Acts 3

Acts 3


One day PeterI and JohnII were going upIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
II “John” = Ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
III “going up” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.

to the templeIV at the hourV of prayer,VI at three o’clock in the afternoon.VII 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
V “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
VI “prayer” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.
VII “three o’clock in the afternoon” = ennatos. Literally, “the ninth.” 10x in NT. From enatos (needy, poor, ninth); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited)} OR from ennea (nine). This is ninth.

And a manVIII lameIX from birthX wasXI being carried in.XII

Notes on verse 2a

VIII “man” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
IX “lame” = cholos. 14x in NT. This is lame or limping. It can also mean missing a foot.
X “from birth” = ek + koilia + meter + autos. Literally, “from his mother’s womb.” Koilia is from koilos (hollow). This is belly or organs in the abdomen. So, it could be stomach, womb, or heart. Figuratively, this refers to one’s inner self. Meter is mother in a literal or figurative sense.
XI “was” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
XII “carried in” = bastazo. Related to “going up” in v1. Perhaps from the base of basis (see note III above). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.

PeopleXIII would layXIV him dailyXV at the gateXVI of the temple calledXVII

Notes on verse 2b

XIII “people” = hos. Literally, “who.”
XIV “lay” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
XV “daily” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XVI “gate” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
XVII “called” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

the BeautifulXVIII Gate so that he could askXIX for almsXX from those enteringXXI the temple. 

Notes on verse 2c

XVIII “Beautiful” = horaios. Related to “hour” in v1. 4x in NT. From hora (see note V above). This is timely, seasonable, blooming, beautiful. It is fruitful, having the right timing, in season, flourishing.
XIX “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
XX “alms” = eleemosune. 13x in NT. From eleos (mercy, compassion). This is compassion – particularly in giving to the poor. Often, it is translated as alms or charity.
XXI “entering” = eisporeuomai. 18x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. 18x in NT. This is to enter or journey in in a literal or figurative sense.

When he sawXXII Peter and John about toXXIII goXXIV into the temple, he askedXXV them for alms.XXVI 

Notes on verse 3

XXII “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XXIII “about to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XXIV “go” = eiseimi. 4x in NT – 3x in Acts & 1x in Hebrews. From eis (to, into, towards, among) + eimi (to come, go). This is to enter or go in.
XXV “asked” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
XXVI {untranslated} = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.

Peter looked intentlyXXVII at him, as did John, and said, “LookXXVIII at us.” And he fixed his attentionXXIX on them, expectingXXX to receiveXXXI something from them. 

Notes on verses 4-5

XXVII “looked intently” = atenizo. 14x in NT. From a (has an intensive sense) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to gaze or look steadily at with one’s full attention and fascination.
XXVIII “look” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
XXIX “fixed…attention” = epecho. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is to hold fast, pay attention, retain, stop, wait.
XXX “expecting” = prosdokao. 16x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dokeuo (to watch). This is to await, anticipate, expect, look for.
XXXI “receive” = lambano. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XXVI above.

Peter said, “I haveXXXII no silverXXXIII or gold,XXXIV but what I haveXXXV I giveXXXVI you;

Notes on verse 6a

XXXII “have” = huparcho. Same as “was” in v2. See note XI above.
XXXIII “silver” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.
XXXIV “gold” = chrusion. 12x in NT. From chrusos (gold or something made of gold; symbolic of purchasing power); perhaps from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is gold or something made of gold. Emphasizes that which gold can obtain.
XXXV “have” = echo. Related to “fixed…attention” in v5. See note XXIX above.
XXXVI “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.

in the nameXXXVII of JesusXXXVIII ChristXXXIX

Notes on verse 6b

XXXVII “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XXXVIII “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “John” in v1. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note II above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXXIX “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

of Nazareth,XL stand upXLI and walk.”XLII 

Notes on verse 6c

XL “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
XLI “stand up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XLII “walk” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.

And he tookXLIII him by the rightXLIV handXLV and raised him up,XLVI

Notes on verse 7a

XLIII “took” = piazo. 12x in NT. From piezo (to press down or together, to pack) OR related to biazo (to force, use power to seize); {from bia (strength, force, violence) or bios (life, livelihood, goods, wealth)}. This is to take, catch,  squeeze, capture from hunting, or arrest. This is the root of “piezoelectricity.”
XLIV “right” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
XLV “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XLVI “raised…up” = egeiro. Same as “stand up” in v6. See note XLI above.

and immediatelyXLVII his feetXLVIII and anklesXLIX were made strong.L 

Notes on verse 7b

XLVII “immediately” = parachrema. Related to “gold” in v6. 18x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + chrema (something needed or useful– money, possessions, price); {from chraomai (see note XXXIV above)}. This is immediately or soon.
XLVIII “feet” = basis. Related to “going up” in v1 & “carried in” in v2. 1x in NT. See note III above.
XLIX “ankles” = sphudron. 1x in NT. From sphudron (ankle) OR perhaps related to sphaira (ball, sphere). This is an ankle or ankle bone.
L “made strong” = stereoo. 3x in NT. From stereos (hard, solid, steadfast, sure, stable; solid in a literal or figurative sense); perhaps from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm). This is to strengthen, make stable, establish, or confirm in a literal or figurative sense.

Jumping up,LI he stoodLII and began to walk, and he enteredLIII the temple with them, walking and leapingLIV and praisingLV God.LVI 

Notes on verse 8

LI “jumping up” = exallomai. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + hallomai (to leap or leap up; when referring to water, springing up or bubbling up; to jump or figuratively to gush). This is to leap up, to jump for joy.
LII “stood” = histemi. Related to “made strong” in v7. See note L above.
LIII “entered” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
LIV “leaping” = hallomai. Related to “jumping up” in v8. 3x in NT. See note LI above.
LV “praising” = aineo. 8x in NT. From ainos (praise, saying, story, proverb). This is to praise.
LVI “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

AllLVII the peopleLVIII saw him walking and praising God, 10 and they recognizedLIX him asLX the one who used to sitLXI and ask for alms at the Beautiful GateLXII of the temple,

Notes on verses 9-10a

LVII “all” = pas. This is all, every.
LVIII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
LIX “recognized” = epiginosko. Related to “name” in v6. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (see note XXXVII above). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
LX {untranslated} = eimi. This is to be, exist.
LXI “sit” = kathemai. Related to “daily” in v2. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (see note XV above). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
LXII “Gate” = Pule. 10x in NT. This is gate, large entrance to a city or a fortress. It is often used for an exit way. Figuratively, it can refer to authority and power.

and they were filledLXIII with wonderLXIV and astonishmentLXV at what had happenedLXVI to him.

Notes on verse 10b

LXIII “filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
LXIV “wonder” = thambos. 3x in NT– 2x in Luke and 1x in Acts. Akin to tapho (dumbfounded). This is amazement, wonder, being stunned or dumbfounded because something unusual happened. It can be positive or negative.
LXV “astonishment” = ekstasis. Related to “made strong” in v7 & “stood” in v8. 7x in NT. From existemi (o displace or take something or someone from standing; figuratively, to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself; astonished, amazed, or mad); {from ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note L above)}. This is bewilderment, amazement, distraction, shock, a trance, rapture. It is the root of the word “ecstasy.”
LXVI “happened” = sumbaino. Related to “going up” in v1 & “carried in” in v2 & “feet” in v7. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + from basis (see note III above). This is to walk together, happen, occur, meet. It could also be things that work together as a unit.

11 While he clungLXVII to Peter and John, all the peopleLXVIII ran togetherLXIX to them

Notes on verse 11a

LXVII “clung” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control.
LXVIII “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v9. See note LVIII above.
LXIX “ran together” = suntrecho. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + trecho (to run, make progress, rush; running like an athlete in a race; figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way). This is to run, hurry together. Figuratively, it can be to gather quickly or rush headlong.

in the porticoLXX calledLXXI Solomon’sLXXII Portico, utterly astonished.LXXIII 

Notes on verse 11b

LXX “portico” = stoa. Related to “made strong” in v7 & “stood” in v8 & “astonishment” in v10. 4x in NT. Probably from histemi (see note L above). This is a portico, colonnade, or piazza.
LXXI “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
LXXII “Solomon’s” = Solomon. 12x in NT. From Hebrew shelomoh (Solomon, meaning “peaceful”); from shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is Solomon, meaning “peaceful.”
LXXIII “utterly astonished” = ekthambos. Related to “wonder” in v10. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + thambos (see note LXIV above).  This is completely amazed or full of wonder

12 When Peter saw it, he addressedLXXIV the people,LXXV “FellowLXXVI Israelites,LXXVII 

Notes on verse 12a

LXXIV “addressed” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
LXXV “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v9. See note LVIII above.
LXXVI “fellow” = aner. Same as “man” in v2. See note VIII above.
LXXVII “Israelites” = Israelites. 9x in NT. From Israel (Israel, the people and land); from Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land. This is Israelite in a literal or figurative sense.

why do you wonderLXXVIII at this, or why do you stareLXXIX at us, as though by our ownLXXX

Notes on verse 12b

LXXVIII “wonder” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
LXXIX “stare” = atenizo. Same as “looked intently” in v4. See note XXVII above.
LXXX “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).

 powerLXXXI or pietyLXXXII we had madeLXXXIII him walk? 

Notes on verse 12c

LXXXI “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
LXXXII “piety” = eusebeia. 15x in NT– 1x in Acts, 8x in 1 Timothy, 1x in 2 Timothy, 1x in Titus, and 4x in 2 Peter. From eusebes (pious, devout, respectful); {from eu (good, well, well done) + sebomai (to worship, revere, adore, hold in high regard or in awe; veneration shown by a devout one)}. This is piety, devotion – showing reverence.
LXXXIII “made” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

13 The God of AbrahamLXXXIV and IsaacLXXXV and Jacob,LXXXVI the God of our ancestors,LXXXVII

Notes on verse 13a

LXXXIV “Abraham” = Abraam. From Hebrew Abraham (exalted father); from the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
LXXXV “Isaac” = Isaak. From Hebrew yitschaq (Isaac, “he laughs”); from tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
LXXXVI “Jacob” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqob (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
LXXXVII “ancestors” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

has glorifiedLXXXVIII his servantLXXXIX Jesus, whom youXC handed overXCI

Notes on verse 13b

LXXXVIII “glorified” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
LXXXIX “servant” = pais. Related to “walk” in v6. Perhaps from paio (see note XLII above). This is child, youth, servant, or slave.
XC {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XCI “handed over” = paradidomi. Related to “give” in v6. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note XXXVI above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

and rejectedXCII in the presenceXCIII of Pilate,XCIV though he had decidedXCV to releaseXCVI him. 

Notes on verse 13c

XCII “rejected” = arneomai. From a (not) + rheo (say, speak of). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.
XCIII “presence” = prosopon. Related to “saw” in v3. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note XXII above)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
XCIV “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See
XCV “decided” = krino. Related to “addressed” in v12. See note LXXIV above.
XCVI “release” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.

14 But you rejected the holyXCVII and righteous oneXCVIII and askedXCIX

Notes on verse 14a

XCVII “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XCVIII “righteous one” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
XCIX “asked” = aiteo. Same as “ask” in v2. See note XIX above.

to have aC murdererCI givenCII to you, 

Notes on verse 14b

C {untranslated} = aner. Same as “man” in v2. See note VIII above.
CI “murderer” = phoneus. 7x in NT. From phonos (killing, murder, or slaughter; one of the crimes that Barabbas and Saul are accused of); from pheno (to slay). This is a murderer – a killing that is not justified and is done on purpose. It general refers to a criminal act.
CII “given” = charizomai. From charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to extend grace or favor, to grant forgiveness, to pardon or rescue.

15 and you killedCIII the authorCIV of life,CV

Notes on verse 15a

CIII “killed” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
CIV “author” = archegos. Related to “was” in v2. 4x in NT. From archo (see note XI above) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go)}. This is leader, founder, captain – someone who begins or pioneers a movement with followers.
CV “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

whom God raisedCVI from the dead.CVII To this we are witnesses.CVIII 

Notes on verse 15b

CVI “raised” = egeiro. Same as “stand up” in v6. See note XLI above.
CVII “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
CVIII “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.

16 And by faithCIX in his name, his name itself has made this man strong, whom you seeCX and know,CXI

Notes on verse 16a

CIX “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
CX “see” = theoreo. Related to “wonder” in v12. From theaomai (see note LXXVIII above). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
CXI “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

and the faith that is through Jesus has givenCXII him this perfect healthCXIII in the presence of all of you.

17 “And now, brothersCXIV and sisters, I know that you actedCXV

Notes on verses 16b-17a

CXII “given” = didomi. Same as “give” in v6. See note XXXVI above.
CXIII “perfect health” = holokleria. 1x in NT. From holokleros (complete, perfect, sound (of the body)); {from holos (whole, complete, or entire; a state where every member is present and functioning in concert) + kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); {perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread)}}. This is being in a state of wholeness, complete health, physical integrity.
CXIV “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CXV “acted” = prasso. This is to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit. It can also mean to accomplish, attend, or commit.

in ignorance,CXVI as did also your rulers.CXVII 18 In this way God fulfilledCXVIII what he had foretoldCXIX

Notes on verses 17b-18a

CXVI “ignorance” = agnoia. Related to “name” in v6 & “recognized” in v10. 4x in NT. From agnoeo (unaware, not to know; willful ignorance, or not knowing); {from a (not, without) + ginosko (see note XXXVII above)}. This is ignorance. Sometimes it can imply being intentionally unknowing.
CXVII “rulers” = archon. Related to “was” in v2 & “author” in v15. From archo (see note XI above). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
CXVIII “fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CXIX “foretold” = prokataggello. Related to “author” in v15. 2x in NT. From pro (before, earlier, above) + kataggello (to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message; to celebrate, preach, or teach); {from kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see  note CIV above)}}. This is to promise or predict. It is a proclamation made before the event.

throughCXX all the prophets,CXXI that his MessiahCXXII would suffer.CXXIII 

Notes on verse 18b

CXX {untranslated} = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
CXXI “prophets” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CXXII “Messiah” = Christos. Same as “Christ” in v6. See note XXXIX above.
CXXIII “suffer” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.

19 Repent,CXXIV therefore, and turnCXXV to God so that your sinsCXXVI may be wiped out,CXXVII 

Notes on verse 19

CXXIV “repent” = metanoeo. Related to “name” in v6 & “recognized” in v10 & “ignorance” in v17. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from ginosko (see note XXXVII above)}. This is to change how one thinks, to reconsider, to repent. It refers to a change of thinking, which means a change of purpose and behavior.
CXXV “turn” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
CXXVI “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
CXXVII “wiped out” = exaleipho. 5x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + aleipho (to anoint as an act of homage, for healing, to celebrate a festival, to honor a guest, as anointing the dead); {from a (with, together with) + liparos (oil, fatty; figuratively, something rich or luxurious); {from lipos (fat, grease)}}. This is to wipe out, smear, remove, plaster, blot out (so, erase). Figuratively, it can also mean cancelling a duty or forgiving a sin.

20 so that times of refreshingCXXVIII may comeCXXIX from the presence of the LordCXXX

Notes on verse 20a

CXXVIII “refreshing” = anapsuchis. 1x in NT. From anapsucho (to refresh, revive, comfort; it is restored or relieved like the coolness of a breeze); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + psucho (to breathe, blow, breathe out, to cool or make cold)}. This is recovering the ability to breathe easy. It is regaining one’s breath, cooling down. Figuratively, it is a refreshing or revival.
CXXIX “come” = erchomai. Related to “entered” in v8. See note LIII above.
CXXX “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

and that he may sendCXXXI the Messiah appointedCXXXII for you, that is, Jesus, 21 who mustCXXXIII remainCXXXIV

Notes on verses 20b-21a

CXXXI “send” = apostello. Related to “made strong” in v7 & “stood” in v8 & “astonishment” in v10 & “portico” in v11. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note L above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CXXXII “appointed” = procheirizo. Related to “gold” in v6 & “hand” and “immediately in v7. 3x in NT. From pro (before, earlier, above) + cheir (see note XLV above). This is literally to take into one’s hand. So, it is to determine, choose, or to purpose.
CXXXIII “must” = dei. Related to “three o’clock in the afternoon” in v1. From deo (see note VII above). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CXXXIV “remain” = dechomai. Related to “right” in v7. See note XLIV above.

in heavenCXXXV, CXXXVI until the timeCXXXVII of universalCXXXVIII

Notes on verse 21b

CXXXV “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CXXXVI {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v13. See note XC above.
CXXXVII “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
CXXXVIII “universal” = pas. Same as “all” in v9. See note LVII above.

restorationCXXXIX that God announcedCXL long agoCXLI throughCXLII his holy prophets. 

Notes on verse 21c

CXXXIX “restoration” = apokatastasis. Related to “made strong” in v7 & “stood” in v8 & “astonishment” in v10 & “portico” in v11 & “send” in v20. 1x in NT. From apokathistemi (healing, restoring full health); {from apo (from, away from) + kathistemi (to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (see note L above)}}. This is restoration or reestablishment. It is when the kingdom of heaven is restored on earth.
CXL “announced” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
CXLI “long ago” = aion. From the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
CXLII {untranslated} = stoma. Same as {untranslated} in v18. See note CXX above.

22 MosesCXLIII, CXLIV said, ‘The Lord your God will raise upCXLV for you from your own peopleCXLVI a prophet like me.

Notes on verse 22a

CXLIII “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
CXLIV {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v13. See note XC above.
CXLV “raise up” = anistemi. Related to “made strong” in v7 & “stood” in v8 & “astonishment” in v10 & “portico” in v11 & “send” in v20 & “restoration” in v21. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note L above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CXLVI “people” = adelphos. Same as “brothers” in v17. See note CXIV above.

You must listenCXLVII to whateverCXLVIII he tellsCXLIX you. 

Notes on verse 22b

CXLVII “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CXLVIII “whatever” = kata + pas + hosos + an. Literally, “in all things as much as.” Pas is the same as “all” in v9. See note LVII above.
CXLIX “tells” = laleo. Same as “announced” in v21. See note CXL above.

23 And it will be that everyoneCL who does not listen to that prophet will be utterly rooted outCLI of the people.’CLII 

Notes on verse 23

CL “everyone” = pas + psuche. Pas is the same as “all” in v9. See note LVII above. Psuche is related to “refreshing” in v20. From psucho (see note CXXVIII above). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CLI “utterly rooted out” = exolethreuo. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + olothreuo (to destroy, spoil, slay); {probably from olethros (ruination, destruction, doom, death, punishment, or undoing); from ollumi (to destroy)}. This is to completely destroy, root out, lose inheritance.
CLII “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v9. See note LVIII above.

24 And all the prophets, as many as have spoken,CLIII from SamuelCLIV and those afterCLV him, also predictedCLVI these days. 

Notes on verse 24

CLIII “spoken” = laleo. Same as “announced” in v21. See note CXL above.
CLIV “Samuel” = Samouel. Related to “Israelites” in v12. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Shemuel (Samuel, “name of God” or “heard of God”); {from shem (name, fame, renown; indicating something essential about a person; honor, authority, or character); {may be from sum (to put, place, set)} + El (see note LXXVII above) OR from shama (hear, call, consent, or consider; implies listening intelligently, giving attention; obedience and action are often implied) + El (see note LXXVII above)}. This is Samuel, meaning “name of God” or “heard of God.”
CLV “after” = kathexes. Related to “fixed…attention” in v5 & “have” in v6. 5x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hexes (soon, tomorrow, next, adjoining); {from echo (see note XXIX above)}. This is to in order, onward, consecutively.
CLVI “predicted” = kataggello. Related to “author” in v15 & “foretold” in v18. 18x in NT. See note CXIX above.

25 You are the descendantsCLVII of the prophets and of the covenantCLVIII that God gaveCLIX to your ancestors, sayingCLX to Abraham,

Notes on verse 25a

CLVII “descendants” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CLVIII “covenant” = diatheke. Related to “lay” in v2. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
CLIX “gave” = diatithemi. Related to “lay” in v2 & “covenant” in v25. 7x in NT. See note CLVIII above.
CLX “saying” = lego. Same as “called” in v2. See note XVII above.

‘And in your descendantsCLXI all the familiesCLXII of the earthCLXIII shall be blessed.’CLXIV 

Notes on verse 25b

CLXI “descendants” = sperma. From speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is something sown so it could be seed or offspring and descendants. This is where the word “sperm” comes from.
CLXII “families” = patria. Related to “ancestors” in v13. 3x in NT. From pater (see note LXXXVII above). This is lineage, family, ancestry, tribe, nation.
CLXIII “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
CLXIV “blessed” = eneulogeo. Related to “piety” in v12 & “called” in v2. 2x in NT. From en (in, on , at, by, with) + eulogeo (speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited; praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing); {from eu (see note LXXII above) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note XVII above)}}. This is to bless or receive benefit.

26 When God raised upCLXV his servant, he sent him firstCLXVI to you, to blessCLXVII you

Notes on verse 26a

CLXV “raised up” = anistemi. Same as “raise up” in v22. See note CXLV above.
CLXVI “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
CLXVII “bless” = eulogeo. Related to “piety” in v12 & “blessed” in v25 & to “called” in v2 & “blessed” in v25. See note CLXIV above.

by turningCLXVIII eachCLXIX of you from your wicked ways.”CLXX

Notes on verse 26b

CLXVIII “turning” = apostrepho. Related to “turn” in v19. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + strepho (see note CXXV above). This is to turn away from so it could be to leave, to reject, remove, or even desert. It places a focus on one’s personal commitment to this turning back and rejecting.
CLXIX “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
CLXX “wicked ways” = poneria. 7x in NT. From poneros (bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome; properly, something that bears pain –emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil); from poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is iniquity, wickedness, pain-ridden evil. It is the drudgery of evil and sin. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.

Image credit: “Peter and John Heal a Paralyzed Man” by Jan Luyken, between 1777 and 1780.

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