon, exclaim.
VIII “Hebrew” = Hebrais + dialektos. Hebrais is 3x in NT– all in Acts. From Hebrew Ibri (Hebrew, perhaps meaning “descendant of Eber” or “from the place beyond”); from Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew language. In this case, it refers to Aramaic. Dialektos is related to “defense” in v1. 6x in NT. From dialegomai (to discuss, preach, reason, argue, lecture); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + lego (see note V above)}. This is speech, language, tongue, or dialect. It can also be mode of discourse. It is the root where “dialect” and “dialogue” come from.

they becameIX even moreX quiet.XI Then he said:XII

Notes on verse 2b

IX “became” = parecho. 16x in NT– including Luke 6:29: “if anyone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also.” From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is present, to show, bring, give, offer to hold near.
X “even more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
XI “quiet” = hesuchia. Related to “became” in v2. 4x in NT. From hesuchios (quiet, peaceful, settled, calm; sitting still); {from hesuchos (still, quiet)} OR from hedraios (sitting, well-seated, immovable; figuratively, steadfast, firm, morally fixed); {from hedra (seat)} + echo (see note IX above). This is quiet or stillness. It is a sense of calm rather than one of speechlessness.
XII “said” = phemi. Related to “addressing” in v2. See note VII above.

“I amXIII aXIV JewXV bornXVI in TarsusXVII

Notes on verse 3a

XIII “am” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XIV {untranslated} = aner. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XV “Jew” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XVI “born” = gennao. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.
XVII “Tarsus” = Tarsos. 3x in NT– all in Acts. Perhaps from tarsos (basket) or Hebrew tirza (cypress) or Hebrew erez (cedar) or Hittite Tarsa (Tarsa); {perhaps from Tarhunz (a storm god)}. This is Tarsus, which may mean “cypress” or “forest of cedars” or “courage” or “confidence” or “basket” or a reference to Tarhunz. See &,_Mersin

in CiliciaXVIII but brought upXIX in this cityXX at the feetXXI of Gamaliel,XXII

Notes on verse 3b

XVIII “Cilicia” = Kilikia. 8x in NT. This is Cilicia – origin uncertain.
XIX “brought up” = anatrepho. 3x in NT– all in Acts. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + trepho (to bring up, nourish, nurse; properly, to enlarge through good feeding); {perhaps related to trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is rear, nurture, educate, raise.
XX “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XXI “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.
XXII “Gamaliel” = Gamaliel. 2x in NT– both in Acts. From Hebrew Gamliel (Gamaliel, “reward of God”); {from gamal (how one deals with someone whether positively or negatively – so to reward, requite; to wean or the work that goes into something ripening) + El (God or a god)}. This is Gamaliel, meaning “investment of God” or “God is my investment” or “reward of God” or “God has rewarded” or “recompense of God” or “camel of God.” See

educatedXXIII strictlyXXIV according to our ancestralXXV law,XXVI

Notes on verse 3c

XXIII “educated” = paideuo. 13x in NT. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). Properly, this is training or teaching children so it is educate, correct, discipline, and punish. This is the root of “pedagogy.”
XXIV “strictly” = akribeia. 1x in NT. From akriboo (examine carefully, learn diligently); from akribes (high point, extreme) OR from akros (the point, end); from akrib– (learning precise information with as much accuracy as possible; probing inquiry to gain a comprehensive, exact sense of the facts).This is paying attention to detail or precisely.
XXV “ancestral” = patroos. Related to “fathers” in v1. 3x in NT – all in Acts. From pater (see note III above). This is paternal or hereditary.
XXVI “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.

beingXXVII zealousXXVIII for God,XXIX just as allXXX of you are today.XXXI 

Notes on verse 3d

XXVII “being” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
XXVIII “zealous” = zelotes. 8x in NT. From zeloo (jealous, eager for, burning with zeal, deeply committed, envy); from zelos (eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other; burning anger or burning love) perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is zealous or a zealot – someone eagerly devoted to someone or something. This is where the word “zealot” comes from.
XXIX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XXX “all’ = pas. This is all or every.
XXXI “today” = semeron. From hemera (day, time, daybreak); perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is today, now, at present.

I persecutedXXXII this WayXXXIII up to the point of deathXXXIV by bindingXXXV

Notes on verse 4a

XXXII “persecuted” = dioko. From dio (put to flight). This is chase or pursue in an aggressive fashion. By implication, it is persecute. It can also be used positively for eagerly pursuing something.
XXXIII “Way” = Hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
XXXIV “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
XXXV “binding” = desmeuo. 3x in NT. From desmos (a bond, chain, infirmity, impediment, ligament); from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited) OR from desmeo (bind, confine, tie); from desmeuo (see above). This is to put in chains, bind together, chain a prisoner, tie a load.

both menXXXVI and womenXXXVII and puttingXXXVIII them in prison,XXXIX 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXVI “men” = aner. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XXXVII “women” = gune. Related to “born” in v3. Perhaps from ginomai (see note XVI above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XXXVIII “putting” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XXXIX “prison” = phulake. From phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).

as the high priestXL and the wholeXLI council of eldersXLII can testifyXLIII about me.

Notes on verse 5a

XL “high priest” = archiereus. Related to “being” in v3. From archo (see note XXVII above) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
XLI “whole” = pas. Same as “all” in v3. See note XXX above.
XLII “council of elders” = presbuterion. 3x in NT. From presbuteros (an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church); from presbus (old man). This is a council of elders, the Sanhedrin. It is also used to refer to leadership of early churches. It is where the word “presbytery” comes from.
XLIII “testify” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.

From them I also receivedXLIV lettersXLV to the brothers in Damascus,XLVI

Notes on verse 5b

XLIV “received” = dechomai. This is to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome. It is to receive in a literal or figurative sense.
XLV “letters” = epistole. From epistello (to write, communicate through letter); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is an epistle, letter, or other written message. This is where the word “epistle” comes from.
XLVI “Damascus” = Damaskos. 15x in NT. From Hebrew Dammeseq (Damascus is Aram/Syria – foreign origin unclear). This is Damascus in Syria.

and I went thereXLVII in order to bindXLVIII those who were there and to bring them backXLIX to JerusalemL for punishment.LI

Notes on verse 5c

XLVII “went there” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XLVIII “bind” = deo. Related to “binding” in v4. See note XXXV above.
XLIX “bring…back” = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.
L “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
LI “punishment” = timoreo. 2x in NT. Probably from time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)} + arnumai (to get atonement) OR from time (see above) + ouros (guard). This is to punish or avenge. It is one who exacts retribution in the name of one’s honor.

LIIWhile I was on my wayLIII and approachingLIV Damascus,

Notes on verse 6a

LII {untranslated} = ginomai. Related to “born” in v3 & “women” in v4. See note XVI above.
LIII “was on…way” = poreuomai. Same as “went there” in v5. See note XLVII above.
LIV “approaching” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.

about noonLV a greatLVI lightLVII

Notes on verse 6b

LV “noon” = mesembria. Related to “today” in v3. 2x in NT. From mesos (middle, among, center); {perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action)} + hemera (see note XXXI above)}. This is literally midday or the south.
LVI “great” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
LVII “light” = phos. Related to “addressing” in v2 & “suddenly” in v6. From phao (see note VII above) or from the same as phaino (see note VII above). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.

from heavenLVIII suddenlyLIX shoneLX about me. 

Notes on verse 6c

LVIII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
LIX “suddenly” = exaiphnes. Related to “addressing” in v2. 5x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + aiphnidios (literally not apparent so sudden or unexpected); {from aiphnes (suddenly); {from a (not, without) + phaino (see note VII above); {perhaps from phos (see note VII above)}}}. This is suddenly or unexpectedly.
LX “shone” = peristrapto. 2x in NT – both in Acts regarding the conversion of Saul. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + astrapto (to flash with or like lightning, be dazzling); {probably from aster (star literally or figuratively); probably related to stronnumi or stronnuo (to spread, make a bed)}. This is to flash around – to totally surround with light. It has the appearance of lightning.

I fellLXI to the groundLXII and heard a voiceLXIII sayingLXIV to me, ‘Saul,LXV Saul, why are you persecuting me?’ 

Notes on verse 7

LXI “fell” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.
LXII “ground” = edaphos. Related to “quiet” in v2. 1x in NT. Perhaps akin to hedraios (see note XI above). This is a basis, bottom, or soil.
LXIII “voice” = phone. Related to “addressing” and “said in v2 & “suddenly” and “light” in v6. See note VII above.
LXIV “saying” = lego. Related to “defense” in v1 & “Hebrew” in v2. See note V above.
LXV “Saul” = Saoul. 9x in NT. From Hebrew shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”

I answered,LXVI ‘Who are you, Lord?’LXVII Then he said to me, ‘I am JesusLXVIII of NazarethLXIX whom you are persecuting.’ 

Notes on verse 8

LXVI “answered” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
LXVII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LXVIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
LXIX “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See

Now those who were with meLXX sawLXXI the light but did not hear the voice of the one who was speakingLXXII to me. 

Notes on verse 9

LXX {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
LXXI “saw” = theaomai. From thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit like a spectator. This is the root of the word “theatre.”
LXXII “speaking” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.

10 I asked, ‘What am I to do,LXXIII Lord?’ The Lord said to me, ‘Get upLXXIV and goLXXV to Damascus; there you will be toldLXXVI everythingLXXVII that has been assignedLXXVIII to you to do.’ 

Notes on verse 10

LXXIII “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
LXXIV “get up” = anistemi. Related to “letters” in v5. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XLV above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
LXXV “go” = poreuomai. Same as “went there” in v5. See note XLVII above.
LXXVI “told” = laleo. Same as “speaking” in v9. See note LXXII above.
LXXVII “everything” = pas. Same as “all” in v3. See note XXX above.
LXXVIII “assigned” = tasso. 9x in NT. This word was common in military settings to mean appoint or commission to a certain status. It referred to arranging in a specified order, setting in place, or sending to a specific task.

11 Since I could not seeLXXIX because of the brightnessLXXX of that light, those who were withLXXXI me took my handLXXXII and ledLXXXIII me to Damascus.

Notes on verse 11

LXXIX “see” = emblepo. 12x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look at, gaze, consider, stare, see clearly, look with particular interest.
LXXX “brightness” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
LXXXI “were with” = suneimi. Related to “am” in v3. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + eimi (see note XIII above). This is to be with at a specific time.
LXXXII “took…hand” = cheiragogeo. Related to “bring…back” in v5. 2x in NT – both in Acts about the conversion of Saul. From cheiragogos (one who leads by the hand, someone who is blind or helpless); {from cheir (hand in a literal sense; figuratively, the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can mean power, means, or instrument); {perhaps from cheimon (winter, storm – winter as the rainy season); related to the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn) or cheo (to pour)} + ago (see note XLIX above)}. This is to lead by the hand as one leads someone who is blind.
LXXXIII “led” = erchomai. This is to come or go.

12 “A certain Ananias,LXXXIV who was a devoutLXXXV man according to the law and well spoken ofLXXXVI by all the Jews livingLXXXVII there, 

Notes on verse 12

LXXXIV “Ananias” = Ananias. Related to “Jesus” in v8. 11x in NT. From Hebrew Chananyah (Hannaniah; “the Lord has been gracious” or “the Lord has favored); {from chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status) Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note LXVIII above)}. This is Ananias, meaning “the Lord has been gracious” or “the Lord has favored.”
LXXXV “devout” = eulabes. 4x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is literally handling well or grasping what is good. So, cautious or circumspect. By extension, it refers to devout, pious, or God fearing.
LXXXVI “well spoken of” = martureo. Same as “testify” in v5. See note XLIII above.
LXXXVII “living” = katoikeo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.

13 cameLXXXVIII to me, and standing besideLXXXIX me, he said, ‘Brother Saul, regain your sight!’XC In that very hourXCI I regained my sight and saw him. 

Notes on verse 13

LXXXVIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “led” in v11. See note LXXXIII above.
LXXXIX “standing beside” = ephistemi. Related to “letters” in v5 & “get up” in v10. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (see note XLV above). This is to stand upon, happen, be present. Usually, it is used in a literal sense.
XC “regain…sight” = anablepo. Related to “see” in v11. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + blepo (see note LXXIX above). This is to look up or regain sight.
XCI “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.

14 Then he said, ‘The God of our ancestorsXCII has chosenXCIII you to knowXCIV his will,XCV

Notes on verse 14a

XCII “ancestors” = pater. Same as “fathers” in v1. See note III above.
XCIII “chosen” = procheirizo. Related to “took…hand” in v11. 3x in NT. From pro (before, earlier, above) + cheir (see note LXXXII above). This is literally to take into one’s hand. So, it is to determine, choose, or to purpose.
XCIV “know” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XCV “will” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.

to seeXCVI the Righteous One,XCVII and to hear his ownXCVIII voice, 

Notes on verse 14b

XCVI “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XCVII “Righteous One” = Dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
XCVIII “his own” = ek + ho + stoma + autos. Literally, “from his mouth.” Stoma is perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.

15 for you will be his witnessXCIX to all the worldC of what you have seenCI and heard. 16 And now why do you delay?CII Get up, be baptized,CIII

Notes on verses 15-16a

XCIX “witness” = martus. Related to “testify” in v5. See note XLIII above.
C “world” = anthropos. Related to {untranslated} in v1 & to “see” in v14. Probably from aner (see note I above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note XCVI above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CI “seen” = horao. Same as “see” in v14. See note XCVI above.
CII “delay” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
CIII “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.

and have your sinsCIV washed away,CV calling onCVI his name.’CVII

Notes on verse 16b

CIV “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
CV “washed away” = apolouo. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + louo (bathing and washing; literal or ritual cleansing, but particularly washing the whole body). This is to wash off, to wash thoroughly. It can also mean to remit in a figurative sense.
CVI “calling on” = epikaleo. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
CVII “name” = onoma. Related to “know” in v14. May be from ginosko (see note XCIV above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

17 CVIIIAfter I had returnedCIX to Jerusalem and while I was prayingCX

Notes on verse 17a

CVIII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LII above.
CIX “returned” = hupostrepho. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
CX “praying” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

in the temple,CXI I fellCXII into a tranceCXIII 

Notes on verse 17b

CXI “temple” = hieron. Related to “high priest” in v5. From hieros (see note XL above). This is the word for temple.
CXII “fell” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LII above.
CXIII “trance” = ekstasis. Related to “letters” in v5 & “get up” in v10 & “standing beside” in v13. 7x in NT. From existemi (o displace or take something or someone from standing; figuratively, to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself; astonished, amazed, or mad); {from ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note XLV above)}. This is bewilderment, amazement, distraction, shock, a trance, rapture. It is the root of the word “ecstasy.”

18 and sawCXIV Jesus sayingCXV to me, ‘HurryCXVI

Notes on verse 18a

CXIV “saw” = horao. Same as “see” in v14. See note XCVI above.
CXV “saying” = lego. Same as “saying” in v7. See note LXIV above.
CXVI “hurry” = speudo. Related to “feet” in v3. 6x in NT– shepherds went with hast to find Mary and Joseph and the child in Luke 2:16. Jesus tells Zacchaeus to hurry down from the tree in Luke 19:5-6. Perhaps from pous (see note XXI above). This is to hurry, urge on, await. It implies eagerness or diligence.

and get outCXVII of Jerusalem quickly,CXVIII because they will not acceptCXIX your testimonyCXX about me.’ 

Notes on verse 18b

CXVII “get out” = exerchomai. Related to “led” in v11. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note LXXXIII above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CXVIII “quickly” = en + tachos. Literally, “with speed.” Tachos is 8x in NT. From tachus (quickly, promptly; without unreasonable delay). This is quickly or immediately. It is not rushed, but as fast as is reasonable.
CXIX “accept” = paradechomai. Related to “received” in v5. 6x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + dechomai (see note XLIV above). This is to receive, welcome, accept, adopt, admit. It can also mean to find joy in.
CXX “testimony” = marturia. Related to “testify” in v5 & “witness” in v15. From martureo (see note XLIII above). This is testimony, witness, evidence, record, reputation.

19 And I said, ‘Lord, they themselves knowCXXI that in every synagogueCXXII ICXXIII

Notes on verse 19a

CXXI “know” = epistamai. Related to “letters” in v5 & “get up” in v10 & “standing beside” in v13 & “trance” in v17. 14x in NT. From epihistemi (to stand upon, be present, stand by, be urgent; to attack, confront, appear); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (see note XLV above)}. This is to know, stand on, get knowledge face to face or with personal effort, comprehend, be acquainted. It is related to “epistemology.”
CXXII “synagogue” = sunagoge. Related to “bring…back” in v5 & “took…hand” in v11. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XLIX above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
CXXIII {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “am” in v3. See note XIII above.

imprisonedCXXIV and beatCXXV those who believedCXXVI in you. 

Notes on verse 19b

CXXIV “imprisoned” = phulakizo. Related to “prison” in v4. 1x in NT. From phulax (guard, watcher); from phulasso (see note XXXIX above). This is to imprison or give into custody.
CXXV “beat” = dero. 15x in NT. To whip, flog, scourge, beat, thrash.
CXXVI “believed” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

20 And while the bloodCXXVII of your witness StephenCXXVIII was shed,CXXIX

Notes on verse 20a

CXXVII “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
CXXVIII “Stephen” = Stephanos. 7x in NT. From stephanos (something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland; properly, the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win; symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek); stepho (to twine, encircle). This is Stephen or Stephanus, meaning “crown.”
CXXIX “shed” = ekcheo. Related to “took…hand” in v11 & “chosen” in v14. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (see note LXXXII above). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.

I myself was standing by, approvingCXXX and keepingCXXXI the coatsCXXXII

Notes on verse 20b

CXXX “approving” = suneudokeo. Related to “devout” in v12 & to “brightness” in v11. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + eudokeo (to think well of, to be pleased or resolved; properly, what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of); {from eu (see note LXXXV above) + dokeo (see note LXXX above)}. This is to approve, applaud, consent. It can be to resoundingly agree in partnership with others.
CXXXI “keeping” = phulasso. Related to “prison” in v4 & “imprisoned” in v19. See note XXXIX above.
CXXXII “coats” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

of those who killedCXXXIII him.’ 21 Then he said to me, ‘Go, for I will sendCXXXIV you far away to the gentiles.’”CXXXV

Notes on verses 20c-21

CXXXIII “killed” = anaireo. Related to “heaven” in v6. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (see note LVIII above)}. This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
CXXXIV “send” = exapostello. Related to “letters” in v5 & “get up” in v10 & “standing beside” in v13 & “trance” in v17 & “know” in v19. 13x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (see note XLV above)}. This is to send away, dismiss, send someone for a mission.
CXXXV “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

22 Up to this pointCXXXVI they listened to him, but then they shouted,CXXXVII, CXXXVIII

Notes on verse 22a

CXXXVI “up to this point” = achri + houtos + ho + logos. Literally, “until this word.” Logos is related to “defense” in v1 & “Hebrew” in v2 & “saying” in v7. See note V above.
CXXXVII “shouted” = epairo + ho + phone. Literally “lifted up their voice.” Epairo is related to “heaven” in v6 & “killed” in v20. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (see note LVIII above). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself. Phone is the same as “voice” in v7. See note LXIII above.
CXXXVIII {untranslated} = lego. Same as “saying” in v7. See note LXIV above.

“Away withCXXXIX such a fellowCXL from the earth!CXLI For he should not be allowedCXLII to live.”CXLIII 

Notes on verse 22b

CXXXIX “away with” = airo. Related to “heaven” in v6 & “killed” in v20 & “shouted” in v22. See note LVIII above.
CXL “such a fellow” = toioutos. From toios (such, such-like) + houtos (this, they, that, third person pronoun); {probably from ho (the) + autos (he, she, self, they, same)}. This is one of this sort or kind. It is to emphasize character or uniqueness.
CXLI “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
CXLII “be allowed” = katheko. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout) + heko (to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal; to be present in a literal or figurative sense). This is to reach, be fitting, come to, become.
CXLIII “live” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

23 And while they were shouting,CXLIV throwing offCXLV their cloaks,CXLVI

Notes on verse 23a

CXLIV “shouting” = kraugazo. 9x in NT. From krauge (a very emotional shout or cry generally or clamor against someone else; a cry of alarm, trouble, or grief); from krazo (to cry out, scream, shriek; onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call; figuratively, this is means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt). This is to cry, shout, clamor. It is a screaming or shrieking that is often impossible to understand exact words in. It is sound expressing feeling/urgency. Properly, this refers to loud animal sounds.
CXLV “throwing off” = rhipteo. 1x in NT. Related to rhipto (to cast, toss fling, or disperse; a quick toss); perhaps related to rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is to cast off or toss up.
CXLVI “cloaks” = himation. Same as “coats” in v20. See note CXXXII above.

and tossingCXLVII dustCXLVIII into the air,CXLIX 24 the tribuneCL directedCLI

Notes on verses 23b-24a

CXLVII “tossing” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
CXLVIII “dust” = koniortos. 5x in NT. From the same as koniao (to whitewash, plaster); {from konia (dust, lime) + ornumi (to stir up)}. This is dust or powder as blown around.
CXLIX “air” = aer. 7x in NT. From aemi (to breathe or blow). This is air – the atmosphere around us that we breathe.
CL “tribune” = chiliarchos. Related to “being” in v3 & “high priest” in v5. From chilioi (thousand literal and figurative; can mean total inclusion) + archos (chief, leader); {from archo (see note XXVII above)}. This is chiliarch – one who commands a thousand.
CLI “directed” = keleuo. Related to “calling on” in v16. See note CVI above.

that he was to be broughtCLII into the barracksCLIII and ordered him to be examinedCLIV by flogging,CLV

Notes on verse 24b

CLII “brought” = eisago. Related to “bring…back” in v5 & “took…hand” in v11 & “synagogue” in v19. 11x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + ago (see note XLIX above). This is to bring in, lead in, or introduce in a literal or figurative sense.
CLIII “barracks” = parembole. Related to “tossing” in v23. 11x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + emballo (to throw in, subject to); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + ballo (see note CXLVII above)}. This is a juxtaposition, camp, barracks.
CLIV “examined” = anetazo. 2x in NT – both in this passage. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + etazo (to examine, test). This is to examine or interrogate someone for judicial purposes, often with torture.
CLV “flogging” = mastix. 6x in NT. Probably from massaomai (to chew, gnaw, consume); from masso (to handle, squeeze). This is a whip that had leather straps with metal bits sewn onto them. It is figurative for great pain, suffering, disease, or plague. It is a Roman whip used on criminals, the flagellum.

to find outCLVI the reasonCLVII for this outcryCLVIII against him. 

Notes on verse 24c

CLVI “find out” = epiginosko. Related to “know” in v14 & “name” in v16. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (see note XCIV above). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
CLVII “reason” = aitia. From aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.
CLVIII “outcry” = epiphoneo. Related to “addressing” and “said” in v2 & “suddenly” and “light” in v6 & “voice” in v7. 4x in NT– 1x in Luke & 3x in Acts. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + phoneo (see note VII above). This is to shout or exclaim.

25 But when they had tied him upCLIX with straps,CLX PaulCLXI said to the centurionCLXII

Notes on verse 25a

CLIX “tied…up” = proteino. 1x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior) + teino (to stretch). This is to stretch before or bind. It is specifically to tie someone for flogging.
CLX “straps” = himas. 4x in NT. Perhaps from the same as hama (at one, together with, early). This is a thong like a part of a sandal or a strap that is part of a scourge.
CLXI “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
CLXII “centurion” = hekatontarches. Related to “being” in v3 & “high priest” in v5 & “tribune” in v24. From hekaton (hundred) + archo (see note XXVII above). This is a centurion from the Roman army, leader a captain of one hundred soldiers.

who was standing by,CLXIII “Is it legalCLXIV for you to flogCLXV

Notes on verse 25b

CLXIII “standing by” = histemi. Related to “letters” in v5 & “get up” in v10 & “standing beside” in v13 & “trance” in v17 & “know” in v19 & “send” in v21. See note XLV above.
CLXIV “is…legal” = exesti. Related to “am” in v3 & “were with” in v11. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note XIII above). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
CLXV “flog” = mastizo. Related to “flogging” in v24. 1x in NT. From mastix (see note CLV above). This is to whip or scourge. It has a focus on whipping that is done under legal punishment.

a RomanCLXVI personCLXVII who is uncondemned?”CLXVIII 

Notes on verse 25c

CLXVI “Roman” = Rhomaios. 12x in NT. From rhome (Rome); from the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This is Rome, Roman, or Roman citizen. See
CLXVII “person” = anthropos. Same as “world” in v15. See note C above.
CLXVIII “uncondemned” = akatakritos. Related to “answered” in v8. 2x in NT – both in Acts. From a (not, without) + katakrino (judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn; a decisive judgment of guilt; also to damn someone); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (see note LXVI above)}. This is someone who hasn’t been condemned. It could be one who has not been tried or someone still to be tried.

26 When the centurion heard that, he wentCLXIX to the tribune and saidCLXX to him, “What are you about toCLXXI do? This manCLXXII is a Roman.” 

Notes on verse 26

CLXIX “went” = proserchomai. Related to “led” in v11 & “get out” in v18. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note LXXXIII above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
CLXX “said” = apaggello + lego. Apaggello is related to “bring…back” in v5 & “took…hand” in v11 & “synagogue” in v19 & “brought” in v24. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (see note XLIX above)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source. Lego is the same as “saying” in v7. See note LXIV above.
CLXXI “about to” = mello. Same as “delay” in v16. See note CII above.
CLXXII “man” = anthropos. Same as “world” in v15. See note C above.

27 The tribune cameCLXXIII and asked Paul, “TellCLXXIV me, are you a Roman?”

And he said,CLXXV “Yes.”CLXXVI 

Notes on verse 27

CLXXIII “came” = proserchomai. Same as “went” in v26. See note CLXIX above.
CLXXIV “tell” = lego. Same as “saying” in v7. See note LXIV above.
CLXXV “said” = phemi. Same as “said” in v2. See note XII above.
CLXXVI “yes” = nai. This is yes, truly, indeed. It is a strong affirmation.

28 The tribune answered, “It costCLXXVII me a largeCLXXVIII sumCLXXIX of money to get my citizenship.”CLXXX

Paul said,CLXXXI “But I was born a Roman.” 

Notes on verse 28

CLXXVII “cost” = ktaomai. 7x in NT. This is to get, purchase, acquire, gain.
CLXXVIII “large” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
CLXXIX “sum” = kephalaion. 2x in NT. From kephale (head or chief; literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord, corner stone); from kapto (to seize). This is literally related to the head. It is used for the main thing or point. In this instance, it means a sum.
CLXXX “citizenship” = politeia. Related to “city” in v3. 2x in NT. From politeuomai (literally to live like a citizen; figuratively, to conduct oneself as a citizen does); from polites (citizen, townsperson); from polis (see note XX above). This is citizenship, community, freedom, or polity. It is where the word “polity” comes from.
CLXXXI “said” = phemi. Same as “said” in v2. See note XII above.

29 ImmediatelyCLXXXII those who were about to examine him drew backCLXXXIII from him, and the tribune also was afraid,CLXXXIV for he realizedCLXXXV that Paul was a Roman and that he hadCLXXXVI bound him.

Notes on verse 29

CLXXXII “immediately” = eutheos. Related to “devout” in v12 & “approving” in v20. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note LXXXV above) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CLXXXIII “drew back” = aphistemi. Related to “letters” in v5 & “get up” in v10 & “standing beside” in v13 & “trance” in v17 & “know” in v19 & “send” in v21 & “standing by” in v25. 14x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + histemi (see note XLV above). This is to remove, repel, refrain, depart from, foment a revolt, repel.
CLXXXIV “was afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
CLXXXV “realized” = epiginosko. Same as “find out” in v24. See note CLVI above.
CLXXXVI “had” = eimi. Same as “am” in v3. See note XIII above.

30 Since he wantedCLXXXVII to find outCLXXXVIII what Paul was being accused ofCLXXXIX by the Jews,

Notes on verse 30a

CLXXXVII “wanted” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
CLXXXVIII “find out” = ginosko + ho + asphales. Ginosko is the same as “know” in v14. See note XCIV above. Asphales is 5x in NT. From a (not, without) + sphallo (to trip up or fail). This is certain, reliable, secure, or definite. It is literally unfailing – something that is secure because it is solid and constructed on something that will not fall or slip. It is used in a is literal or figurative sense. It also shares a root with the word “asphalt.”
CLXXXIX “being accused of” = kategoreo. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.

the next dayCXC he releasedCXCI him and orderedCXCII the chief priests

Notes on verse 30b

CXC “next day” = epaurion. Related to “air” in v23. 17x in NT. From epi (on, upon, something fitting) + aurion (tomorrow); {from the same as aer (see note CXLIX above)}. This is tomorrow, the next day.
CXCI “released” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
CXCII “ordered” = keleuo. Same as “directed” in v24. See note CLI above.

and the entireCXCIII councilCXCIV to meet.CXCV He brought Paul downCXCVI and had him standCXCVII before them.

Notes on verse 30c

CXCIII “entire” = pas. Same as “all” in v3. See note XXX above.
CXCIV “council” = sunedrion. Related to “ground” in v7. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (see note XI above). This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.
CXCV “meet” = sunerchomai. Related to “led” in v11 & “get out” in v18 & “went” in v26. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note LXXXIII above). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
CXCVI “brought…down” = katago. Related to “bring…back” in v5 & “took…hand” in v11 & “synagogue” in v19 & “brought” in v24 & “said” in v26. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + ago (see note XLIX above). This is to bring or lead down. It could be from higher to lower ground or from out to sea closer to the land.
CXCVII “stand” = histemi. Same as “standing by” in v25. See note CLXIII above.

Image credit: “Paul and Silas in Prison” by Boettcher+Trinklein TV inc.

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