Genesis 27

Genesis 27


IWhen IsaacII was oldIII and his eyesIV were dimV so that he could not see,VI

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
II “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
III “was old” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is to be old or grow old.
IV “eyes” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
V “were dim” = kahah. 8x in OT. This is to darken, grow faint, fail, be weak, have one’s eye dim or become dull.
VI “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.

he calledVII his elderVIII sonIX EsauX and said to him, “My son”;

and he answered, “Here I am.”XI 

Notes on verse 1b

VII “called” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
VIII “elder” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
IX “son” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
X “Esau” = Esav. From asah (to squeeze, handle, or press) OR from asah (to do, make, accomplish, become). This is Esau, perhaps meaning rough as something one handles. It could also be doer, maker, or worker. See
XI “here I am” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!

He said, “See,XII, XIII I am old; I do not knowXIV the day of my death.XV 

Notes on verse 2

XII “see” = hinneh. Same as “here I am” in v1. See note XI above.
XIII {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
XIV “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XV “death” = mavet. From muth (to die in a literal or figurative sense). This can be death, deadliness, the dead, or the place where the dead go. It can be used figuratively for pestilence or ruin.

Now then, takeXVI, XVII your weapons,XVIII your quiverXIX and your bow,XX

Notes on verse 3a

XVI “take” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
XVII {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XIII above.
XVIII “weapons” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
XIX “quiver” = teli. 1x in OT. From talah (to hang or suspend; can be used for hanging someone on gallows). This is a quiver as hanging. It can also have a sense of a quiver including arrows.
XX “bow” = qeshet. Perhaps from qush (to set a trap, lure, ensnare) OR from qashah (to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe). This is a bow, arrow, or archer. Bow can be used figuratively for strength.

and go outXXI to the field,XXII and huntXXIII gameXXIV for me. 

Notes on verse 3b

XXI “go out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XXII “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
XXIII “hunt” = tsud. 18x in OT. This is to hunt, to lie in wait in order to catch an animal. It can be used figuratively for capturing people.
XXIV “game” = tsedah. Related to “hunt” in v3. 11x in OT. From tsayid (hunting, catch, the chase; provisions or lunch for a journey); from tsud (see note XXIII above). This is meat, food, or other provisions.

Then prepareXXV for me savory food,XXVI such as I like,XXVII and bringXXVIII it to me to eat,XXIX

Notes on verse 4a

XXV “prepare” = asah. Perhaps related to “Esau” in v1. See note X above – the second asah.
XXVI “savory food” = matam. 8x in OT. From taam (to taste, sense, perceive). This is some tasty food, a delicacy, a savory meat.
XXVII “like” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
XXVIII “bring” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XXIX “eat” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.

so thatXXX IXXXI may blessXXXII you before I die.”XXXIII

Notes on verse 4b

XXX “so that” = abur. From abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is for, so that, on account of. Properly, it means crossed.
XXXI “I” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XXXII “bless” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
XXXIII “die” = mut. Related to “death” in v2. See note XV above.

Now RebekahXXXIV was listeningXXXV when Isaac spokeXXXVI to his son Esau. So when Esau wentXXXVII to the field to hunt for gameXXXVIII and bring it, 

Notes on verse 5

XXXIV “Rebekah” = Ribqah. From the same as marbeq (fattened, a stall used for housing cattle; root may mean to tie up). This is Rebekah, perhaps meaning tied up or secured. See
XXXV “listening” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XXXVI “spoke” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
XXXVII “went” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XXXVIII “game” = tsayid. Related to “hunt” and “game” in v3. 17x in OT. See note XXIV above.

Rebekah said to her son Jacob,XXXIXXLI heard your fatherXLI say to your brotherXLII Esau, 

Notes on verse 6

XXXIX “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
XL {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “here I am” in v1. See note XI above.
XLI “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XLII “brother” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.

‘Bring me game, and prepare for me savory food to eat, that I may bless you beforeXLIII the LordXLIV beforeXLV I die.’XLVI 

Notes on verse 7

XLIII “before” = paneh. Literally “before the face of.” From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XLIV “Lord” = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} in v1. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note I above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XLV “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v7. See note XLIII above.
XLVI “die” = mavet. Same as “death” in v2. See note XV above.

Now therefore, my son, obeyXLVII my wordXLVIII as I commandXLIX you. 

Notes on verse 8

XLVII “obey” = shama. Same as “listening” in v5. See note XXXV above.
XLVIII “word” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
XLIX “command” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).

GoL to the flock,LI and getLII me twoLIII choiceLIV kids,LV so that I may prepare from them savory food for your father, such as he likes; 

Notes on verse 9

L {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XIII above.
LI “flock” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
LII “get” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LIII “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
LIV “choice” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
LV “kids” = gedi + ez. 16x in OT. Gedi is from gadah (a riverbank). This is a young goat. Ez is perhaps from azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is a female goat, but can refer to male goats when plural.

10 and you shall takeLVI it to your father to eat, so that he may bless you beforeLVII he dies.”LVIII 

Notes on verse 10

LVI “take” = bo. Same as “bring” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
LVII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v7. See note XLIII above.
LVIII “dies” = mavet. Same as “death” in v2. See note XV above.

11 But Jacob said to his motherLIX Rebekah, “Look,LX my brother Esau is a hairyLXI man,LXII and I am a man of smoothLXIII skin. 

Notes on verse 11

LIX “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
LX “look” = hen. Related to “here I am” in v1. See note XI above.
LXI “hairy” = sa’iyr. From sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, fear, storm tossed; to toss in a literal or figurative sense). This is hairy, rough, male goat, shaggy. It could also refer to a devil.
LXII “man” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
LXIII “smooth” = chalaq. 4x in OT. From chalaq (to be smooth in a figurative sense; can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute; figuratively, it can also mean to flatter, slippery). This is smooth in a literal sense. It could also refer to a smooth tongue, i.e. one that flatters.

12 Perhaps my father will feelLXIV me, and I shall seem to beLXV mockingLXVI him, and bring a curseLXVII on myself and not a blessing.”LXVIII 

Notes on verse 12

LXIV “feel” = mashash. 9x in OT. This is to feel or to search around by feeling, to grope. It is often used of people groping about in the dark.
LXV “seem to be” = hayah + ayin. Literally “seem to be to his eye.” Hayah is the same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above. Ayin is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
LXVI “mocking” = ta’a’. 2x in OT. This is to cheat or deceive, to mistreat.
LXVII “curse” = qelalah. From qalal (to be little, insignificant, swift; to bring down in esteem, create contempt, curse). This is cursing or vilification.
LXVIII “blessing” = barakah. Related to “bless” in v4. From barak (see note XXXII above). This is blessing, which implies prosperity or peace.

13 His mother said to him, “Let your curse be on me, my son; only obey my word, and go, get them for me.” 14 So he went and got them and brought them to his mother; and his mother prepared savory food, such as his father loved.LXIX 15 Then Rebekah tookLXX the bestLXXI garmentsLXXII of her elder son Esau,

Notes on verses 13-15a

LXIX “loved” = aheb. Same as “like” in v4. See note XXVII above.
LXX “took” = laqach. Same as “get” in v9. See note LII above.
LXXI “best” = chemdah. 18x in OT. From chemed (desire, delight); from chamad (to desire or delight in someone or something; something that is precious or coveted; to lust). This is desire or precious.
LXXII “garments” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.

which were with her in the house,LXXIII and put them onLXXIV her youngerLXXV son Jacob; 

Notes on verse 15b

LXXIII “house” = bayit. Related to “son” in v1. Probably related to banah (see note IX above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
LXXIV “put…on” = labash. This is to wrap around, which implies clothing oneself or someone else. This is wrapping around in a literal or figurative way.
LXXV “younger” = qatan. From quwt (grieved, cut off, to detest). This is least, small, young, little one. It is literally smaller whether in amount or size. Figuratively it is smaller in the sense of younger or less important.

16 and she put the skinsLXXVI of the kids on his handsLXXVII and on the smooth partLXXVIII of his neck.LXXIX 

Notes on verse 16

LXXVI “skins” = or. Perhaps from ur (to be made naked, exposed, or bare). This is skin, hide, or leather. It can also refer to a body.
LXXVII “hands” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LXXVIII “smooth part” = chelqah. Related to “smooth” in v11. From cheleq (portion, catch, division, reward, share, smooth tongue, flattery, associate); from chalaq (see note LXIII above). This is smoothness. Figuratively it can mean a tract of land or other allotment or flattery.
LXXIX “neck” = tsavvar. Perhaps from tsur (to confine, cramp, or bind in a literal or figurative sense; to besiege, assault, or distress, adversary). This is the neck or the back of the neck.

17 Then she handedLXXX the savory food, and the breadLXXXI that she had prepared, to her son Jacob.

18 So he went inLXXXII to his father, and said, “My father”;

and he said, “Here I am; who are you, my son?” 

Notes on verses 17-18

LXXX “handed” = natanyad. Literally “gave…into the hand.” Natan is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively. Yad is the same as “hands” in v16. See note LXXVII above.
LXXXI “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
LXXXII “went in” = bo. Same as “bring” in v4. See note XXVIII above.

19 Jacob said to his father, “I am Esau your firstborn.LXXXIII I have doneLXXXIV as you told me; now sit upLXXXV and eat of my game, so that youLXXXVI may bless me.” 

Notes on verse 19

LXXXIII “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
LXXXIV “done” = asah. Same as “prepare” in v4. See note XXV above.
LXXXV “now sit up” = qum + na + yashab. Literally “rise, please, and sit.” Qum is to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense. Na is the same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XIII above. Yashab is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
LXXXVI “you” = nephesh. Same as “I” in v4. See note XXXI above.

20 But Isaac said to his son, “How is it that you have foundLXXXVII it so quickly,LXXXVIII my son?”

He answered, “Because the Lord your GodLXXXIX granted meXC success.”XCI 

Notes on verse 20

LXXXVII “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
LXXXVIII “have….so quickly” = mahar. This is being liquid, which implies flowing. So, this word implies hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense.
LXXXIX “God” = Elohim.
XC “me” = paneh. Same as “before” in v7. See note XLIII above.
XCI “granted…success” = qarah. This is to encounter, usually unintentionally. It can also mean to happen or to lay wood for a floor or roof.

21 Then Isaac said to Jacob, “Come near,XCII, XCIII that I may feelXCIV you, my son, to know whether you are really my son Esau or not.” 

Notes on verse 21

XCII “come near” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
XCIII {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XIII above.
XCIV “feel” = mush. 2x in OT. This is to touch or handle.

22 So Jacob went upXCV to his father Isaac, who felt him and said, “The voiceXCVI is Jacob’s voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau.” 23 He did not recognizeXCVII him, because his hands were hairy like his brother Esau’s hands; so he blessed him. 24 He said, “Are you really my son Esau?”

He answered, “I am.” 

Notes on verses 22-24

XCV “went up” = nagash. Same as “come near” in v21. See note XCII above.
XCVI “voice” = qol. Same as “word” in v8. See note XLVIII above.
XCVII “recognize” = nakar. This is to recognize, examine, take notice, show, scrutinize. It is looking at something in a fixed way, showing perhaps respect or reverence. Alternately, it can show gazing with suspicion. Also, it can mean being strange towards someone or something and rejecting or ignoring it.

25 Then he said, “BringXCVIII it to me, that I may eat of my son’s game and bless you.”XCIX So he brought it to him, and he ate; and he broughtC him wine,CI and he drank.CII 

Notes on verse 25

XCVIII “bring” = nagash. Same as “come near” in v21. See note XCII above.
XCIX Literally “my soul may bless you.”
C “brought” = bo. Same as “bring” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
CI “wine” = yayin. Root may mean to effervesce, referring to the fermentation process. This is wine, grape, or banquet. It can imply intoxication.
CII “drank” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.

26 Then his father Isaac said to him, “Come nearCIII and kissCIV me, my son.” 27 So he came near and kissed him; and he smelledCV the smellCVI of his garments, and blessed him, and said,

Notes on verses 26-27a

CIII {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XIII above.
CIV “kiss” = nashaq. This is to kiss in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to touch, rule, or equip with weapons.
CV “smelled” = ruach. 11x in OT. Related to riach (scent, odor, perceive). This is to blow or breathe. It can imply to perceive, anticipate, or enjoy.
CVI “smell” = reyach. Related to “smelled” in v27. From ruach (see note CV above). This is a scent or breath – a savor, ointment. It is also used for the odor of sacrifices that pleases God.

“Ah,CVII the smell of my son
    is like the smell of a field that the Lord has blessed.
28 May God giveCVIII you of the dewCIX of heaven,CX

Notes on verses 27b-28a

CVII “ah” = raah. Same as “see” in v1. See note VI above.
CVIII “give” = natan. Same as “handed” in v17. See note LXXX above.
CIX “dew” = tal. Perhaps from talal (to cover, roof, strew). This is dew or mist as something that covers plants.
CX “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.

    and of the fatnessCXI of the earth,CXII
    and plentyCXIII of grainCXIV and wine.CXV

Notes on verse 28b

CXI “fatness” = mashman. 7x in OT. From shaman (to grow fat, shine, be oily). This is fat in a literal sense – one who is fat or robust. It can also refer to the general concept of fatness. Figuratively, it could be a food that is rich or a place that is fertile.
CXII “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
CXIII “plenty” = rob. From rabab (to be or become much or many, multiply). This is any kind of abundance.
CXIV “grain” = dagan. Perhaps from dagah (to multiply, move quickly, breed greatly, grow). This is grain or other cereal.
CXV “wine” = tirosh. From yarash (inheriting or dispossessing; refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them; by implication, to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish).  This is new wine or sweet wine – wine that is freshly squeezed. Sometimes used for fermented wine.

29 Let peoplesCXVI serveCXVII you,
    and nationsCXVIII bow downCXIX to you.

BeCXX lordCXXI over your brothers,
    and may your mother’s sons bow down to you.
Cursed be everyone who cursesCXXII you,
    and blessed be everyone who blesses you!”

Notes on verse 29

CXVI “peoples” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
CXVII “serve” = abad. This is to work, serve, or compel. It can describe any kind of work or service (including religious devotion).  Also, till or cultivate. Used causatively, it can mean to enslave or keep in bondage.
CXVIII “nations” = leom. Root may refer to gathering. This is people, a community, or a nation.
CXIX “bow down” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.
CXX “be” = hava. 6x in OT. This is to breathe, to exist.
CXXI “lord” = gebir. 2x in OT. From gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is a lord or master.
CXXII “who curses” = arar. This is to curse.

30 CXXIIIAs soon as Isaac had finishedCXXIV blessing Jacob, when Jacob hadCXXV scarcely gone outCXXVI

Notes on verse 30a

CXXIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CXXIV “finished” = kalah. Related to “weapons” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CXXV “had” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CXXVI “scarcely gone out” = yatsa + yatsa. Same as “go out” in v3. See note XXI above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

from the presenceCXXVII of his father Isaac, his brother Esau came inCXXVIII from his hunting.CXXIX 31 He also prepared savory food, and brought it to his father. And he said to his father, “Let my father sit upCXXX and eat of his son’s game, so that you may bless me.”CXXXI 

32 His father Isaac said to him, “Who are you?”

He answered, “I am your firstborn son, Esau.” 

Notes on verses 30b-32

CXXVII “presence” = paneh. Same as “before” in v7. See note XLIII above.
CXXVIII “came in” = bo. Same as “bring” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
CXXIX “hunting” = tsayid. Same as “game” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
CXXX “sit up” = qum. Same as “sit up” in v19. See note LXXXV above.
CXXXI Literally “your soul may bless me.”

33 Then Isaac trembledCXXXII violently,CXXXIII and said, “Who was it then that hunted game and brought it to me, and I ate it all before you came, and I have blessed him?—yes, and blessed he shall be!” 

34 When Esau heard his father’s words,CXXXIV he cried outCXXXV with an exceedinglyCXXXVI greatCXXXVII

Notes on verses 33-34a

CXXXII “trembled” = charad. This is to tremble, being afraid, or being terrified. It can also refer to moving quickly due to anxiety.
CXXXIII “violently” = charadah + gadol + ad + meod. Literally “quaking greatly, even to abundance.” Charadah is related to “trembled” in v33. 9x in OT. From chared (trembling, fearful, showing reverence); from charad (see note CXXXII above). This is trembling, fear, terror. Gadol is the same as “elder” in v1. See note VIII above. Meod is perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
CXXXIV “words” = dabar. Related to “spoke” in v5. From dabar (see note XXXVI above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
CXXXV “cried out” = tsaaq. This is to cry out or call together, to shriek. It can mean, by implication, calling for an assembly.
CXXXVI “exceedingly” = ad + meod. Literally “to abundance.” Same as “violently” in v33. See note CXXXIII above.
CXXXVII “great” = gadol. Same as “elder” in v1. See note VIII above.

and bitterCXXXVIII cry,CXXXIX and said to his father, “Bless me, me also, father!”CXL 

35 But he said, “Your brother came deceitfully,CXLI and he has taken awayCXLII your blessing.” 

Notes on verses 34b-35

CXXXVIII “bitter” = mar. From marar (to be bitter, embittered, weep, troubled). This is bitterness literal or figurative. It could be fierce, angry, or discontented.
CXXXIX “cry” = tseaqah. Related to “cried out” in v34. From tsaaq (see note CXXXV above). This is a cry for help, shriek or outcry.
CXL “father” = ab. Literally “my father.”
CXLI “deceitfully” = mirmah. From ramah (to betray, deceive, beguile). This is deceit, treachery, guile, or fraud.
CXLII “taken away” = laqach. Same as “get” in v9. See note LII above.

36 Esau said, “Is he not rightly namedCXLIII Jacob? For he has supplantedCXLIV me these two times.CXLV He took away my birthright;CXLVI and look,CXLVII now he has taken away my blessing.”

Then he said, “Have you not reservedCXLVIII a blessing for me?” 

Notes on verse 36

CXLIII “named” = qara + shem. Literally “called the name.” Qara is the same as “called” in v1. See note VII above. Shem may be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
CXLIV “supplanted” = aqab. Related to “Jacob” in v6. 5x in OT. From aqeb (see note XXXIX above). This is to swell up, to grab or follow upon someone’s heel.  It could mean to attack, overreach, be deceitful, trip up someone else, or restrain them (as holding back their heel).
CXLV “times” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.
CXLVI “birthright” = bekorah. Related to “firstborn” in v19. 14x in OT. From bakar (see note LXXXIII above). This is the rights granted to the firstborn.
CXLVII “look” = hinneh. Same as “here I am” in v1. See note XI above.
CXLVIII “reserved” = atsal. 5x in OT. From the etsel (nearby, toward, joining). This is to reserve, refuse, join, separate, keep.

37 Isaac answered Esau, “I have alreadyCXLIX madeCL him your lord, and I have given him all his brothers as servants,CLI and with grain and wine I have sustainedCLII him. What then can I do for you, my son?” 

Notes on verse 37

CXLIX “already” = hen. Same as “look” in v11. See note LX above.
CL “made” = sum. Related to “named” in v36. See note CXLIII above.
CLI “servants” = ebed. Related to “serve” in v29. From abad (see note CXVII above). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
CLII “sustained” = samak. This is to lean, rest, support, brace, uphold, sustain, or establish. It is to lean on in a positive or negative sense.

38 Esau said to his father, “Have you only oneCLIII blessing, father?CLIV Bless me, me also, father!”CLV And Esau lifted upCLVI his voice and wept.CLVII

Notes on verse 38

CLIII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CLIV “father” = ab. Literally “my father.”
CLV “father” = ab. Literally “my father.”
CLVI “lifted up” = nasa. Same as “take” in v3. See note XVI above.
CLVII “wept” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.

39 Then his father Isaac answered him:

“See,CLVIII away from the fatness of the earth shall your homeCLIX be,
    and away from the dew of heaven on high.
40 By your swordCLX you shall live,CLXI
    and you shall serve your brother;

Notes on verses 39-40a

CLVIII “see” = hinneh. Same as “here I am” in v1. See note XI above.
CLIX “home” = moshab. Related to “sit up” in v19. From yashab (see note LXXXV above). This is dwelling, seat, assembly, settlement, population.
CLX “sword” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
CLXI “live” = chayah. This is to live or keep alive in a literal or figurative sense. So, it an be revive, nourish, or save.

butCLXII when you break loose,CLXIII
    you shall breakCLXIV his yokeCLXV from your neck.”

Notes on verse 40b

CLXII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CLXIII “break loose” = rud. 4x in OT. This is to roam, break loose, be troubled, be restless, mourn. It is to wander in the sense of being free or inconsolable.
CLXIV “break” = paraq. 10x in OT. This is to tear apart, break off, drag away, or crunch. Figuratively, it can mean to deliver.
CLXV “yoke” = ol. From alal (to insert). This is a yoke that is borne on the neck, whether a literal yoke or used of a figurative one.

41 Now Esau hatedCLXVI Jacob because of the blessing with which his father had blessed him, and Esau said to himself,CLXVII “The days of mourningCLXVIII for my father are approaching;CLXIX then I will killCLXX my brother Jacob.” 

Notes on verse 41

CLXVI “hated” = satam. 6x in OT. 2x in the Joseph cycle – Gen 49:23 in Jacob’s blessing they shot at Joseph and pressed him hard & Gen 50:15 when the brothers wonder if Joseph still bears a grudge against them; also Genesis 27:41 where Esau hated Jacob. This is to have a grudge or hate. Properly, it means lying in wait for so to persecute or oppose.
CLXVII “to himself” = leb. Literally “in his heart.” May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
CLXVIII “mourning” = ebel. From abal (to mourn, bewail). This is mourning or lamentation.
CLXIX “approaching” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
CLXX “kill” = harag. This is to strike with deadly intent so it can be kill, destroy, murder, or put to death.

42 But the words of her elder son Esau were toldCLXXI to Rebekah; so she sentCLXXII and called her younger son Jacob and said to him, “CLXXIIIYour brother Esau is consolingCLXXIV himself by planning to kill you. 

Notes on verse 42

CLXXI “told” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
CLXXII “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
CLXXIII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “here I am” in v1. See note XI above.
CLXXIV “consoling” = nacham. Properly, this is a strong breath or a sigh. This can be to be sorry, to pity, console. Comfort, or repent. But, one can also comfort oneself with less righteous thoughts, so this can also mean to avenge oneself.

43 Now therefore, my son, obey my voice;CLXXV fleeCLXXVI at once to my brother LabanCLXXVII in Haran,CLXXVIII 

Notes on verse 43

CLXXV {untranslated} = qum. Same as “sit up” in v19. See note LXXXV above.
CLXXVI “flee” = barach. This is to flee, drive away, hurry, to bolt.
CLXXVII “Laban” = Laban. From the same as laban (white); from laban (to be white or make a brick). This is Laban, meaning white.
CLXXVIII “Haran” = Charan. 12x in OT. From Assyrian arranu (road, crossroads, junction of trade routes) OR from charar (to be scorched, burn, glow, dry up; figuratively, to show passion). This is Haran, meaning crossroads. It is also a proper name meaning parched.

44 and stayCLXXIX with him a while,CLXXX until your brother’s furyCLXXXI turns awayCLXXXII— 

Notes on verse 44

CLXXIX “stay” = yashab. Same as “sit up” in v19. See note LXXXV above.
CLXXX “a while” = yom + echad. Literally “a few days.”
CLXXXI “fury” = chemah. From yacham (to be hot, mate; figuratively, to conceive). This is heat – figuratively it can be anger or fury. It can also refer to poison or venom as they can cause fever.
CLXXXII “turns away” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”

45 until your brother’s angerCLXXXIII against you turns away, and he forgetsCLXXXIV what you have done to him; then I will send, and bring you back from there. Why should I loseCLXXXV bothCLXXXVI of you in one day?”

Notes on verse 45

CLXXXIII “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
CLXXXIV “forgets” = shakach. This is to forget or mislay – it is not knowing because of forgetfulness or inattentiveness.
CLXXXV “lose” = shakol. This is a loss from death in a literal or figurative sense. It can specifically refer to a loss of children, whether a miscarriage, being barren, or not having children more broadly.
CLXXXVI “both” = shenayim. Same as “two” in v9. See note LIII above.

46 Then Rebekah said to Isaac, “I am wearyCLXXXVII of my lifeCLXXXVIII because ofCLXXXIX the Hittite women.CXC

Notes on verse 46a

CLXXXVII “am weary” = quts. 9x in OT. This is to feel dread, be distressed, tired, terrorized, be disgusted, be anxious, abhor.
CLXXXVIII “life” = chay. Related to “live” in v40. From chayah (see note CLXI above). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
CLXXXIX “because of” = paneh. Same as “before” in v7. See note XLIII above.
CXC “Hittite women” = bat + Cheth. Literally “daughters of Chet.” Bat is related to “son” in v1 & “house” in v15. From ben (see note IX above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense. Cheth is 14x in OT. Perhaps from chathath (to be shattered, crack, terrify, discourage, break down; it could be beaten down violently or from confusion or terror); from Hittite chiti (Hittite); perhaps related to Hatti (place in Anatolia where the Hattians lived). This is Heth or Cheth. It may mean “terror” or “fearsome.” It is perhaps the earliest ancestor of the Hittites. See

If Jacob marriesCXCI one of the Hittite women such as these, one of the women of the land,CXCII what good will my life be to me?”CXCIII

Notes on verse 46b

CXCI “marries” = laqachishshah. Literally “takes…a wife.” Laqach is the same as “get” in v9. See note LII above. Ishshah is related to “man” in v11. From ish (see note LXII above). This is woman, wife, or female.
CXCII “land” = erets. Same as “earth” in v28. See note CXII above.
CXCIII Literally “what will be to me my life?”

Image credit: “Jacob Deceives Isaac” by Richard Gunther.

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