Deuteronomy 13

Deuteronomy 13


“If prophetsI or those who divineII by dreamsIII appearIV

Notes on verse 1a

I “prophets” = nabi. This is prophet, prophecy, speaker, or someone inspired.
II “divine” = chalam. Properly, to bind solidly and so to be plump. This is to be healthy or strong, to recover; figuratively, to dream.
III “dreams” = chalom. Related to “divine” in v1. From chalam (see note II above). This is a dream or dreamer.
IV “appear” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.

amongV you and showVI you omensVII or portents,VIII 

Notes on verse 1b

V “among” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.
VI “show” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
VII “omens” = oth. From avah (to mark, sign, point out); OR from uth (to agree). This is a sign in a literal or figurative sense. It could be a flag or monument. It could be evidence or a mark. It could also be an omen or a miracle. 
VIII “portents” = mopheth. Perhaps from yaphah (to be beautiful, decorate; root means being bright, which implies being beautiful). This is a wonder, miracle, symbol, sign, or omen.

and the omens or the portents declaredIX by them take place,X and they say,XI ‘Let us followXII

Notes on verse 2a

IX “declared” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
X “take place” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XI “say” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
XII “follow” = halak + achar. Halak is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc. Achar is from achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.

otherXIII gods’XIV (whom you have not known)XV ‘and let us serveXVI them,’ 

Notes on verse 2b

XIII “other” = acher. Related to “follow” in v2. From achar (see note XII above). This is following, next, strange, other.
XIV “gods’” = elohim.
XV “known” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XVI “serve” = abad. This is to work, serve, or compel. It can describe any kind of work or service (including religious devotion).  Also, till or cultivate. Used causatively, it can mean to enslave or keep in bondage.

you must not heedXVII the wordsXVIII of those prophets or those who divine by dreams, for the LordXIX your GodXX is testingXXI you, to know whetherXXII

Notes on verse 3a

XVII “heed” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XVIII “words” = dabar. Related to “declared” in v2. From dabar (see note IX above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XIX “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XX “God” = Elohim. Same as “gods” in v2. See note XIV above.
XXI “testing” = nasah. This is to test, prove, try, tempt, or attempt.
XXII {untranslated} = yesh. This is being, existence, or substance.

you indeed loveXXIII the Lord your God with allXXIV your heartXXV andXXVI soul.XXVII 

Notes on verse 3b

XXIII “love” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
XXIV “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XXV “heart” = lebab. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XXVI {untranslated} = kol. Same as “all” in v3. See note XXIV above.
XXVII “soul” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.

The LordXXVIII your God you shall follow, him alone you shall fear,XXIX his commandmentsXXX you shall keep,XXXI

Notes on verse 4a

XXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v3. From the same as YHVH (see note XIX above). This is a secondary spelling of the Lord, the name of the God of Israel. It has the same meaning.
XXIX “fear” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
XXX “commandments” = mitsvah. From tsavah (to charge, command, order, enjoin). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.
XXXI “keep” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.

his voiceXXXII you shall obey,XXXIII him you shall serve, and to him you shall hold fast.XXXIV 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXII “voice” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
XXXIII “obey” = shama. Same as “heed” in v3. See note XVII above.
XXXIV “hold fast” = dabaq. This is to follow closely or abide fast, to cling or be joined together. Figuratively, it can mean to catch something by chasing after it, to overtake, or to stick. A man clings to his wife in Genesis 2:24, Shechem was deeply attracted to Dinah in Genesis 34:3, Ruth clung to Naomi in Ruth 1:14, Solomon clung to his foreign wives and concubines in 1 Kings 11:2. It is also used of a tongue sticking to the mouth, pursuing or overtaking as in battle, and also clinging to God.

But those prophets or those who divine by dreams shall be put to deathXXXV for having spokenXXXVI treasonXXXVII against the LordXXXVIII your God

Notes on verse 5a

XXXV “put to death” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XXXVI “spoken” = dabar. Same as “declared” in v2. See note IX above.
XXXVII “treason” = sarah. 8x in OT – 2x in Deuteronomy, 4x in Isaiah, & 2x in Jeremiah. From sur (to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw). This is a turning aside, so it could refer to a rebellion, withdraw, treason, or apostasy.
XXXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XIX above.

who brought you outXXXIX of the landXL of EgyptXLI and redeemedXLII you

Notes on verse 5b

XXXIX “brought…out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XL “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XLI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
XLII “redeemed” = padah. This is to sever, which is to say to ransom. To secure someone’s release (by paying their debt to free them from slavery) and thus redeem, rescue, deliver, preserve. Can also be the redemption price.

from the houseXLIII of slavery,XLIV to turnXLV you from the wayXLVI

Notes on verse 5c

XLIII “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XLIV “slavery” = ebed. Related to “serve” in v2. From abad (see note XVI above). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
XLV “turn” = nadach. This is scatter, seduce, banish, draw away, drive away, outcast, scatter. It means to push off in a literal or figurative sense so it could also be mislead, inflict, or withdraw.
XLVI “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.

in which the LordXLVII your God commandedXLVIII you to walk.XLIX So you shall purgeL

Notes on verse 5d

XLVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XIX above.
XLVIII “commanded” = tsavah. Related to “commandments” in v4. See note XXX above.
XLIX “walk” = halak. Same as “follow” in v2. See note XII above.
L “purge” = baar. This is to burn, consume, heat, remove. It can also be to consume by a fire or through eating, being brutish or wasting.

the evilLI from your midst.LII

“If anyone secretlyLIII enticesLIV you—

Notes on verses 5e-6a

LI “evil” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
LII “midst” = qereb. Same as “among” in v1. See note V above.
LIII “secretly” = sether. From sathar (hide, conceal, or be absent; hiding because something is covered – used in a literal or figurative sense). This is covering, shelter, protection, hiding place. It can be hidden by a mountain, by clouds, in the womb, in a matter of secrecy, through slander, or of nations.
LIV “entices” = suth. 18x in OT. Perhaps from shayith (a thorn-bush or thorn; some kind of wild growth); perhaps from shith (to place, set, bring, appoint, consider, bring, array or look). This is to incite, induce, persuade, provoke, mislead, remove. It could be from the root in the sense of being pricked or agitated. It can imply being seduced.

even if it is your brother,LV your father’s sonLVI or your mother’sLVII son, or your own son or daughter,LVIII or the wifeLIX you embrace,LX

Notes on verse 6b

LV “brother” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
LVI “son” = ben. Related to “house” in v5. From banah (see note XLIII above). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
LVII “mother’s” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
LVIII “daughter” = bat. Related to “house” in v5 & “son” in v6. From ben (see note LVI above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
LIX “wife” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
LX “embrace” = cheq. Root may mean to enclose. This is bosom in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be arms, lap, or midst. It can also be care or cherish.

or your most intimateLXI friendLXII—saying, ‘Let us goLXIII serve other gods,’ whom neither you nor your ancestorsLXIV have known, 

Notes on verse 6c

LXI “most intimate” = nephesh. Literally, “who is as your own soul.” Same as “soul” in v3. See note XXVII above.
LXII “friend” = rea. From raah (to associate with). This is the same as neighbor in Leviticus 19:18 “love your neighbor as yourself.” This is friend, companion, fellow, neighbor. It is someone with whom you associate, whether more or less close.
LXIII “go” = halak. Same as “follow” in v2. See note XII above.
LXIV “ancestors” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.

any of the gods of the peoplesLXV who are aroundLXVI you, whether nearLXVII you or far awayLXVIII from you,

Notes on verse 7a

LXV “peoples” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
LXVI “around” = sabib. From sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.
LXVII “near” = qarob. Related to “among” in v1. From qarab (see note V above). This is near whether nearby, related, near in time, or allied.
LXVIII “far away” = rachoq. From rachaq (to widen, become distant, cast, or remove in a literal or figurative sense). This is distant or far, whether of space or of time.

from one endLXIX of the earthLXX to the other,LXXI you must not yield toLXXII or heed any such persons. Show them no pityLXXIII

Notes on verses 7b-8a

LXIX “end” = qatseh. From qatsah (to cut off, cut short; figuratively, to destroy). This is end, brink, border, edge, frontier. It can refer to that which is within set boundaries.
LXX “earth” = erets. Same as “land” in v5. See note XL above.
LXXI “other” = qatseh + erets. Qatseh is the same as “end” in v7. See note LXIX above. Erets is the same as “land” in v5. See note XL above.
LXXII “yield to” = abah. This is to breathe after, be willing, obey, accept, be content with, satisfy.
LXXIII “show…pity” = chus + ayin. Chus is properly to cover. In a figurative sense it means looking with compassion, pitying, regarding, or sparing someone. Ayin is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

or compassion,LXXIV and do not shieldLXXV them. But you shall surely killLXXVI them; your own handLXXVII shall beLXXVIII

Notes on verses 8b-9a

LXXIV “compassion” = chamal. This is to spare, commiserate, show compassion.
LXXV “shield” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
LXXVI “surely kill” = harag + harag. This is to strike with deadly intent so it can be kill, destroy, murder, or put to death. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
LXXVII “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LXXVIII “be” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v3 & “Lord” in v4. See note XIX above.

firstLXXIX against them to executeLXXX them and afterwardLXXXI the hand of all the people. 

Notes on verse 9b

LXXIX “first” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
LXXX “execute” = mut. Same as “put to death” in v5. See note XXXV above.
LXXXI “afterward” = acharon. Related to “follow” and “other” in v2. From achar (see note XII above). This is end, last, coming behind, to loiter, later. It can also refer to the west.

10 StoneLXXXII them to death for tryingLXXXIII to turn you away from the LordLXXXIV your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. 11 Then all IsraelLXXXV shall hearLXXXVI and be afraidLXXXVII

Notes on verses 10-11a

LXXXII “stone” = saqal + eben. Saqal is properly, this means being weighty. However, it is used for stoning someone (to death) or for removing stones. Eben is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
LXXXIII “trying” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.
LXXXIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XIX above.
LXXXV “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “gods” in v2. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (see note XIV above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
LXXXVI “hear” = shama. Same as “heed” in v3. See note XVII above.
LXXXVII “be afraid” = yare. Same as “fear” in v4. See note XXIX above.

and never againLXXXVIII doLXXXIX any suchXC wickedness.XCI, XCII

Notes on verse 11b

LXXXVIII “again” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
LXXXIX “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XC “such” = dabar. Same as “words” in v3. See note XVIII above.
XCI “wickedness” = ra’. Same as “evil” in v5. See note LI above.
XCII {untranslated} = qereb. Same as “among” in v1. See note V above.

12 “If you hear it said about oneXCIII of the townsXCIV that the LordXCV your God

Notes on verse 12a

XCIII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XCIV “towns” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
XCV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XIX above.

is givingXCVI you to liveXCVII in, 13 that scoundrelsXCVIII from among you have gone outXCIX

Notes on verses 12b-13a

XCVI “giving” = natan. Same as “show” in v1. See note VI above.
XCVII “live” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XCVIII “scoundrels” = ish + ben + beliyyaal. Literally, “men, the sons of worthlessness.” Ish is related to “wife” in v6. See note LIX above. Ben is the same as “son” in v6. See note LVI above. Beliyyaal is from beli (lack, nothing, without, wearing out, failure, destruction); {from balah (to grow old, wear out, waste away, consume, spend)} + yaal (to gain, profit, do good, ascend, be useful or valuable; benefitted). This is lacking profit i.e. worthlessness, destruction, evil, ungodly person, wickedness, or Belial.
XCIX “gone out” = yatsa. Same as “brought…out” in v5. See note XXXIX above.

and led the inhabitantsC of the town astray,CI saying, ‘Let us go and serve otherCII gods,’ whom you have not known, 14 then you shall inquireCIII and make a thorough investigation.CIV

Notes on verses 13b-14a

C “inhabitants” = yashab. Same as “live” in v12. See note XCVII above.
CI “led…astray” = nadach. Same as “turn” in v5. See note XLV above.
CII “other” = acher. Same as “other” in v2. See note XIII above.
CIII “inquire” = darash. This is seek, ask, inquire, care for. Generally it means following in pursuit or following as part of a search, which implies seeking or asking. Also used specially to mean worship.
CIV “make a thorough investigation” = shaal + yatab. Shaal is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand. Yatab is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.

IfCV the chargeCVI is establishedCVII that such an abhorrent thingCVIII has been done among you, 

Notes on verse 14b

CV {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
CVI “charge” = dabar. Same as “words” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CVII “is established” = emet + kun. Emet is from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This is firmness or stability. Figuratively, it is faithfulness, truth, or trustworthiness. This is the same root that “amen” comes from. Kun is properly, this means in a perpendicular position. So, it is set up in a literal sense – establish, fix, fasten, prepare. In a figurative sense, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous.
CVIII “abhorrent thing” = toebah. Perhaps from ta’ab (to abhor or morally detest). This is something that instills one with moral contempt or disgust. It can mean abhorrence and is often in reference to idolatry or idols.

15 you shall putCIX the inhabitants of that town to the sword,CX utterly destroyingCXI it

Notes on verse 15a

CIX “put” = nakah + nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CX “sword” = peh + chereb. Peh is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises. Chereb is from charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
CXI “utterly destroying” = charam. This is to ban, destroy, devote, seclude. It is to dedicate to a religious purpose, often for destruction.

and everythingCXII in it, even putting its livestockCXIII to the sword. 16 All of its spoilCXIV you shall gatherCXV intoCXVI its public square,CXVII

Notes on verses 15b-16a

CXII “everything” = kol. Same as “all” in v3. See note XXIV above.
CXIII “livestock” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
CXIV “spoil” = shalal. From shalal (to plunder, loot, capture). This is spoil, prey, or plunder.
CXV “gather” = qabats. This is to collect, assemble, heap, grasp, or gather.
CXVI “into” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
CXVII “public square” = rechob. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is a wide, open place like a plaza, square, or avenue.

then burnCXVIII the town and all its spoil with fireCXIX as a whole burnt offeringCXX to the LordCXXI your God.

Notes on verse 16b

CXVIII “burn” = saraph. This is to burn or kindle. This is the root that “seraphim” comes from.
CXIX “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
CXX “whole burnt offering” = kalil. Related to “all” in v3. 15x in OT. From kalal (see note XXIV above). This is entire, perfect, pure, or wholly. For a burnt offering, it can mean burned wholly.
CXXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XIX above.

It shall remainCXXII a perpetualCXXIII ruin,CXXIV never to be rebuilt.CXXV 

Notes on verse 16c

CXXII “remain” = hayah. Same as “be” in v9. See note LXXVIII above.
CXXIII “perpetual” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
CXXIV “ruin” = tel. 5x in OT – 1x in Deuteronomy, 2x in Joshua, & 2x in Jeremiah. Perhaps from talal (to mock, deceive, cheat, pile up, elevate). This is a mound or heap. It is used to refer to ruins. It can also mean strength.
CXXV “rebuilt” = banah. Related to “house” in v5 & “son” and “daughter” in v6. See note XLIII above.

17 Do not let anythingCXXVI devoted to destructionCXXVII stickCXXVIII to your hand,

Notes on verse 17a

CXXVI “anything” = meumah. From the same as mum (defect – an ethical one or a literal bodily one). Its root may mean to stain. This can mean a speck or fault. More broadly, it can also refer to anything or nothing.
CXXVII “devoted to destruction” = cherem. Related to “utterly destroying” in v15. From charam (see note CXI above). This is something shut in like a net. Figuratively, it refers to something that is devoted to God or under a ban, often for destruction.
CXXVIII “stick” = dabaq. Same as “hold fast” in v4. See note XXXIV above.

so that the LordCXXIX may turnCXXX from his fierceCXXXI angerCXXXII

Notes on verse 17b

CXXIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XIX above.
CXXX “turn” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CXXXI “fierce” = charon. From charah (to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn; figuratively a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy). This is burning anger, fierceness, or wrathfulness.
CXXXII “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.

and showCXXXIII you compassion,CXXXIV and in his compassionCXXXV multiplyCXXXVI you, as he sworeCXXXVII to your ancestors, 

Notes on verse 17c

CXXXIII “show” = natan. Same as “show” in v1. See note VI above.
CXXXIV “compassion” = racham. From the same as rechem (womb); from racham (to love, have compassion, have mercy); from racham (compassion, tender love, womb, compassion; the womb as that which cherishes the fetus). This is compassion, mercy, or tender love.
CXXXV “compassion” = racham. Related to “compassion” in v17. See note CXXXIV above.
CXXXVI “multiply” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
CXXXVII “swore” = shaba. Perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.

18 if you obey the voice of the LordCXXXVIII your God by keeping all his commandments that I am commanding you today,CXXXIX doing what is rightCXL in the sightCXLI of the LordCXLII your God.

Notes on verse 18

CXXXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XIX above.
CXXXIX “today” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CXL “right” = yashar. From yashar (to be straight, right, even, smooth, or agreeable; figuratively, to make something pleasant or prosperous). This is straight, right, level. Also, it is pleasing, whether pleasing God or pleasing other people. So, it is upright or righteous.
CXLI “sight” = ayin. Same as “show…pity” in v8. See note LXXIII above.
CXLII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XIX above.

Image credit: “Woman from Galera” – an alabaster figure, perhaps Phoenicia, depicting Anat or Astarte. Photo by Ángel M. Felicísimo Amfeli, 2015.

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