Exodus 1:8-2:10 & 3:1-15

Exodus 1:8-2:10 & 3:1-15
NL 204


1:8 Now a newI kingII aroseIII

Notes on verse 1:8a

I “new” = chadash. From chadash (to renew or restore, to repair or rebuild). This is something fresh or new.
II “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
III “arose” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.

over EgyptIV who did not knowV Joseph.VI 

Notes on verse 1:8b

IV “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
V “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
VI “Jospeh” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”

He saidVII to his people,VIII “Look,IX

Notes on verse 1:9a

VII “said” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
VIII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
IX “look” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!

the IsraeliteX people are more numerousXI and more powerfulXII than we. 

Notes on verse 1:9b

X “Israelite” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XI “numerous” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
XII “powerful” = atsum. From atsam (to be many or mighty; could also refer to breaking bones). This is mighty or mighty one. It means powerful, which implies large numbers.

10 Come,XIII let us deal shrewdlyXIV with them, orXV they willXVI

Notes on verse 1:10a

XIII “come” = yahab. This is give, put, bring, take. It is to give in a literal or figurative sense.
XIV “deal shrewdly” = chakam. This is to be wise or teach wisdom. It is wisdom in thought, word, or action.
XV “or” = pen. Perhaps from panah (to turn, face, appear). This is lest, if, or.
XVI “will” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.

increaseXVII and, in the event ofXVIII war,XIX joinXX

Notes on verse 1:10b

XVII “increase” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
XVIII {untranslated} = qara. This is to meet, befall, happen upon. It can be to encounter by chance or for aggression.
XIX “war” = milchamah. From lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).
XX “join” = yasaph. Related to “Joseph” in v1:8. See note VI above.

our enemiesXXI and fightXXII against us and escapeXXIII from the land.”XXIV 

Notes on verse 1:10c

XXI “enemies” = sane. This is to hate, an enemy. It is a personal hatred and not an abstract one.
XXII “fight” = lacham. Related to “war” in v1:10. See note XIX above.
XXIII “escape” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

11 Therefore they setXXV taskmastersXXVI over them to oppressXXVII them with forced labor.XXVIII

Notes on verse 1:11a

XXV “set” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
XXVI “taskmasters” = sar + mas. Sar is chief, leader, ruler, lord, official, governor, prince, military leader. It refers to someone at the top of a rank or class. Mas is perhaps from masas (to melt, discourage, faint; to deteriorate from a sickness or weaken because of sleepiness or an emotional response). This is a burden that creates weariness and or exhaustion. It is forced labor, taskwork, or other levy.
XXVII “oppress” = anah. This is to be occupied with. It can also be bowed down. It can refer to a sense of humility or to a sense of being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed. This can be literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance.
XXVIII “forced labor” = siblah. 6x in OT. From sabal (to carry a heavy load, do strong labor, be a burden; specially, to be pregnant). This is a burden or forced labor.

They builtXXIX supplyXXX cities,XXXI

Notes on verse 1:11b

XXIX “built” = banah. Related to “Israelite” in v1:9. See note X above.
XXX “supply” = miskenoth. 7x in OT. From sakan (being customary, of use, of acquainted with, of service). This is supply or storehouse.
XXXI “cities” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.

PithomXXXII and Rameses,XXXIII for Pharaoh.XXXIV 12 But the more they were oppressed, the moreXXXV they multipliedXXXVI

Notes on verses 1:11c-12a

XXXII “Pithom” = Pitom. 1x in OT. From Late Egyptian *Pi-ʔAtōm (“house of Atum”; Atum was a sun god). This is PIthom. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pithom
XXXIII “Rameses” = Raamses. 5x in OT. From Egyptian (literally “Ra is the one who bore him”). Rameses.
XXXIV “Pharaoh” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pharaoh
XXXV “more” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
XXXVI “multiplied” = rabah. Same as “increase” in v1:10. See note XVII above.

andXXXVII spread,XXXVIII so that the Egyptians came to dreadXXXIX, XL the Israelites. 

Notes on verse 1:12b

XXXVII {untranslated} = ken. Same as “more” in v1:12. See note XXXV above.
XXXVIII “spread” = parats. This is to make a breach, burst out, compel, disperse. It is to break out literally or figuratively.
XXXIX “dread” = quts. 9x in OT. This is to feel dread, be distressed, tired, terrorized, be disgusted, be anxious, abhor.
XL {untranslated} = paneh. Related to “or” in v1:10. From panah (see note XV above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

13 The EgyptiansXLI subjectedXLII the Israelites to hard servitudeXLIII 

Notes on verse 1:13

XLI “Egyptians” = Mitsri. Related to “Egypt” in v1:8. From the same as Mitsrayim (see note IV above). This is Egyptian.
XLII “subjected” = abad. This is to work, serve, or compel. It can describe any kind of work or service (including religious devotion).  Also, till or cultivate. Used causatively, it can mean to enslave or keep in bondage.
XLIII “hard servitude” = perek. 6x in OT. Root may mean to fracture or break apart, emphasizing the severity or the break. This is harshness, severity, cruelty. Can also be used to say rigorously.

14 and made their livesXLIV bitterXLV with hardXLVI servitudeXLVII

Notes on verse 1:14a

XLIV “lives” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
XLV “made…bitter” = marar. 13x in OT. This is to be bitter, embittered, weep, troubled.
XLVI “hard” = qasheh. From qashah (to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe). This is hard, severe, heavy, obstinate, hard-hearted.
XLVII “servitude” = abodah. Related to “subjected” in v1:13. From abad (see note XLII above). This is labor, service, bondage, job, servitude, worker. It can refer to any kind of work.

in mortarXLVIII and bricksXLIX and in every kindL of fieldLI labor.LII

Notes on verse 1:14b

XLVIII “mortar” = chomer. From chamar (to boil up, ferment, be red befoul, trouble, daub). This is something that bubbles up like sea foam, mire, clay, a heap. It is also cement, mortar and a dry measure.
XLIX “bricks” = lebenah. 11x in OT. From laben (to be or make white, to make bricks). This is a brick, tile, or pavement. From root in the sense of the clay’s whiteness.
L “every kind” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
LI “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
LII “labor” = abodah. Same as “servitude” in v1:14. See note XLVII above.

They were ruthlessLIII in allLIV the tasksLV that they imposedLVI on them.

Notes on verse 1:14c

LIII “ruthless” = perek. Same as “hard servitude” in v1:13. See note XLIII above.
LIV “all” = kol. Same as “every kind” in v1:14. See note L above.
LV “tasks” = abodah. Same as “servitude” in v1:14. See note XLVII above.
LVI “imposed” = abad. Same as “subjected” in v1:13. See note XLII above.

15 The king of Egypt said to the HebrewLVII midwives,LVIII oneLIX of whom

Notes on verse 1:15a

LVII “Hebrew” = Ibri. From Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew, perhaps meaning a descendant of Eber.
LVIII “midwives” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
LIX “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.

was namedLX ShiphrahLXI and theLXII otherLXIII Puah,LXIV 

Notes on verse 1:15b

LX “named” = shem. Related to “set” in v1:11. May be from sim (see note XXV above). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
LXI “Shiphrah” = Shiphrah. 1x in OT. From the same as shiphrah (fairness, clear sky, brightness); from shaphar (to be beautiful or fair) This is Shiphrah – fairness or beauty.
LXII {untranslated} = shem. Same as “named” in v1:15. See note LX above.
LXIII “other” = sheni. From shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is double, again, another, second.
LXIV “Puah” = Puah. 1x in OT. May be from yapa (to shine or radiate – used often for God’s appearances). This is Puah – brightness, splendor, to be beautiful. Root may also mean glittering or brilliancy. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Puah.html#.Xgz6ZuhKhPY

16 LXV“When you act as midwivesLXVI to the Hebrew women and seeLXVII them on the birthstool,LXVIII

Notes on verse 1:16a

LXV {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” in v1:9. See note VII above.
LXVI “act as midwives” = yalad. Same as “midwives” in v1:15. See note LVIII above.
LXVII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
LXVIII “birthstool” = oben. Related to “Israelite” in v1:9 & “built” in v1:11. 2x in OT. From eben (stone, rock, weight) OR from the root of banah (see note X above). This is wheel, disk, or birthstool. Used for a potter’s wheel or for a birthstool because they are similarly constructed.

if it is a son,LXIX killLXX him, but if it is a daughter,LXXI she shall live.”LXXII 

Notes on verse 1:16b

LXIX “son” = ben. Same as “Israelite” in v1:9. See note X above.
LXX “kill” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
LXXI “daughter” = bat. Related to “Israelite” in v1:9 & “built” in v1:11 & “birthstool” in v1:16. From ben (see note X above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXII “live” = chayay. 17x in OT. This is to live, save life, or revive.

17 But the midwives fearedLXXIII God;LXXIV they did not doLXXV as the king of Egypt commandedLXXVI them, but they let the boysLXXVII live.LXXVIII 

Notes on verse 1:17

LXXIII “feared” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
LXXIV “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelite” in v1:9. See note X above.
LXXV “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LXXVI “commanded” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
LXXVII “boys” = yeled. Related to “midwives” in v1:15. From yalad (see note LVIII above). This is something born – so, offspring, youth, fruit. It is the same word used in Isaiah 9:6 “for a child will be born to us.”
LXXVIII “live” = chayah. Related to “lives” in v1:14. See note XLIV above.

18 So the king of Egypt summonedLXXIX the midwives and said to them, “WhyLXXX have you done thisLXXXI and allowed the boys to live?”LXXXII 

Notes on verse 1:18

LXXIX “summoned” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
LXXX “why” = maddua. Related to “know” in v1:8. From mah (what, how long) + yada (see note V above). This is why or how.
LXXXI {untranslated} = dabar. Related to “commanded” in v1:17. From dabar (see note LXXVI above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LXXXII “live” = chayah. Same as “live” in v1:17. See note LXXVIII above.

19 The midwives said to Pharaoh, “Because the Hebrew womenLXXXIII are not like the Egyptian women, for they are vigorousLXXXIV and give birthLXXXV beforeLXXXVI the midwife comesLXXXVII to them.” 

Notes on verse 1:19

LXXXIII “women” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
LXXXIV “vigorous” = chayeh. Related to “lives” in v1:14 & “live” in v1:17. 1x in OT. From chayah (see note XLIV above). This is lively or vigorous.
LXXXV “give birth” = yalad. Same as “midwives” in v1:15. See note LVIII above.
LXXXVI “before” = terem. May come from a word that means to interrupt. This is not yet or before.
LXXXVII “comes” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.

20 So God dealt wellLXXXVIII with the midwives, and the people multiplied and became veryLXXXIX strong.XC 21 AndXCI because the midwives feared God, he gaveXCII them families.XCIII 

Notes on verses 1:20-21

LXXXVIII “dealt well” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.
LXXXIX “very” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
XC “became…strong” = atsam. Related to “powerful” in v1:9. See note XII above.
XCI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “will” in v1:10. See note XVI above.
XCII “gave” = asah. Same as “do” in v1:17. See note LXXV above.
XCIII “families” = bayit. Related to “Israelite” in v1:9 & “built” in v1:11 & “birthstool” and “girl” in v1:16. Probably from banah (see note X above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

22 Then Pharaoh commandedXCIV all his people,XCV “EveryXCVI son that is bornXCVII to the Hebrews  you shall throwXCVIII into the Nile,XCIX but you shall let every daughter live.”C

Notes on verse 1:22

XCIV “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
XCV {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” in v1:9. See note VII above.
XCVI “every” = kol. Same as “every kind” in v1:14. See note L above.
XCVII “born” = yillod. Related to “midwives” in v1:15 & “boys” in v1:17. 4x in OT. From yalad (see note LVIII above). This is a passive form of born – so, those who are born.
XCVIII “throw” = shalak. This is to throw, fling, or hurl. It can also be to throw away in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIX “Nile” = Yeor. From Egyptian yeor (river). This is the Nile as the main river in Egypt. It is also used for the Tigris for its similar status in Assyria. It can also more generally mean river, steam, channel, or flood.
C “live” = chayah. Same as “live” in v1:17. See note LXXVIII above.

2:1 Now a manCI from the houseCII of LeviCIII wentCIV and marriedCV a Levite woman.CVI 

Notes on verse 2:1

CI “man” = ish. Related to “women” in v1:19. See note LXXXIII above.
CII “house” = bayit. Same as “families” in v1:21. See note XCIII above.
CIII “Levi” = Levi. Perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levi, perhaps meaning “attached.” It can refer to Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants.
CIV “went” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
CV “married” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CVI “Levite woman” = bat + Levi. Literally, “a daughter of Levi.” Bat is the same as “daughter” in v1:16. See note LXXI above. Levi is the same as “Levi” in v2:1. See note CIII above.

The womanCVII conceivedCVIII and boreCIX a son, and when she saw that he was a fineCX baby,

Notes on verse 2:2a

CVII “woman” = ishshah. Same as “women” in v1:19. See note LXXXIII above.
CVIII “conceived” = harah. This is to conceive or be pregnant – it can be literal or figurative.
CIX “bore” = yalad. Same as “midwives” in v1:15. See note LVIII above.
CX “fine” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.

she hidCXI him threeCXII months.CXIII When she couldCXIV hide him no longerCXV

Notes on verses 2:2b-3a

CXI “hid” = tsaphan. This is to hide something by covering it. It implies hoarding or keeping something in reserve. It can mean to protect or to lurk.
CXII “three” = shalosh. This is three, fork, three times.
CXIII “months” = yerach. 13x in OT. From the same as yareach (moon). This is month.
CXIV “could” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
CXV “longer” = od. From ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is still, yet, again, more.

she gotCXVI a papyrusCXVII basketCXVIII for him and plasteredCXIX it

Notes on verse 2:3b

CXVI “got” = laqach. Same as “married” in v2:1. See note CV above.
CXVII “papyrus” = gome. 4x in OT. From gama (to drink or absorb, literally or figuratively). This is something that is absorbent, i.e. a reed or rush. It can also be used for papyrus or wicker.
CXVIII “basket” = tebah. Probably from Egyptian T-b-t (chest, coffin). Used for Moses’ basket, Noah’s ark, and the ark of the covenant.
CXIX “plastered” = chamar. Related to “mortar” in v1:14. 6x in OT. See note XLVIII above.

with bitumenCXX and pitch;CXXI she putCXXII the childCXXIII in it

Notes on verse 2:3c

CXX “bitumen” = chemar. Related to “mortar” in v1:14 & “plastered” in v2:3. 3x in OT– used of the tower of Babel and the basket that Moses was floated in. From chamar (see note XLVIII above). This is bitumen or asphalt.
CXXI “pitch” = zepheth. 3x in OT. Root may mean to liquify. This is pitch or asphalt.
CXXII “put” = sim. Same as “set” in v1:11. See note XXV above.
CXXIII “child” = yeled. Same as “boys” in v1:17. See note LXXVII above.

and placedCXXIV it among the reedsCXXV on the bankCXXVI of the river.CXXVII 

Notes on verse 2:3d

CXXIV “placed” = sim. Same as “set” in v1:11. See note XXV above.
CXXV “reeds” = suph. Perhaps from Egyptian twfi (reeds). This is reeds or rushes. It can be used particularly to refer to papyrus, or a flag. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Dictionary/sa/sa-p-pfin.html#.XzHCuChKhPY
CXXVI “bank” = saphah. This is lip, edge, border, bank – used for a boundary. It can also be speech or language.
CXXVII “river” = yeor. Same as “Nile” in v1:22. See note XCIX above.

His sisterCXXVIII stoodCXXIX at a distance,CXXX to seeCXXXI what would happenCXXXII to him.

Notes on verse 2:4

CXXVIII “sister” = achot. From the same as ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean another or together.
CXXIX “stood” = yatsab. This is to set oneself, take a stand, remain, continue, to station or set something in place.
CXXX “at a distance” = rachoq. From rachaq (to widen, become distant, cast, or remove in a literal or figurative sense). This is distant or far, whether of space or of time.
CXXXI “see” = yada. Same as “know” in v1:8. See note V above.
CXXXII “happen” = asah. Same as “do” in v1:17. See note LXXV above.

The daughter of Pharaoh came downCXXXIII to batheCXXXIV at the river, while her attendantsCXXXV walkedCXXXVI besideCXXXVII the river.

Notes on verse 2:5a

CXXXIII “came down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
CXXXIV “bathe” = rachats. This is to wash, wash away – it can be complete or partial.
CXXXV “attendants” = naarah. From naar (child or a servant; a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence); perhaps from naar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a girl or young lady ranging anywhere in age from infancy to adolescence.
CXXXVI “walked” = halak. Same as “went” in v2:1. See note CIV above.
CXXXVII “beside” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

She sawCXXXVIII the basket amongCXXXIX the reeds and sentCXL her maidCXLI to bringCXLII it. 

Notes on verse 2:5b

CXXXVIII “saw” = raah. Same as “see” in v1:16. See note LXVII above.
CXXXIX “among” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
CXL “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
CXLI “maid” = amah. This is female servant or slave, handmaid.
CXLII “bring” = laqach. Same as “married” in v2:1. See note CV above.

When she openedCXLIII it, she sawCXLIV the child.CXLV, CXLVI He was crying,CXLVII and she took pityCXLVIII on him. “This must be one of the Hebrews’ children,” she said. 

Notes on verse 2:6

CXLIII “opened” = pathach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
CXLIV “saw” = raah. Same as “see” in v1:16. See note LXVII above.
CXLV {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “look” in v1:9. See note IX above.
CXLVI {untranslated} = naar. Related to “attendants” in v2:5. See note CXXXV above.
CXLVII “crying” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.
CXLVIII “took pity” = chamal. This is to spare, commiserate, show compassion.

Then his sister said to Pharaoh’s daughter, “Shall I goCXLIX and getCL you a nurseCLI from the Hebrew women to nurse the child for you?” 

Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Yes.”CLII

Notes on verses 2:7-8a

CXLIX “go” = halak. Same as “went” in v2:1. See note CIV above.
CL “get” = qara. Same as “summoned” in v1:18. See note LXXIX above.
CLI “nurse” = yanaq. This is to suckle or to nurse. In a causative sense, it can mean to give milk. So, this word can be used for a nursing mother or for her suckling child.
CLII “yes” = halak. Same as “went” in v2:1. See note CIV above.

So the girlCLIII wentCLIV and calledCLV the child’s mother.CLVI 

Notes on verse 2:8b

CLIII “girl” = almah. 7x in OT– this is the same word used in Isaiah 7:14 to refer to the “young woman” who is with child and shall name her son Immanuel. From elem (youth, lad, stripling; something that remains out of view); perhaps from alam (to hide, conceal, a dissembler; to conceal in a literal or figurative sense). This is a young woman or girl. It can be a maid as one who is veiled. By extension, this can mean virgin since a girl/young woman was presumed to be a virgin.
CLIV “went” = halak. Same as “went” in v2:1. See note CIV above.
CLV “called” = qara. Same as “summoned” in v1:18. See note LXXIX above.
CLVI “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.

Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “TakeCLVII this child and nurse it for me, and I will giveCLVIII you your wages.”CLIX So the woman tookCLX the child and nursedCLXI it. 

Notes on verse 2:9

CLVII “take” = halak. Same as “went” in v2:1. See note CIV above.
CLVIII “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
CLIX “wages” = sakar. From sakar (to hire, reward, earn). This is wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit.
CLX “took” = laqach. Same as “married” in v2:1. See note CV above.
CLXI “nursed” = nuq. 1x in OT. This is to suckle or nurse.

10 When the child grew up,CLXII she broughtCLXIII him to Pharaoh’s daughter, and he becameCLXIV her son. She namedCLXV him Moses,CLXVI “because,” she said, “I drewCLXVII him out of the water.”CLXVIII

Notes on verse 2:10

CLXII “grew up” = gadal. This is to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing.
CLXIII “brought” = bo. Same as “come” in v1:19. See note LXXXVII above.
CLXIV “became” = hayah. Same as “will” in v1:10. See note XVI above.
CLXV “named” = qara + shem. Qara is the same as “summoned” in v1:18. See note LXXIX above. Shem is the same as “named” in v1:15. See note LX above.
CLXVI “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
CLXVII “drew” = mashah. Related to “Moses” in v2:10. See note CLXVI above.
CLXVIII “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

3:1 CLXIXMoses was keepingCLXX the flockCLXXI of his father-in-lawCLXXII Jethro,CLXXIII

Notes on verse 3:1a

CLXIX {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “will” in v1:10. See note XVI above.
CLXX “keeping” = ra’ah. This is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher.
CLXXI “flock” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
CLXXII “father-in-law” = chathan. Perhaps from chathan (bridegroom, son-in-law; someone who is related through marriage; figuratively can be a child who is circumcised). This is to intermarry, make an alliance through marriage, father-in-law, son-in-law, give one’s daughter in marriage.
CLXXIII “Jethro” = Yithro. 10x in OT. From yether (a remainder or excess; abundant, superiority; a cord a free-hanging rope); from yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel). This is Jethro, or Yithro, meaning excellent or remnant.

the priestCLXXIV of Midian;CLXXV he ledCLXXVI his flock

Notes on verse 3:1b

CLXXIV “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
CLXXV “Midian” = Midyan. From the same as madon (strife, contention, brawling); from din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, strive). This is Midian or a Midianite. It means strife or place of judgment.
CLXXVI “led” = nahag. This is to drive as in driving flocks, but also driving in animal or vehicle like a chariot. It can mean to carry away, lead, drive away, proceed, or guide. It can also relate to behavior and what one is accustomed to.

beyondCLXXVII the wildernessCLXXVIII and cameCLXXIX to Mount Horeb,CLXXX the mountainCLXXXI of God. 

Notes on verse 3:1c

CLXXVII “beyond” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
CLXXVIII “wilderness” = midbar. Related to “commanded” in v1:17 & {untranslated} in v1:18. From dabar (see note LXXVI above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
CLXXIX “came” = bo. Same as “come” in v1:19. See note LXXXVII above.
CLXXX “Horeb” = Choreb. 17x in OT. From chareb (to devastate, desolate, or be waste). Horeb means waste or desolate.
CLXXXI “mountain” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.

There the angelCLXXXII of the LordCLXXXIII appearedCLXXXIV to him

Notes on verse 3:2a

CLXXXII “angel” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
CLXXXIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “will” in v1:10. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note XVI above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
CLXXXIV “appeared” = raah. Same as “see” in v1:16. See note LXVII above.

in a flameCLXXXV of fireCLXXXVI out ofCLXXXVII a bush;CLXXXVIII

Notes on verse 3:2b

CLXXXV “flame” = labbah. 1x in OT. From the same as lehabah (flame, blazing, head of a spear); from lahab (flame, flashing, glittering; properly, to gleam and so it could figuratively be a blade that is polished, flashing or the point on a weapon). This is flame.
CLXXXVI “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXXVII “out of” = tavek. Same as “among” in v2:5. See note CXXXIX above.
CLXXXVIII “bush” = seneh. 6x in OT– all in this story or in reference to this story in Deuteronomy 33:16. This is some kind of thorny bush like a bramble or blackberry bush. It may come from a root that means to prick.

he looked,CLXXXIX andCXC the bush was blazing,CXCI yet itCXCII was notCXCIII consumed.CXCIV 

Notes on verse 3:2c

CLXXXIX “looked” = raah. Same as “see” in v1:16. See note LXVII above.
CXC {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “look” in v1:9. See note IX above.
CXCI “blazing” = ba’ar + esh. Ba’ar is to burn, consume, heat, remove. It can also be to consume by a fire or through eating, being brutish or wasting. Esh is the same as “fire” in v3:2. See note CLXXXVI above.
CXCII “it” = seneh. Same as “bush” in v3:2. See note CLXXXVIII above.
CXCIII “not” = ayin. Perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not.
CXCIV “consumed” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.

Then Moses said, “I must turn asideCXCV, CXCVI and lookCXCVII at this greatCXCVIII sightCXCIX and see why the bush is not burned up.”CC 

Notes on verse 3:3

CXCV “turn aside” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CXCVI {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
CXCVII “look” = raah. Same as “see” in v1:16. See note LXVII above.
CXCVIII “great” = gadol. Related to “grew” in v2:10. From gadal (see note CLXII above). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
CXCIX “sight” = mareh. Related to “see” in v1:16. From raah (see note LXVII above). This is sight, appearance, or vision. It can be a view, seeing itself, that which is seen, something real, or a vision one sees.
CC “burned up” = ba’ar. Same as “blazing” in v3:2. See note CXCI above.

When the Lord sawCCI that he had turned aside to see,CCII God called to him out of the bush,CCIII “Moses, Moses!”

And he said, “Here I am.”CCIV 

Notes on verse 3:4

CCI “saw” = raah. Same as “see” in v1:16. See note LXVII above.
CCII “see” = raah. Same as “see” in v1:16. See note LXVII above.
CCIII {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” in v1:9. See note VII above.
CCIV “here I am” = hinneh. Same as “look” in v1:9. See note IX above.

Then he said, “Come no closer!CCV RemoveCCVI the sandalsCCVII from your feet,CCVIII

Notes on verse 3:5a

CCV “come…closer” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
CCVI “remove” = nashal. 7x in OT. To pluck off, clear, remove, eject, or drop.
CCVII “sandals” = naal. From naal (properly to secure with a bar or cord; to lock, bolt, enclose; to secure with a cord i.e. to put on a sandal). This is the tongue of a sandal and, by extension, a sandal or shoe itself. Figuratively, this can refer to occupancy, unwillingness to marry, or something without value.
CCVIII “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.

for the placeCCIX on which you are standingCCX is holyCCXI ground.” 

Notes on verse 3:5b

CCIX “place” = maqom. Related to “arose” in v1:8. From qum(see note III above). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CCX “standing” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
CCXI “holy” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.

He said further, “I am the God of your father,CCXII the God of Abraham,CCXIII the God of Isaac,CCXIV and the God of Jacob.”CCXV

Notes on verse 3:6a

CCXII “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXIII “Abraham” = Abraham. Related to “father” in v3:6. From the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (see note CCXII above) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
CCXIV “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
CCXV “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.

And Moses hidCCXVI his face,CCXVII for he was afraidCCXVIII to lookCCXIX at God.

Notes on verse 3:6b

CCXVI “hid” = sathar. This is hide, conceal, or be absent. It is hiding because something is covered – used in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXVII “face” = paneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1:12. See note XL above.
CCXVIII “was afraid” = yare. Same as “feared” in v1:17. See note LXXIII above.
CCXIX “look” = nabat. This is to behold, look at intently, consider, or scan. It can mean to have respect or regard someone favorably.

Then the Lord said, “I have observedCCXX the miseryCCXXI of my people who are in Egypt; I have heardCCXXII

Notes on verse 3:7a

CCXX “observed” = raah + raah. Same as “see” in v1:16. See note LXVII above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CCXXI “misery” = oniy. Related to “oppress” in v1:11. From anah (see note XXVII above). This is misery, poverty, or affliction.
CCXXII “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.

their cryCCXXIII on account ofCCXXIV their taskmasters.CCXXV Indeed, I know their sufferings,CCXXVI 

Notes on verse 3:7b

CCXXIII “cry” = tseaqah. From tsaaq (to cry out or call together, to shriek; by implication, calling for an assembly). This is a cry for help, shriek or outcry.
CCXXIV “on account of” = paneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1:12. See note XL above.
CCXXV “taskmasters” = nagas. This is driving an animal, worker, debtor, or an army. By implication, it can mean to tax, harass, distress, oppress, or tyrannize. This word can be used for taskmaster or overseer.
CCXXVI “sufferings” = makob. 16x in OT. From kaab (being in pain, be sad, grieve, spoil, mar). This is pain, sorrow, or suffering. It can be anguish or affliction.

and I have come downCCXXVII to deliverCCXXVIII them fromCCXXIX the Egyptians and to bring them upCCXXX out of that land to a goodCCXXXI and spaciousCCXXXII land,

Notes on verse 3:8a

CCXXVII “come down” = yarad. Same as “came down” in v2:5. See note CXXXIII above.
CCXXVIII “deliver” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.
CCXXIX “from” = yad. Same as “beside” in v2:5. See note CXXXVII above.
CCXXX “bring…up” = alah. Same as “escape” in v1:10. See note XXIII above.
CCXXXI “good” = tob. Same as “fine” in v2:2. See note CX above.
CCXXXII “spacious” = rachab. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is wide, extensive, spacious, or vast. It is roomy in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean liberty or proud.

to a land flowingCCXXXIII with milkCCXXXIV and honey,CCXXXV

Notes on verse 3:8b

CCXXXIII “flowing” = zub. This is to flow or gush. It is to flow like water or overflow. It can also be discharge, pine, waste away, or have a sexual flow.
CCXXXIV “milk” = chalab. Perhaps from the same as cheleb (fat, finest, marrow; fat in a literal or figurative sense; the richest or best part). This is milk or cheese or suckling.
CCXXXV “honey” = debash. Root may mean being gummy. This is honey or honeycomb because it is so sticky. It can also refer to syrup.

to the countryCCXXXVI of the Canaanites,CXXXVII the Hittites,CCXXXVIII

Notes on verse 3:8c

CCXXXVI “country” = maqom. Same as “place” in v3:5. See note CCIX above.
CCXXXVII “Canaanites” = Knaaniy. From Kanaan (Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled; perhaps meaning lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt); from kana (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaanite, which in some instances would imply a peddler or sometimes used in place of Ishmaelite. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaan
CCXXXVIII “Hittites” = Chitti. From cheth (Heth or Cheth; one of Canaan’s sons from whom perhaps the Hittites descend) OR from hatat (terror, lacking strength or courage); perhaps from hata (to seize; often used of coals from a fire). This is Hittite – perhaps meaning terrors or terrible. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Hittite.html#.XyMgpp5KhPY

the Amorites,CCXXXIX the Perizzites,CCXL the Hivites,CCXLI and the Jebusites.CCXLII 

Notes on verse 3:8d

CCXXXIX “Amorites” = Emori. Related to “said” in v1:9. From amar (see note VII above). This is Amorite or Emori, perhaps meaning talkers.
CCXL “Perizzites” = Perizzi. Perhaps from perazi (rural area, unwalled land); from the same as perazah (rural, village without walls, open country); from the same as paraz (root may mean to separate; perhaps warriors, chieftan, or throng). This is Perizzite, perhaps meaning rural or wild one.
CCXLI “Hivites” = Chivvi. Probably from the same as chavyah (life-giving, which implies the place where one lives like a village or place where one camps); probably from the same as Chavvah (Eve, life-giver); from chavah (show, tell, live, declare). This is Hivite, perhaps meaning villagers or tent villagers.
CCXLII “Jebusites” = Yebusi. From yebus (threshing place; one of the former names of Jerusalem); from bus (to trample down, tread in a literal or figurative sense; to loathe, pollute, squirm). This is Jebusite, meaning treaders or threshers.

CCXLIIIThe cryCCXLIV of the Israelites has now comeCCXLV to me; I have also seenCCXLVI howCCXLVII the Egyptians oppressCCXLVIII them. 

Notes on verse 3:9

CCXLIII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “look” in v1:9. See note IX above.
CCXLIV “cry” = tseaqah. Same as “cry” in v3:7. See note CCXXIII above.
CCXLV “come” = bo. Same as “come” in v1:19. See note LXXXVII above.
CCXLVI “seen” = raah. Same as “see” in v1:16. See note LXVII above.
CCXLVII “how” = lachats. Literally, “the oppression.” 12x in OT. From lachats (to press or squeeze; figuratively, oppress, afflict, or distress). This is oppression or affliction.
CCXLVIII “oppress” = lachats. Related to “how” in v3:9. 19x in OT. See note CCXLVII above.

10 Now go,CCXLIX I am sending you to Pharaoh to bringCCL my people, the Israelites, out of Egypt.” 

11 But Moses said to God, “Who am I that I should goCCLI to Pharaoh and bringCCLII the Israelites out of Egypt?” 

Notes on verses 3:10-11

CCXLIX “go” = halak. Same as “went” in v2:1. See note CIV above.
CCL “bring” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLI “go” = halak. Same as “went” in v2:1. See note CIV above.
CCLII “bring” = yatsa. Same as “bring” in v3:10. See note CCL above.

12 He said, “I will beCCLIII with you, and this shall be the signCCLIV for you that it is I who sent you: when you have broughtCCLV the people out of Egypt, you shall serveCCLVI God on this mountain.”

Notes on verse 3:12

CCLIII “be” = hayah. Same as “will” in v1:10. See note XVI above.
CCLIV “sign” = oth. From avah (to mark, sign, point out); OR from uth (to agree). This is a sign in a literal or figurative sense. It could be a flag or monument. It could be evidence or a mark. It could also be an omen or a miracle. 
CCLV “brought” = yatsa. Same as “bring” in v3:10. See note CCL above.
CCLVI “serve” = abad. Same as “subjected” in v1:13. See note XLII above.

13 But Moses said to God, “CCLVIIIf I comeCCLVIII to the Israelites and say to them, ‘The God of your ancestorsCCLIX has sent me to you,’ and they askCCLX me, ‘What is his name?’ what shall I say to them?” 

Notes on verse 3:13

CCLVII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “look” in v1:9. See note IX above.
CCLVIII “come” = bo. Same as “come” in v1:19. See note LXXXVII above.
CCLIX “ancestors” = ab. Same as “father” in v3:6. See note CCXII above.
CCLX “ask” = amar. Same as “said” in v1:9. See note VII above.

14 God said to Moses, “I am who I am.” He said further, “Thus you shall say to the Israelites, ‘I am has sent me to you.’” 

15 God also said to Moses, “Thus you shall say to the Israelites, ‘The Lord, the God of your ancestors, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you’:

This is my name forever,CCLXI
and this my titleCCLXII for all generations.CCLXIII

Notes on verses 3:14-15

CCLXI “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
CCLXII “title” = zeker. From zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention). This is remembrance, renown, memento, recollection, or commemoration.
CCLXIII “generations” = dor + dor. Literally, “of generation, generation.” Dor is from dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

Image credit: “The Burning Bush” by Frank Wesley.

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