Deuteronomy 24

Deuteronomy 24


“Suppose a manI enters into marriageII with a womanIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “man” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
II “enters into marriage” = laqachbaal. Laqach is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage. Baal is 15x in OT. This is to marry, master, become a husband, have power over.
III “woman” = ishshah. Related to “man” in v1. From ish (see note I above). This is woman, wife, or female.

IVbut she does not pleaseV him because he findsVI somethingVII

Notes on verse 1b

IV {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
V “please” = matsa + chen + ayin. Matsa is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with. Chen is from chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is grace, favor, kindness, beauty, precious. Ayin is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
VI “finds” = matsa. Same as “please” in v1. See note V above.
VII “something” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.

objectionableVIII about her, so he writesIX her a certificateX of divorce,XI

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “objectionable” = ervah. From arah (to be bare, empty, raze, uncover, discover, demolish). This is nakedness, nudity – particularly as a reference to genitals, shame, or blemish.
IX “writes” = kathab. This is to inscribe, write, record, or decree.
X “certificate” = sepher. Perhaps from saphar (to tally or record something; to enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare). This can be writing itself or something that is written like a document, book, letter, evidence, bill, scroll, or register.
XI “divorce” = kerithuth. 4x in OT. From karat (to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant; there is an idiom for making a covenant, which is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume). This is divorce – cutting the bond of marriage.

putsXII it in her hand,XIII and sendsXIV her out of his house;XV she then leavesXVI his house and goesXVII off

Notes on verses 1d-2a

XII “puts” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XIII “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XIV “sends” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XV “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XVI “leaves” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XVII “goes” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.

to becomeXVIII anotherXIX man’s wife. Then suppose the secondXX man dislikesXXI her, writes her a certificate of divorce, puts it in her hand, and sends her out of his house (or the second man who marriedXXII herXXIII dies):XXIV 

Notes on verses 2b-3

XVIII “become” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above.
XIX “another” = acher. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is following, next, strange, other.
XX “second” = acharon. Related to “another” in v2. From achar (see note XIX above). This is end, last, coming behind, to loiter, later. It can also refer to the west.
XXI “dislikes” = sane. This is to hate, an enemy. It is a personal hatred and not an abstract one.
XXII “married” = laqach. Same as “enters into marriage” in v1. See note II above.
XXIII “her” = ishshah. Same as “woman” in v1. See note III above.
XXIV “dies” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

her firstXXV husband,XXVI who sent her away, is not permittedXXVII to takeXXVIII her againXXIX

Notes on verse 4a

XXV “first” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
XXVI “husband” = baal. Related to “enters into marriage” in v1. From baal (see note II above). This is lord, owner, ally, master, or archer, husband.
XXVII “permitted” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
XXVIII “take” = laqach. Same as “enters into marriage” in v1. See note II above.
XXIX “again” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”

to beXXX his wifeXXXI afterXXXII she has been defiled,XXXIII for that would be abhorrentXXXIV

Notes on verse 4b

XXX “be” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above.
XXXI “wife” = ishshah. Same as “woman” in v1. See note III above.
XXXII “after” = achar. Related to “another” in v2 & “second” in v3. From achar (see note XIX above). This is after or the last part, following.
XXXIII “defiled” = tame. This is to defile, be unclean, pollute in a ritual or ethical sense.
XXXIV “abhorrent” = toebah. Perhaps from taab (to abhor or morally detest). This is something that instills one with moral contempt or disgust. It can mean abhorrence and is often in reference to idolatry or idols.

toXXXV the Lord,XXXVI and you shall not bring guiltXXXVII on the landXXXVIII

Notes on verse 4c

XXXV “to” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XXXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} in v1. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note IV above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XXXVII “bring guilt” = chata. This is properly to miss, and so figuratively it is used for sinning, bearing the blame. It implies a forfeiture or loss of something.
XXXVIII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

that the Lord your GodXXXIX is givingXL you as a possession.XLI

Notes on verse 4d

XXXIX “God” = Elohim. From Eloah (God, a god); from El (God, a god). This is most commonly used as a name for God. Technically, it’s in the plural, i.e. gods. It can also mean great, mighty, judge, or ruler.
XL “giving” = natan. Same as “puts” in v1. See note XII above.
XLI “possession” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.

“When a man is newlyXLII married, he shall not go outXLIII with the armyXLIV or be chargedXLV

Notes on verse 5a

XLII “newly” = chadash. From chadash (to renew or restore, to repair or rebuild). This is something fresh or new.
XLIII “go out” = yatsa. Same as “leaves” in v2. See note XVI above.
XLIV “army” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
XLV “charged” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.

with anyXLVI relatedXLVII duty.XLVIII He shall be free at homeXLIX oneL year,LI to be happyLII with the wife whom he has married.

Notes on verse 5b

XLVI “any” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XLVII “related” = naqiy. From naqah (to be empty, cleanse, acquit; to be clean in a literal or figurative sense). This is blameless, innocent, free from punishment, or clear.
XLVIII “duty” = dabar. Same as “something” in v1. See note VII above.
XLIX “home” = bayit. Same as “house” in v1. See note XV above.
L “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
LI “year” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
LII “be happy” = samach. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to brighten up in a literal or figurative sense.

“No one shall take a millLIII or an upper millstoneLIV in pledge,LV for that would be taking a lifeLVI in pledge.

Notes on verse 6

LIII “mill” = recheh. 5x in OT. Root might mean to pulverize. This is a hand mill or a millstone.
LIV “upper millstone” = rekeb. From rakab (to ride an animal or in some vehicle; also, bringing on a horse). This is a vehicle, wagon, or chariot. It can be cavalry or an individual rider.
LV “take…in pledge” = chabal. This is to bind, pledge, or wind tight. Figuratively, this can refer to perverting or destroying something. It can also be used of writhing in pain, particularly in reference to childbirth.
LVI “life” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.

“If someoneLVII is caughtLVIII kidnapingLIX

Notes on verse 7a

LVII “someone” = ish. Same as “man” in v1. See note I above.
LVIII “caught” = matsa. Same as “please” in v1. See note V above.
LIX “kidnaping” = ganab. This is to steal in a stealthy way rather than through violence. It can also mean to deceive. There is a Yiddish word ganef that derives from this root. It means thief or scoundrel.

anotherLX Israelite,LXI enslavingLXII or sellingLXIII the Israelite,

Notes on verse 7b

LX “another” = nephesh + ach. Nephesh is the same as “life” in v6. See note LVI above. Ach is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
LXI “Israelite” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is related to “house” in v1. From banah (see note XV above). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is related to “God” in v4. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (see note XXXIX above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
LXII “enslaving” = amar. 3x in OT. This is to heap, to gather into sheaves, to abuse or enslave.
LXIII “selling” = makar. This is to sell – could be commerce/trade, a daughter to be married, someone into slavery. Figuratively, it can mean to surrender.

then that kidnaperLXIV shall die. So you shall purgeLXV the evilLXVI from your midst.LXVII

Notes on verse 7c

LXIV “kidnaper” = gannab. Related to “kidnaping” in v7. 16x in OT. From ganab (see note LIX above). This is a thief or one who steals by stealth. It is the root of a Yiddish word for thief ganef.
LXV “purge” = baar. This is to burn, consume, heat, remove. It can also be to consume by a fire or through eating, being brutish or wasting.
LXVI “evil” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
LXVII “midst” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.

“Guard againstLXVIII an outbreakLXIX of a defiling skin diseaseLXX by being very careful;LXXI

Notes on verse 8a

LXVIII “guard against” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
LXIX “outbreak” = nega. From naga (touch, reach, arrive, come near, strike; touching for any reason including sexual or violent). This is a blow or stroke, wound, sore, mark plague. It can refer to someone with leprosy or to dress.
LXX “defiling skin disease” = tsaraath. Perhaps from tsara (to have leprosy, be a leper). This is leprosy or a mark.
LXXII “being very careful” = shamar. Same as “guard against” in v8. See note LXVIII above.

you shall carefullyLXXII observeLXXIII whateverLXXIV the LeviticalLXXV priestsLXXVI

Notes on verse 8b

LXXII “carefully” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
LXXIII “observe” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LXXIV “whatever” = kol. Same as “any” in v5. See note XLVI above.
LXXV “Levitical” = Leviyyi. From Levi (Levi; perhaps meaning “attached”; Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants); perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levite or levitical.
LXXVI “priests” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.

instructLXXVII you, just as I have commandedLXXVIII them.LXXIX RememberLXXX what the LordLXXXI your God

Notes on verses 8c-9a

LXXVII “instruct” = yarah. This is to throw, shoot, be stunned. It is to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach. This is the same root that “Jerusalem” and “Torah” draw from.
LXXVIII “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
LXXIX {untranslated} = shamar + asah. Shamar is the same as “guard against” in v8. See note LXVIII above. Asah is the same as “observe” in v8. See note LXXIII above.
LXXX “remember” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
LXXXI “Lord” = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} in v1 & “Lord” in v4. From the same as YHVH (see note XXXVI above). This is a secondary spelling of the Lord, the name of the God of Israel. It has the same meaning.

didLXXXII to MiriamLXXXIII on your journeyLXXXIV out of Egypt.LXXXV

Notes on verse 9b

LXXXII “did” = asah. Same as “observe” in v8. See note LXXIII above.
LXXXIII “Miriam” = Miryam. 15x in OT. From marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam.
LXXXIV “journey” = derek + yatsa. Derek is from darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life. Yatsa is the same as “leaves” in v2. See note XVI above.
LXXXV “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

10 “When you make your neighborLXXXVI a loanLXXXVII of any kind,LXXXVIII

Notes on verse 10a

LXXXVI “neighbor” = rea. From raah (to associate with). This is the same as neighbor in Leviticus 19:18 “love your neighbor as yourself.” This is friend, companion, fellow, neighbor. It is someone with whom you associate, whether more or less close.
LXXXVII “make…a loan” = nashahmashshaah. Nashah is 13x in OT. Perhaps from nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive) OR from the same as nasha (to deceive, lend with interest, debtor, delude, seduce). This is to lend, be a usurer, borrow with a pledge, creditor. Mashshaah is related to “make…a loan” in v10. 2x in OT.  From mashsha (a loan that includes interest); {from nasha (see LXXXVII above) OR from nashah (see LXXXVII above) OR related to nashah (to forget, neglect, remove)}. This is a loan or debt.
LXXXVIII “any kind” = meumah. From the same as mum (defect – an ethical one or a literal bodily one). Its root may mean to stain. This can mean a speck or fault. More broadly, it can also refer to anything or nothing.

you shall not goLXXXIX into the house to takeXC the pledge.XCI 11 You shall waitXCII outsideXCIII

Notes on verses 10b-11a

LXXXIX “go” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XC “take” = abat. 6x in OT– 5x in Deuteronomy & 1x in Joel 2. From abot (pledge, pawn, debt security). This is to borrow or lend. It can involve something taken as a pledge. Figuratively, it can mean to entangle.
XCI “pledge” = abot. Related to “take” in v10. 4x in OT. See note XC above.
XCII “wait” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
XCIII “outside” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.

while the personXCIV to whom you are making the loan bringsXCV the pledge out to you.XCVI 12 If the person is poor,XCVII you shall not sleepXCVIII in the garment given you as the pledge. 

Notes on verses 11b-12

XCIV “person” = ish. Same as “man” in v1. See note I above.
XCV “brings” = yatsa. Same as “leaves” in v2. See note XVI above.
XCVI {untranslated} = chuts. Same as “outside” in v11. See note XCIII above.
XCVII “poor” = ani. From anah (to be bowed down; humility or being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is humble, lowly, poor, or afflicted.
XCVIII “sleep” = shakab. This is to lie down, lodge. It is lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons.

13 You shall give the pledge backXCIX by sunset,C so that your neighbor may sleep in the cloakCI

Notes on verse 13a

XCIX “give…back” = shub + shub. Same as “again” in v4. See note XXIX above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
C “sunset” = bo + shemesh. Bo is the same as “go” in v10. See note LXXXIX above. Shemesh is sun or toward the east. Its root may mean being brilliant. Figuratively, this could be a ray or an arch.
CI “cloak” = salmah. 16x in OT. From simlah (mantle, clothes, wrapper); perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is the same word as simlah with the letters transposed. So, this is clothing, a cloak, or mantle.

and blessCII you, and it will be to your creditCIII beforeCIV the LordCV your God.

Notes on verse 13b

CII “bless” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
CIII “credit” = tsedaqah. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity). This is righteousness, justice, righteous acts, and moral virtue.
CIV “before” = paneh. Same as “to” in v4. See note XXXV above.
CV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXXVI above.

14 “You shall not withhold the wagesCVI of poor and needyCVII laborers,CVIII whether other IsraelitesCIX or aliensCX who reside in your land in one of your towns.CXI 

Notes on verse 14

CVI “withhold the wages” = ashaq. This is to wrong, deceive, violate, or use oppression.
CVII “needy” = ebyon. From abah (to consent, obey, want, yield, accept). This is needy, poor, beggar. Someone who is wanting.
CVIII “laborers” = sakir. 17x in OT. From sakar (to hire, earn). This is someone who earns a wage, a laborer. It could be one a day by day basis or for a longer term.
CIX “Israelites” = ach. Same as “another” in v7. See note LX above.
CX “aliens” = ger. From gur (to abide or sojourn; to leave the road to lodge or for any other reason). This is sojourner, guest, stranger, foreigner.
CXI “towns” = shaar. May be related to sha’ar (to calculate or reckon; may come from a root that means to open up or split). This is a gate, door, or other opening like a port.

15 You shall payCXII them their wagesCXIII dailyCXIV before sunset, because they are poor and their livelihoodCXV dependsCXVI on them;

Notes on verse 15a

CXII “pay” = natan. Same as “puts” in v1. See note XII above.
CXIII “wages” = sakar. Related to “laborers” in v14. See note CVIII above.
CXIV “daily” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CXV “livelihood” = nephesh. Same as “life” in v6. See note LVI above.
CXVI “depends” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.

otherwise they might cryCXVII to the LordCXVIII against you, and you would incurCXIX guilt.CXX

Notes on verse 15b

CXVII “cry” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
CXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXXVI above.
CXIX “incur” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above.
CXX “guilt” = chet. Related to “bring guilt” in v4. From chata (see note XXXVII above). This is sin, fault, or punishment of sin.

16 “ParentsCXXI shall not be put to deathCXXII for their children,CXXIII nor shall children be put to death for their parents; only for their ownCXXIV crimesCXXV may persons be put to death.

Notes on verse 16

CXXI “parents” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXII “put to death” = mut. Same as “dies” in v3. See note XXIV above.
CXXIII “children” = ben. Same as “Israelite” in v7. See note LXI above.
CXXIV “their own” = ish. Same as “man” in v1. See note I above.
CXXV “crimes” = chet. Same as “guilt” in v15. See note CXX above.

17 “You shall not depriveCXXVI a resident alienCXXVII or an orphanCXXVIII of justice;CXXIX

Notes on verse 17a

CXXVI “deprive” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
CXXVII “resident alien” = ger. Same as “aliens” in v14. See note CX above.
CXXVIII “orphan” = yathom. This is a child without a father or more generally a person who is bereaved.
CXXIX “justice” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.

you shall not take a widow’sCXXX garmentCXXXI in pledge. 18 Remember that you were a slaveCXXXII in Egypt

Notes on verses 17b-18a

CXXX “widow’s” = almanah. Related to alman (widowed); from alam (to be silent, bound). This is a widow or a house that is desolate.
CXXXI “garment” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.
CXXXII “slave” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.

and the LordCXXXIII your God redeemedCXXXIV you from there; thereforeCXXXV I command you to do this.CXXXVI

Notes on verse 18b

CXXXIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXXVI above.
CXXXIV “redeemed” = padah. This is to sever, which is to say to ransom. To secure someone’s release (by paying their debt to free them from slavery) and thus redeem, rescue, deliver, preserve. Can also be the redemption price.
CXXXV “therefore” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CXXXVI {untranslated} = dabar. Same as “something” in v1. See note VII above.

19 “When you reapCXXXVII your harvestCXXXVIII in your fieldCXXXIX and forgetCXL a sheafCXLI in the field,

Notes on verse 19a

CXXXVII “reap” = qatsar. This is to cut down, be short, reap, curtail. It is used especially for harvesting grass or grain. Figuratively, it can mean to be discouraged or grieve.
CXXXVIII “harvest” = qatsiyr. Related to “reap” in v19. From qatsar (see note CXXXVII above). This is branch, harvest, one who harvests. Properly, this means severed, reaped. It is the crop being harvested, the time of harvest or the one who harvests. It can also be a bough.
CXXXIX “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
CXL “forget” = shakach. This is to forget because of not remembering something or not paying attention to it. It can also mean to mislay.
CXLI “sheaf” = omer. Related to “enslaving” in v7. 14x in OT. From amar (see note LXII above). This is a shear or an omer – a dry measuring unit.

you shall not go backCXLII to getCXLIII it; it shall be leftCXLIV for the alien, the orphan, and the widow, so that the LordCXLV your God may bless you in allCXLVI your undertakings.CXLVII 

Notes on verse 19b

CXLII “go back” = shub. Same as “again” in v4. See note XXIX above.
CXLIII “get” = laqach. Same as “enters into marriage” in v1. See note II above.
CXLIV “be left” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above.
CXLV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXXVI above.
CXLVI “all” = kol. Same as “any” in v5. See note XLVI above.
CXLVII “undertakings” = maaseh + yad. Maaseh is related to “observe” in v8. From asah (see note LXXIII above). This is a work – any action whether positive or negative. It can also be a transaction, construction, activity, property, or something that is produced. Yad is the same as “hand” in v1. See note XIII above.

20 When you beatCXLVIII your olive trees,CXLIX do not strip what is left;CL it shall be for the alien, the orphan, and the widow.

Notes on verse 20

CXLVIII “beat” = chabat. 5x in OT. This is to thresh or beat – a verb used for harvesting olive trees, wheat, barley, and dill. It is also used figuratively for gathering the people of Israel.
CXLIX “olive trees” = zayit. This is olive tree, grove, or other parts of the olive tree like the branch or berry.
CL “strip what is left” = paar + achar. Paar is 14x in OT. This is to beautify or adorn, to gleam. Thus, it can refer to showing honor or glorifying someone. It can also mean to boast or to shake a tree for harvest. Achar is the same as “after” in v4. See note XXXII above.

21 “When you gather the grapesCLI of your vineyard,CLII do not gleanCLIII what is left;CLIV it shall be for the alien, the orphan, and the widow. 22 Remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt; therefore I am commanding you to do this.CLV

Notes on verses 21-22

CLI “gather the grapes” = batsar. This is to enclose, wall up, or make something inaccessible, impenetrable, isolated. It can also mean to fortify, something mighty. It can also mean to gather grapes.
CLII “vineyard” = kerem. This is a vineyard, garden, vines, or a vintage.
CLIII “glean” = alal. 19x in OT. This is to affect, abuse, mistreat, impose, practice, glean, defile.
CLIV “what is left” = achar. Same as “after” in v4. See note XXXII above.
CLV {untranslated} = dabar. Same as “something” in v1. See note VII above.

Image credit: “Domestic Violence” by Dalibor Levíček, 2010.

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