Exodus 9

Exodus 9


Then the LordI said to Moses,II “GoIII to Pharaoh,IV and sayV to him,

Notes on verse 1a

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
III “go” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
IV “Pharaoh” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pharaoh
V “say” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.

‘Thus says the Lord, the GodVI of the Hebrews:VII Let my peopleVIII go,IX so that they may worshipX me. 

Notes on verse 1b

VI “God” = Elohim.
VII “Hebrews” = Ibri. From Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew, perhaps meaning a descendant of Eber.
VIII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
IX “let…go” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
X “worship” = abad. This is to work, serve, or compel. It can describe any kind of work or service (including religious devotion).  Also, till or cultivate. Used causatively, it can mean to enslave or keep in bondage.

For if you refuseXI to let them goXII and still holdXIII them, 3 XIVthe handXV of the Lord will strikeXVI

Notes on verses 2-3a

XI “refuse” = maen. 4x in OT. From maen (to refuse). This is refusing or unwilling.
XII “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note IX above.
XIII “hold” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
XIV {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XV “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XVI “strike” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

with a deadlyXVII pestilenceXVIII your livestockXIX in the field:XX

Notes on verse 3b

XVII “deadly” = meod + kabed. Meod is perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance. Kabed is from kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is heavy, grievous, sore. It can also be weighty in the sense of gravitas. The word for “glory” in Hebrew comes from this root (kabod).
XVIII “pestilence” = deber. Related to “say” in v1. From dabar (see note V above). This is a plague or thorns.
XIX “livestock” = miqneh. From qanah (to get, acquire, purchase, move to jealousy, buyer, keep cattle). This is something that is bought, which implies property or possession. However, it is generally used of livestock – cattle, flock, herds.
XX “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.

the horses,XXI the donkeys,XXII the camels,XXIII the herds,XXIV and the flocks.XXV 

Notes on verse 3c

XXI “horses” = sus. Root may mean to skip as in jump for joy. This is a crane or a swift bird. It is also a horse as leaping.
XXII “donkeys” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.
XXIII “camels” = gamal. From gamal (how one deals with someone whether positively or negatively – so to reward, requite; to wean or the work that goes into something ripening). This is a camel as an animal of labor or one that bears burdens. The English word “camel” is from a Semitic source, perhaps Hebrew or others.
XXIV “herds” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
XXV “flocks” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.

4 But the Lord will make a distinctionXXVI betweenXXVII the livestock of IsraelXXVIII and the livestock of Egypt,XXIX

Notes on verse 4a

XXVI “make a distinction” = palah. 7x in OT. This is to distinguish in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to sever, set apart, or show self to be marvelous.
XXVII “between” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
XXVIII “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “God” in v1. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note VI above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XXIX “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

so that nothing shall dieXXX of allXXXI that belongsXXXII to the Israelites.’”XXXIII 

Notes on verse 4b

XXX “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XXXI “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XXXII “belongs” = dabar. Related to “say” in v1 & “pestilence” in v3. From dabar (see note V above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XXXIII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is the same as “Israel” in v4. See note XXVIII above.

The Lord setXXXIV a time,XXXV saying, “TomorrowXXXVI the Lord will doXXXVII this thingXXXVIII in the land.”XXXIX 

Notes on verse 5

XXXIV “set” = sum. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
XXXV “time” = moed. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
XXXVI “tomorrow” = machar. Perhaps from achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is tomorrow or later. It is some kind of deferred time, so it could also mean indefinitely or refer to the time to come.
XXXVII “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XXXVIII “thing” = dabar. Same as “belongs” in v4. See note XXXII above.
XXXIX “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

And on the next dayXL the Lord did so;XLI all the livestock of the EgyptiansXLII died, but of the livestock of the Israelites not oneXLIII died. 

Notes on verse 6

XL “next day” = mochorath. Related to “tomorrow” in v5. From the same as machar (see note XXXVI above). This is the day after or the following morning.
XLI “so” = dabar. Same as “belongs” in v4. See note XXXII above.
XLII “Egyptians” = Mitsri. Related to “Egypt” in v4. From the same as Mitsrayim (see note XXIX above). This is Egyptian.
XLIII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.

7 Pharaoh inquiredXLIV andXLV found that not one of the livestock of the Israelites was dead. But the heartXLVI of Pharaoh was hardened,XLVII and he would not let the people go.XLVIII

Notes on verse 7

XLIV “inquired” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note IX above.
XLV {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XIV above.
XLVI “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XLVII “hardened” = kabad. Related to “deadly” in v3. See note XVII above.
XLVIII “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note IX above.

Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron,XLIX “TakeL handfulsLI of sootLII from the kiln,LIII

Notes on verse 8a

XLIX “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
L “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LI “handfuls” = melo + chophen. Melo is from male (fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate; fill in a literal or figurative sense). This is fullness in a literal or figurative sense. Chophen is 6x in OT. This is fist or hand.
LII “soot” = piach. 2x in OT. From puach (to puff, breathe or blow, whether the breath or air; to light a fire, utter, speak, snore, hasten, or scoff). This is soot, ashes, or dust.
LIII “kiln” = kibshan. 4x in OT. From kabash (to subdue, tread down, trample, disregard, violate, assault, or conquer). This is a kiln or furnace – especially one used to smelt metals.

and let Moses throwLIV it in the airLV in the sightLVI of Pharaoh. It shall becomeLVII fine dustLVIII all over the land of Egypt,

Notes on verses 8b-9a

LIV “throw” = zaraq. This is to scatter or sprinkle, whether a liquid or a solid.
LV “air” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
LVI “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
LVII “become” = hayah. Same as “strike” in v3. See note XVI above.
LVIII “dust” = abaq. 6x in OT. From the same as abaq (to wrestle or grapple; evaporating like vapor). This is dust or powder.

and shall causeLIX festeringLX boilsLXI on humansLXII and animalsLXIII throughout the wholeLXIV land of Egypt.”

Notes on verse 9b

LIX “cause” = hayah. Same as “strike” in v3. See note XVI above.
LX “festering” = parach + ababuah. Parach is to sprout, blossom, bloom, spread, flourish. Ababuah is 2x in OT. It may come from a a word that means spew forth. This is a boil, sore, or other inflammation.
LXI “boils” = shechin. 13x in OT– word used for the boils in the sixth plague of Egypt in Exodus 9. This is a boil, inflammation, or ulcer.
LXII “humans” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
LXIII “animals” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
LXIV “whole” = kol. Same as “all” in v4. See note XXXI above.


10 So they took soot from the kiln, and stoodLXV beforeLXVI Pharaoh, and Moses threw it in the air, and it caused festering boils on humans and animals. 11 The magiciansLXVII couldLXVIII not stand beforeLXIX Moses because ofLXX the boils, for the boils afflictedLXXI the magicians as well as all the Egyptians. 

Notes on verses 10-11

LXV “stood” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
LXVI “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXVII “magicians” = chartom. 11x in OT. From the same as cheret (any kind of tool used for engraving – a stylus, chisel, or pen). This is an engraver or magician. It is someone who knows how to do occult things, so it could be a diviner or someone who does horoscopes. In the Bible, magicians interpret dreams (in Genesis and Daniel) and are also called on in Exodus to disprove or duplicate the miracles of God.
LXVIII “could” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
LXIX “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v10. See note LXVI above.
LXX “because of” = paneh. Same as “before” in v10. See note LXVI above.
LXXI “afflicted” = hayah. Same as “strike” in v3. See note XVI above.

12 But the Lord hardenedLXXII the heart of Pharaoh, and he would not listenLXXIII to them, just as the Lord had spokenLXXIV to Moses.

13 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Rise up earlyLXXV in the morningLXXVI and presentLXXVII yourself beforeLXXVIII Pharaoh,

Notes on verses 12-13a

LXXII “hardened” = chazaq. Same as “hardened” in v2. See note XIII above.
LXXIII “listen” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
LXXIV “spoken” = dabar. Same as “say” in v1. See note V above.
LXXV “rise up early” = shakam. This is leaning one’s shoulder into a burden or load, whether a person or an animal. Thus, it meant starting or rising early.
LXXVI “morning” = boqer. Related to “herds” in v3. From baqar (see note XXIV above). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
LXXVII “present” = yatsab. This is to set oneself, take a stand, remain, continue, to station or set something in place.
LXXVIII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v10. See note LXVI above.

and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: Let my people go,LXXIX so that they may worship me. 14 For this timeLXXX I will sendLXXXI all my plaguesLXXXII upon you yourself,LXXXIII

Notes on verses 13b-14a

LXXIX “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note IX above.
LXXX “time” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.
LXXXI “send” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note IX above.
LXXXII “plagues” = maggephah. From nagaph (to strike, beat, hurt, stumble, defeat, inflict disease). This is a blow, calamity, plague, or defeat.
LXXXIII “yourself” = leb. Same as “heart” in v7. See note XLVI above.

and upon your officials,LXXXIV and upon your people, so thatLXXXV you may knowLXXXVI that there is no one like me in all the earth.LXXXVII 15 For by now I could have stretched outLXXXVIII my hand and struckLXXXIX you and your people with pestilence, and you would have been cut offXC from the earth. 

Notes on verses 14b-15

LXXXIV “officials” = ebed. Related to “worship” in v1. From abad (see note X above). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
LXXXV “so that” = abur. Related to “Hebrews” in v1. From abar (see note VII above). This is for, so that, on account of. Properly, it means crossed.
LXXXVI “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
LXXXVII “earth” = erets. Same as “land” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
LXXXVIII “stretched out” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note IX above.
LXXXIX “struck” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
XC “cut off” = kachad. This is to hide or conceal or destroy. It can also refer to doing secret actions or secret speech.

16 But this is why I have let you live:XCI to showXCII you my power,XCIII and to make my nameXCIV resoundXCV through all the earth. 

Notes on verse 16

XCI “let…live” = amad. Same as “stood” in v10. See note LXV above.
XCII “show” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XCIII “power” = koach. Root may mean to be firm. This is power, strength, force. It can be literal or figurative, positive or negative. It can also mean capacity or means – what something produces. Additionally, it could refer to some kind of small reptile.
XCIV “name” = shem. Related to “set” in v5. May be from sum (see note XXXIV above). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
XCV “make…resound” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.

17 You are still exaltingXCVI yourself against my people, and will notXCVII let them go.XCVIII 18 Tomorrow at this timeXCIX, C I will cause the heaviestCI hailCII

Notes on verses 17-18a

XCVI “exalting” = salal. 12x in OT. This is to lift up, pile, build, make plain, extol, exalt.
XCVII “not” = bilti. From balah (to grow old, wear out, consume, waste, enjoy, fail, decay). This is nothing, not, lest, or except. From its root, it means “a failure of” – used for negative particles.
XCVIII “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note IX above.
XCIX “time” = eth. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
C {untranslated} = hen. Related to {untranslated} in v3. See note XIV above.
CI “heaviest” = kabed + meod. Same as “deadly” in v3. See note XVII above.
CII “hail” = barad. Perhaps from barad (to hail). This is a hailstone.

to fallCIII that hasCIV ever fallen in Egypt from the dayCV it was foundedCVI until now. 19 Send, therefore, and have your livestock and everythingCVII

Notes on verses 18b-19a

CIII “cause…to fall” = matar. 17x in OT. From matar (rain). This is to rain.
CIV “has” = hayah. Same as “strike” in v3. See note XVI above.
CV “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CVI “founded” = yasad. This is to establish, appoint, instruct. It is to set in a literal or figurative sense. Also means to sit down together and so to consult or take counsel.
CVII “everything” = kol. Same as “all” in v4. See note XXXI above.

that you have in the open field broughtCVIII to a secure place;CIX everyCX human or animal that is in the open field and is not broughtCXI under shelterCXII will die when the hail comes downCXIII upon them.’” 

Notes on verse 19b

CVIII “brought” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
CIX “have…to a secure place” = uz. 4x in OT. This is to run for refuge, to seek safety, be strong.
CX “every” = kol. Same as “all” in v4. See note XXXI above.
CXI “brought” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
CXII “shelter” = bayit. Related to “Israelites” in v4. Probably from banah (see note XXXIII above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
CXIII “comes down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.

20 Those officials of Pharaoh who fearedCXIV the wordCXV of the Lord hurriedCXVI their slavesCXVII and livestock off to a secure place.CXVIII 21 Those who did not regardCXIX the word of the Lord leftCXX their slaves and livestock in the open field.

Notes on verses 20-21

CXIV “feared” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
CXV “word” = dabar. Same as “belongs” in v4. See note XXXII above.
CXVI “hurried” = nus. This is to flee, vanish away, hide, escape, be displayed.
CXVII “slaves” = ebed. Same as “officials” in v14. See note LXXXIV above.
CXVIII “secure place” = bayit. Same as “shelter” in v19. See note CXII above.
CXIX “regard” = sum + leb. Sum is the same as “set” in 5. See note XXXIV above. Leb is the same as “heart” in v7. See note XLVI above.
CXX “left” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.

22 The Lord said to Moses, “Stretch outCXXI your hand toward heavenCXXII so that hail may fallCXXIII on the whole land of Egypt, on humans and animals and all the plantsCXXIV of the field in the land of Egypt.” 

23 Then Moses stretched out his staffCXXV toward heaven, and the Lord sentCXXVI thunderCXXVII and hail,

Notes on verses 22-23a

CXXI “stretch out” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
CXXII “heaven” = shamayim. Same as “air” in v8. See note LV above.
CXXIII “fall” = hayah. Same as “strike” in v3. See note XVI above.
CXXIV “plants” = eseb. Root may mean to be green or to glisten. This is grass or some other tender shoot.
CXXV “staff” = matteh. Related to “stretch out” in v22. From natah (see note CXXI above). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).
CXXVI “sent” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
CXXVII “thunder” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.

and fireCXXVIII came downCXXIX on the earth. And the Lord rainedCXXX hail on the land of Egypt;  24 there wasCXXXI hail with fire flashingCXXXII continually in the midst ofCXXXIII it,

Notes on verses 23b-24a

CXXVIII “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXIX “came down” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
CXXX “rained” = matar. Same as “cause…to fall” in v18. See note CIII above.
CXXXI “was” = hayah. Same as “strike” in v3. See note XVI above.
CXXXII “flashing” = laqach. Same as “take” in v8. See note L above.
CXXXIII “in the midst of” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.

such heavyCXXXIV hail as had never fallenCXXXV in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.CXXXVI 25 The hail struck downCXXXVII everything that was in the open field throughout all the land of Egypt, both human and animal; the hail also struck down all the plants of the field, and shatteredCXXXVIII every treeCXXXIX in the field. 

Notes on verses 24b-25

CXXXIV “such heavy” = kabed + meod. Same as “deadly” in v3. See note XVII above.
CXXXV “fallen” = hayah. Same as “strike” in v3. See note XVI above.
CXXXVI “nation” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.
CXXXVII “struck down” = nakah. Same as “struck” in v15. See note LXXXIX above.
CXXXVIII “shattered” = shabar. This is break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear. It is bursting in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXIX “tree” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.

26 OnlyCXL in the land of Goshen,CXLI where the Israelites were, there was no hail.

27 ThenCXLII Pharaoh summonedCXLIII Moses and Aaron, and said to them, “This time I have sinned;CXLIV the Lord is in the right,CXLV and I and my people are in the wrong.CXLVI 

Notes on verses 26-27

CXL “only” = raq. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit.
CXLI “Goshen” = Goshen. 15x in OT. Similar to Arabic j-sh-m (to labor) OR may be related to Egyptian qas (“inundated land”) OR Egyptian pa-qas (“pouring forth”) OR from Gasmu (“rulers of Bedouin Qedarites who occupied the eastern Delta from the 7th century BC”). This is Goshen. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_of_Goshen
CXLII {untranslated} = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note IX above.
CXLIII “summoned” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
CXLIV “sinned” = chata. This is properly to miss, and so figuratively it is used for sinning, bearing the blame. It implies a forfeiture or loss of something.
CXLV “right” = tsaddiq. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, just cause, vindication; that which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense; abstractly equity; figuratively prosperity). This is just, innocent, righteous, righteous one, or lawful.
CXLVI “wrong” = rasha. This is morally wrong so it refers to someone who is actively bad as wicked, criminal, an evil person, offender, condemned, or ungodly.

28 PrayCXLVII to the Lord!CXLVIII EnoughCXLIX of God’s thunder and hail! I will let you go;CL you need stayCLI no longer.”CLII 

Notes on verse 28

CXLVII “pray” = athar. This is to pray or entreat. It could mean burning incense as one does as part of worship or to intercede. It could also mean listening to or being moved by prayer.
CXLVIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “strike” in v3. See note XVI above.
CXLIX “enough” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
CL “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note IX above.
CLI “stay” = amad. Same as “stood” in v10. See note LXV above.
CLII “longer” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.

29 Moses said to him, “As soon as I have gone outCLIII of the city,CLIV I will stretch outCLV my handsCLVI to the Lord; the thunder will cease,CLVII and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth is the Lord’s. 30 But as for you and your officials, I know that you do not yet fearCLVIII the Lord God.” 

Notes on verses 29-30

CLIII “gone out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CLIV “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
CLV “stretch out” = paras. This is to spread or stretch out, extend, break up, chop to pieces, disperse, display.
CLVI “hands” = kaph. From kaphaph (to bend – from a root meaning curve or bend down). This is palm of the hand or sole of the foot, footstep, grasp. Figuratively, it can also mean power.
CLVII “cease” = chadal. This is properly to be flabby – it implies, to stop, fall, end, rest, leave alone, forsake, or desist. Figuratively this can be lacking or idle.
CLVIII {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “before” in v10. See note LXVI above.

31 (Now the flaxCLIX and the barleyCLX were ruined,CLXI for the barley was in the earCLXII and the flax was in bud.CLXIII 32 But the wheatCLXIV and the speltCLXV were not ruined, for they are late in coming up.)CLXVI 

Notes on verses 31-32

CLIX “flax” = pishtah. 4x in OT. From peshet (flax, linen); from the same as pash (extremity, continuing). This is falx, which may refer to a wick.
CLX “barley” = seorah. From the same as sear (hair, hairy, rough); perhaps from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, storm tossed; this is to toss in a literal or figurative sense). This is barley, perhaps as hairy.
CLXI “ruined” = nakah. Same as “struck” in v15. See note LXXXIX above.
CLXII “ear” = abib. 8x in OT. This is a young ear or green head of grain. It is also the name of a month – Abib.
CLXIII “bud” = gibol. 1x in OT. From gabia (cup, bowl, flower; root might mean being convex). This is a bud, like the bowl of a flower.
CLXIV “wheat” = chittah. Perhaps from chanat (to spice, ripen, embalm). This is wheat, referring to the plant or its product.
CLXV “spelt” = kussemet. 3x in OT. From kasam (to clip, trim). This is spelt or rye as bristly.
CLXVI “late in coming up” = aphil. 1x in OT. From the same as ophel (darkness, gloom, dusk, obscurity); from the same as aphel (gloomy – unused root which refers to the sun setting i.e. dusky, dark). This is late or unripe.


33 So Moses left Pharaoh, went out of the city, and stretched outCLXVII his handsCLXVIII to the Lord; then the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rainCLXIX no longer poured downCLXX on the earth. 

34 But when Pharaoh sawCLXXI that the rain and the hail and the thunder had ceased, he sinned once moreCLXXII and hardenedCLXXIII his heart, he and his officials. 35 So the heart of Pharaoh was hardened,CLXXIV and he would not let the Israelites go,CLXXV just as the Lord had spoken throughCLXXVI Moses.

Notes on verses 33-35

CLXVII “stretched out” = paras. Same as “stretch out” in v29. See note CLV above.
CLXVIII “hands” = kaph. Same as “hands” in v29. See note CLVI above.
CLXIX “rain” = matar. Related to “cause…to fall” in v18. See note CIII above.
CLXX “poured down” = nathak. This is to pour out, melt, flow out, liquify. It can be to pour in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXI “saw” = raah. Same as “show” in v16. See note XCII above.
CLXXII “once more” = yasaph. Same as “longer” in v28. See note CLII above.
CLXXIII “hardened” = kabed. Same as “hardened” in v7. See note XVII above.
CLXXIV “hardened” = chazaq. Same as “hardened” in v2. See note XIII above.
CLXXV “let…go” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v1. See note IX above.
CLXXVI {untranslated} = yad. Same as “hand” in v3. See note XV above.

Image credit: “Moses Aaron Shofar Pharaoh” – a still from the movie Seder-Masochism by Nina Paley, 2108.

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